Nymphaea odorata - Ait.
American Water-lily
Other English Common Names: American White Water-lily, Fragrant Water-lily
Other Common Names: American white waterlily
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Nymphaea odorata Ait. (TSN 18384)
French Common Names: nymphéa odorant
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.149765
Element Code: PDNYM05090
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Water-Lily Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Nymphaeales Nymphaeaceae Nymphaea
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Nymphaea odorata
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 21Jul2015
Global Status Last Changed: 11Jun1984
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Species is common and widespread in many parts of its range. While the number of populations is largely unknown, it is estimated that there are at least a few thousand rangewide. The number of populations in many regions is assumed to be underestimated. Since this species is has proven itself to be proficient in establishing itself when introduced to historically non-native areas, this species is not likely to be eradicated under current conditions.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (21Jul2015)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (SNR), Alaska (S1), Arizona (SNR), Arkansas (SNR), California (SNR), Colorado (SNA), Connecticut (S5), Delaware (S5), District of Columbia (SNR), Florida (SNR), Georgia (SNR), Illinois (S2), Indiana (SNR), Iowa (SNR), Kansas (SNR), Kentucky (S3S4), Louisiana (SNR), Maine (SNR), Maryland (SNR), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (SNR), Missouri (SNR), Montana (SNA), Nebraska (S1S3), Nevada (SNR), New Hampshire (SNR), New Jersey (SNR), New York (SNR), North Carolina (S4), Ohio (SNR), Oklahoma (SNR), Oregon (SNR), Pennsylvania (SNR), Rhode Island (SNR), South Carolina (SNR), South Dakota (SH), Tennessee (SNR), Texas (SNR), Utah (SNA), Vermont (SNR), Virginia (S5), Washington (SNR), West Virginia (SNA), Wisconsin (SNR)
Canada British Columbia (SNA), Manitoba (S2), New Brunswick (S5), Newfoundland Island (S3), Nova Scotia (S5), Ontario (S5), Prince Edward Island (S1), Quebec (S4S5), Saskatchewan (SNR)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Nymphaea odorata ssp. odorata occurs natively throughout eastern North America, from Manitoba and Ontario to the Atlantic Provinces south to Texas and Florida. This species also occurs in western North America, i.e., British Columbia, Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, and Washington, where it has been introduced from Eastern North America (McDougal 1973, Flora of North America Editorial Committee 1997). Its occurrence has been recorded in the following provinces and states; British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, and Wisconsin (Scoggan 1978, Flora of North America Editorial Committee 1997, USDA-NRCS 1999, Biota of North America Program). It is also known to occur natively in Mexico, Bahamas, Cuba, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and has been naturalized in Guyana (Flora of North America Editorial Committee 1997).

Nymphaea odorata is known from historical occurrences in South Dakota. It has recently been reported in Missouri River marshes in Yankton County along border with Nebraska but it is not known for certain whether the occurrences were in Nebraska or South Dakota (South Dakota Natural Heritage Database).

The Flora of North America Editorial Committee (1997) cites the occurrence of Nymphaea odorata in Alberta and New Mexico while the Biota of North America Program does not. The Alberta Natural Heritage Information Centre reported that this species is not known from Alberta, and the New Mexico Natural Heritage Program reported that it is not known from New Mexico.

Nymphaea odorata ssp. tuberosa has a smaller range than N. odorata ssp. odorata, and is reported to occur natively in the following provinces and states: Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Vermont, and Wisconsin (Flora of North America Editorial Committee 1997, USDA-NRCS 1999).

More detailed range information was available for the following provinces and states. In provinces and states where both subspecies occur, the information provided refers to the range of the two subspecies considered together under the species N. odorata, unless the subspecies are specifically referred to.

British Columbia: southwest and south-central British Columbia (G. Douglas pers. comm.).

Manitoba: ssp. odorata - east side of Lake Winnipeg, and Hill Lake (northwestern side of Lake Winnipeg) westward to the Saskatchewan border. ssp. tuberosa - southeastern 1/6 of the province (to just north of the Winnipeg River), at the northwestern limit of its range (E. Punter pers. comm.).

Ontario: widespread in southern and central Ontario, particularly on the Precambrian (Canadian) Shield. Not sure of northern limit (M. Oldham pers. comm.).

Quebec: ssp. odorata - across southern Quebec up to the 48th latitude. ssp. tuberosa - mainly restricted to the St. Lawrence River system (J. Labrecque pers. comm.).

Alaska: one record from Baranof Island in south-east Alaska (Alaska Natural Heritage Program).

Arizona: found in Clear Creek Reservoir, Navajo County, and Yavapai (Arizona Heritage Data Management System).

California: under elevations of 2,700 m in scattered localities including Lake Tahoe, Sacramento Valley (Butte County) and the San Bernardino Mountains (California Natural Diversity Database).

Colorado: reported in Colorado (Biota of North America Program, Herbarium COLO).

Delaware: occurs in piedmont and coastal plain (Delaware Natural Heritage Program).

Florida: occurs through the state (Wunderlin et al. 1995).

Georgia: known from 25 counties mostly in the southern half of the state (USDA-NRCS 1999).

Idaho: most common in and perhaps restricted to approximately the northern third of the state (M. Mancuso pers. comm.).

Illinois: occurs statewide (W. McClain pers. comm.).

Indiana: mostly confined to northern 1/4 of the state (Indiana Natural Heritage Data Center)

Iowa: frequent in Lakes Area of north-west Iowa; infrequent to rare elsewhere (Iowa Department of Natural Resources).

Kansas: widely scattered throughout the eastern three-fourths of Kansas, but apparently most common in the southeastern sixth (C. Freeman pers. comm.).

Kentucky: reported in 9 counties scattered throughout the state (USDA-NRCS 1999).

Louisiana: occurs statewide (Louisiana Natural Heritage Program).

Massachusetts: occurs in every county in Massachusetts (USDA-NRCS 1999).

Maine: occurs in every county (Haines and Vining 1998, D. Cameron pers. comm.).

Michigan: common and widespread throughout state (Michigan Natural Features Inventory).

Minnesota: occurs statewide (Minnesota Natural Heritage).

Missouri: scattered occurrences in central and southern portions of state (T. Smith pers. comm.)

Nevada: introduced in Nevada (Nevada Natural Heritage Program).

New York: occurs in every county of the state (S. Young pers. comm.).

North Carolina: recorded in 40 counties throughout the state (North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Radford et al. 1968)

Ohio: occurs throughout state (Ohio Natural Heritage Data Base).

Rhode Island: occurs in all but one county in the state (USDA-NRCS 1999)

South Carolina: recorded in 26 counties scattered throughout the state (Boyle et al.).

South Dakota: historically documented from 2 sites in Minnehaha county in the south-east (Larson 1993, South Dakota Natural Heritage Database).

Tennessee: known to occur in 7 counties scattered throughout the state (The APSU Center for Field Biology and University of Tennessee Herbarium 1999).

Utah: occurs in Kane, Utah, and Washington (?) counties (B. Franklin pers. comm.).

Virginia: reported in about 25 counties mostly in the south-east portion of the state (USDA-NRCS 1999).

Vermont: ssp. odorata ubiquitous while ssp. tuberosa is restricted to more alkaline waters, mostly in the Lake Champlain Valley (R. Popp pers. comm.).

Wisconsin: occurs throughout the state (K. Westad pers. comm.).

West Virginia: occurs in 6 counties in western two-thirds of the state (USDA-NRCS 1999).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Thousands of populations globally.

British Columbia: 21-100 (G. Douglas pers. comm.); Manitoba: N. odorata ssp. odorata - at least 5, ssp. tuberosa - at least 2 (E. Punter pers. comm.); Ontario: thousands (M. Oldham pers. comm.); Quebec: ssp. odorata - 50, ssp. tuberosa - 20 (Rousseau 1974, J. Labrecque pers. comm.); Alaska: 1 (Alaska Natural Heritage Program); Florida: at least 53*; Georgia: at least 25*; Kansas: 15-20 (C. Freeman pers. comm.); Kentucky: at least 9*; Massachusetts: at least 12*; New York: thousands (S. Young pers. comm.); Rhode Island: at least 4*; Virginia: at least 25*; Wisconsin: thousands (K. Westad pers. comm.); West Virginia: at least 6*. * signifies minimum number of populations based on the number of counties for which the species is recorded according to state distribution maps.

The number of populations is likely underestimated for provinces and states, and rangewide. The difficulty in accessing lakes, ponds, and streams where Nymphaea odorata is found, and the difficulty in collecting a large, strongly rhizomatous plant in deep water make it likely that it is under-collected.

The estimated number of populations in Manitoba is low and possibly under-recorded as the two ssp. are in a region with few or no road access. Nymphaea odorata ssp. odorata is found in a number of different watersheds, but ssp. tuberosa appears to be confined to the Lake of the Woods/Winnipeg River watershed (E. Punter pers. comm.).

Species is likely under-collected in Quebec (J. Labrecque pers. comm.).

Given the large areas of south-east Alaska that have not been botanized, additional populations may be found in the future (Alaska Natural Heritage Program)

The number of populations is likely underestimated in the Kansas. Due to its popularity as an ornamental, it is often difficult to determine if populations are native or introduced (C. Freeman pers. comm.).

In a vegetation study of 400 freshwater lakes in Wisconsin, Nymphaea odorata was found in 10% of the lakes. There are about 10,000 lakes and ponds in Wisconsin, so you would expect to find N. odorata in approximately 1,000 lakes and ponds. Considering occurrences in streams and ditches, the best estimate of N. odorata populations would be more than 1,000 (K. Westad pers. comm.).

Population Size Comments: It is difficult to estimate population numbers due to the species' rhizomatous habit and its habitat, which is usually deep and murky. Patches or clones are easier to count and are generally small (2-3 m diameter) (E. Punter pers. comm., C. Freeman pers. comm.). The estimated number of individuals per population ranges from 10-50 (C. Freeman pers. comm.), to hundreds (T. Smith pers. comm.), to thousands (R. Popp pers. comm., S. Young pers. comm.)

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Indirect evidence of collecting from wild populations in Maine, Vermont, and Wisconsin.

The recent popularity of water lilies for landscaping gardens make it likely that Nymphaea odorata is collected by individuals from the wild for this purpose (D. Cameron pers. comm., R. Popp pers. comm., T. Smith, pers. comm). Most water lilies sold in nurseries are from cultivar rather than wild stock (G. Douglas pers. comm., E. Punter pers. comm.). However, aquatic plant nurseries in the Fox River Valley, Wisconsin, for example, have apparently collected stock from the wild (K. Westad pers. comm.). There is no evidence of collection of this species from the wild for medicinal purposes by individuals or on a commercial basis.

Amounts collected are probably small due to the difficulty of obtaining rhizome from 1-3 m in deep water (E. Punter pers. comm.).

Threats to this species and its habitats include siltation of backwater lakes (W. McClain pers. comm.), cottage development, shoreline enhancements, logging operations, wild rice harvesting, water level manipulations, e.g., for hydro-electric development, wetland drainage, and increasing numbers of beavers which eat the rhizomes (E. Punter pers. comm.).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Species trends were estimated to be stable in Quebec (J. Labrecque pers. comm.), Louisiana (Louisiana Natural Heritage Program), Maine (D. Cameron pers. comm.), New Jersey (New Jersey Natural Heritage Program), Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory), New York (S. Young pers. comm.), and Wisconsin (K. Westad pers. comm.); stable to declining in Manitoba (E. Punter pers. comm.).

As this species grows in areas that in many regions of its range are difficult to access, is assumed to be under-collected, and is generally common enough to be of low priority to the Natural Heritage Program, there is little population data available. Therefore it is difficult to estimate population trends.

It is difficult to estimate population trend in Manitoba, as no census has be conducted. But in general, cottage development, logging operations, and wild rice harvesting may have had a negative effect on populations (E. Punter pers. comm.).

Human creation of reservoirs may actually be increasing the number of Nymphaea odorata populations in Wisconsin (K. Westad pers. comm.).

There are no good baseline census data about the number and status of populations in Kansas because species is a low priority for the Kansas Natural Heritage Inventory (C. Freeman pers. comm.).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Nymphaea odorata ssp. odorata occurs natively throughout eastern North America, from Manitoba and Ontario to the Atlantic Provinces south to Texas and Florida. This species also occurs in western North America, i.e., British Columbia, Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, and Washington, where it has been introduced from Eastern North America (McDougal 1973, Flora of North America Editorial Committee 1997). Its occurrence has been recorded in the following provinces and states; British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, and Wisconsin (Scoggan 1978, Flora of North America Editorial Committee 1997, USDA-NRCS 1999, Biota of North America Program). It is also known to occur natively in Mexico, Bahamas, Cuba, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and has been naturalized in Guyana (Flora of North America Editorial Committee 1997).

Nymphaea odorata is known from historical occurrences in South Dakota. It has recently been reported in Missouri River marshes in Yankton County along border with Nebraska but it is not known for certain whether the occurrences were in Nebraska or South Dakota (South Dakota Natural Heritage Database).

The Flora of North America Editorial Committee (1997) cites the occurrence of Nymphaea odorata in Alberta and New Mexico while the Biota of North America Program does not. The Alberta Natural Heritage Information Centre reported that this species is not known from Alberta, and the New Mexico Natural Heritage Program reported that it is not known from New Mexico.

Nymphaea odorata ssp. tuberosa has a smaller range than N. odorata ssp. odorata, and is reported to occur natively in the following provinces and states: Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Vermont, and Wisconsin (Flora of North America Editorial Committee 1997, USDA-NRCS 1999).

More detailed range information was available for the following provinces and states. In provinces and states where both subspecies occur, the information provided refers to the range of the two subspecies considered together under the species N. odorata, unless the subspecies are specifically referred to.

British Columbia: southwest and south-central British Columbia (G. Douglas pers. comm.).

Manitoba: ssp. odorata - east side of Lake Winnipeg, and Hill Lake (northwestern side of Lake Winnipeg) westward to the Saskatchewan border. ssp. tuberosa - southeastern 1/6 of the province (to just north of the Winnipeg River), at the northwestern limit of its range (E. Punter pers. comm.).

Ontario: widespread in southern and central Ontario, particularly on the Precambrian (Canadian) Shield. Not sure of northern limit (M. Oldham pers. comm.).

Quebec: ssp. odorata - across southern Quebec up to the 48th latitude. ssp. tuberosa - mainly restricted to the St. Lawrence River system (J. Labrecque pers. comm.).

Alaska: one record from Baranof Island in south-east Alaska (Alaska Natural Heritage Program).

Arizona: found in Clear Creek Reservoir, Navajo County, and Yavapai (Arizona Heritage Data Management System).

California: under elevations of 2,700 m in scattered localities including Lake Tahoe, Sacramento Valley (Butte County) and the San Bernardino Mountains (California Natural Diversity Database).

Colorado: reported in Colorado (Biota of North America Program, Herbarium COLO).

Delaware: occurs in piedmont and coastal plain (Delaware Natural Heritage Program).

Florida: occurs through the state (Wunderlin et al. 1995).

Georgia: known from 25 counties mostly in the southern half of the state (USDA-NRCS 1999).

Idaho: most common in and perhaps restricted to approximately the northern third of the state (M. Mancuso pers. comm.).

Illinois: occurs statewide (W. McClain pers. comm.).

Indiana: mostly confined to northern 1/4 of the state (Indiana Natural Heritage Data Center)

Iowa: frequent in Lakes Area of north-west Iowa; infrequent to rare elsewhere (Iowa Department of Natural Resources).

Kansas: widely scattered throughout the eastern three-fourths of Kansas, but apparently most common in the southeastern sixth (C. Freeman pers. comm.).

Kentucky: reported in 9 counties scattered throughout the state (USDA-NRCS 1999).

Louisiana: occurs statewide (Louisiana Natural Heritage Program).

Massachusetts: occurs in every county in Massachusetts (USDA-NRCS 1999).

Maine: occurs in every county (Haines and Vining 1998, D. Cameron pers. comm.).

Michigan: common and widespread throughout state (Michigan Natural Features Inventory).

Minnesota: occurs statewide (Minnesota Natural Heritage).

Missouri: scattered occurrences in central and southern portions of state (T. Smith pers. comm.)

Nevada: introduced in Nevada (Nevada Natural Heritage Program).

New York: occurs in every county of the state (S. Young pers. comm.).

North Carolina: recorded in 40 counties throughout the state (North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Radford et al. 1968)

Ohio: occurs throughout state (Ohio Natural Heritage Data Base).

Rhode Island: occurs in all but one county in the state (USDA-NRCS 1999)

South Carolina: recorded in 26 counties scattered throughout the state (Boyle et al.).

South Dakota: historically documented from 2 sites in Minnehaha county in the south-east (Larson 1993, South Dakota Natural Heritage Database).

Tennessee: known to occur in 7 counties scattered throughout the state (The APSU Center for Field Biology and University of Tennessee Herbarium 1999).

Utah: occurs in Kane, Utah, and Washington (?) counties (B. Franklin pers. comm.).

Virginia: reported in about 25 counties mostly in the south-east portion of the state (USDA-NRCS 1999).

Vermont: ssp. odorata ubiquitous while ssp. tuberosa is restricted to more alkaline waters, mostly in the Lake Champlain Valley (R. Popp pers. comm.).

Wisconsin: occurs throughout the state (K. Westad pers. comm.).

West Virginia: occurs in 6 counties in western two-thirds of the state (USDA-NRCS 1999).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, COexotic, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MTexotic, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UTexotic, VA, VT, WA, WI, WVexotic
Canada BCexotic, MB, NB, NF, NS, ON, PE, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AK Sitka (02220)
CT Fairfield (09001)*, Litchfield (09005)*, New Haven (09009), New London (09011)*
KS Anderson (20003)
NE Antelope (31003), Brown (31017), Buffalo (31019)*, Cass (31025)*, Cherry (31031), Custer (31041), Dodge (31053)*, Dundy (31057)*, Garden (31069)*, Keya Paha (31103)*, Lancaster (31109)*, Platte (31141)*, Sarpy (31153)*, Saunders (31155)*, Sheridan (31161)*, Sherman (31163), Thomas (31171)
NJ Morris (34027), Sussex (34037)
SD Minnehaha (46099)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Lower Connecticut (01080205)+*, Quinnipiac (01100004)+, Housatonic (01100005)+*
02 Lower Hudson (02030101)+*, Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105)+
10 Upper Niobrara (10150003)+*, Middle Niobrara (10150004)+, Lower Big Sioux (10170203)+*, Middle Platte-Buffalo (10200101)+*, Lower Platte-Shell (10200201)+*, Lower Platte (10200202)+*, Salt (10200203)+*, Upper Middle Loup (10210001)+, Lower Middle Loup (10210003)+, South Loup (10210004)+, Calamus (10210008)+, Loup (10210009)+*, Upper Elkhorn (10220001)+, Lower Elkhorn (10220003)+*, North Fork Republican (10250002)+*, Upper Marais Des Cygnes (10290101)+
19 Baranof-Chichagof Islands (19010203)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Perennial aquatic plant with floating ovate to round, deeply chordate leaves. Leaf blades 10 x 10 cm to 40 x 40 cm in size, with the petiole inserted almost at the middle of the leaf. Leaves commonly purple or red below, petioles smooth or pubescent. Flowers floating, 6 to 19 cm in diameter, opening and closing diurnally, very fragrant. Petals number 17-43, and are generally white, rarely pink or pink-tinged. Rhizomes horizontal, cylindric, and frequently branched. Leaves arising along the rhizome (Fernald 1950, Looman and Best 1979, Flora of North America Editorial Committee 1997).
Ecology Comments: Nymphaea odorata ssp. tuberosa is endemic to continental North America, and tends to be weedy in the eastern part of its range (Flora of North America Editorial Committee 1997). It is listed a noxious weed in California (California Natural Diversity Database, Arizona Heritage Data Management System).
Habitat Comments: Lakes, lake margins, quiet bays in lakes and rivers, slow-moving streams, and ponds in lowland, steppe and lower montane zones (G. Douglas pers. comm., M. Mancuso pers. comm., E. Punter pers. comm.) at 0 to 1710 m elevation (B. Franklin pers. comm., Welsh et al. 1993, Flora of North America Editorial Committee 1997). River/lake bottom of soft sediment and neutral pH preferred (E. Punter pers. comm.). Nymphaea odorata ssp. odorata usually found in more stagnant waters in lakes or ponds, even in marshes, bogs or fens, in 0.5 to 1 m of water. Nymphaea odorata ssp. tuberosa usually found in slow moving water about 0.5 to 1 m in depth and slightly alkaline (>7.2) pH (Flora of North America Editorial Committee 1997, J. Labrecque pers. comm.).
Economic Attributes
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Commercial Importance: Indigenous crop, Minor cash crop
Economic Uses: MEDICINE/DRUG, LANDSCAPING, ESTHETIC
Production Method: Cultivated, Wild-harvested
Economic Comments: There is little reference to the modern use of N. odorata for medicinal purposes. Extracts from the rhizome are purported to have astringent, demulcent, and anti-microbial properties, and may be used to treat chronic diarrhea, pharyngitis and leucorrhoea (Healthlink Online Resources). Traditionally, the rhizome of this species was used; by the Chippewa to treat sores in the mouth, by the Micmac to treat colds, coughs and grippe, and swelled limbs, and by the Ojibwa as a cough medicine for tuberculosis (Moerman).
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 07Jan2000
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Barbara S. Dyck (2000)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • APSU Center for Field Biology and University of Tennessee Herbarium. 1999. Atlas of Tennessee Vascular Plants (http://www.bio.utk.edu/botany/herbarium/index.html). University of Tennessee Herbarium (TENN). Knoxville, Tennessee.

  • Anonymous. n.d. Plant list for Texas (http://lonestar.texas.net/jleblanc/texas_plant_list.html) . Native Plant Society of Texas, Round Rock, Texas.

  • Biota of North America Program. n.d. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland (http://anther.mip.berkley.edu/cgi-bin/browse_checklist). North Carolina Botanical Garden and Museum Informatics Project, University of California, Berkley, California.

  • Boyle, K., C. Eastman, and T. Mousseau. South Carolina plant atlas. Online. Available: http://cricket.biol.sc.edu/herb. Accessed 2000, January 7.

  • Curtis, J. T. 1959. The Vegetation of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI.

  • Douglas, G.W., D. Meidinger, and J. Pojar, editors. 1999. Illustrated Flora of British Columbia. Volume 3. Dicotyledons (Diapensiaceae through Onagraceae). British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, and British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Victoria.

  • Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. Corrected printing (1970). D. Van Nostrand Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1997. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Vol. 3. Magnoliophyta: Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxiii + 590 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1997. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Vol. 3. Magnoliophyta: Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxiii + 590 pp.

  • Georgia Wildlife Federation. 1999. Common plants of Georgia (http://www.gwf.org/library/plants/pla_commonx.htm). Georgia Wildlife Federation, Conyers, Georgia.

  • Haines, A. and T.F. Vining. 1998. Flora of Maine, A Manual for Identification of Native and Naturalized Vascular Plants of Maine. V.F.Thomas Co., Bar Harbor, Maine.

  • Herbarium (COLO), University of Colorado. n.d. Colorado vascular plant list (http://www.colorado.edu/CUMUSEUM/research/botany/databases/ state%20list.htm). University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1996. Species distribution data at state and province level for vascular plant taxa of the United States, Canada, and Greenland (accepted records), from unpublished data files at the North Carolina Botanical Garden, December, 1996.

  • Larson, G.E. 1993. Aquatic and wetland vascular plants of the Northern Great Plains. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report RM-238; Washington, D.C.

  • Looman, J. and K.F. Best. 1979. Budd's flora of the Canadian prairie provinces. Minister of Supply and Services Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.

  • Martin, W.C., and C.R. Hutchins. 1980-1981. A flora of New Mexico. 1980, Vol. 1; 1981, Vol. 2. J. Cramer, in der A.R. Gantner Verlag, K.G., Vaduz, Liechtenstein. 2591 pp.

  • Maryland Heritage and Biodiversity Conservation Programs. 1994. Rare, threatened and endangered plants of Maryland (http://ftp.heritage.tnc.org/pub/nhp/us/md/mdplant.html). Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis, Maryland.

  • McDougall, W.B. 1973. Seed plants of northern Arizona. The Museum of Northern Arizona, Flagstaff, Arizona. 594 pp.

  • Meades, S.J. & Hay, S.G; Brouillet, L. 2000. Annotated Checklist of Vascular Plants of Newfoundland and Labrador. Memorial University Botanical Gardens, St John's NF. 237pp.

  • Moerman, D.E. and W.E. Stirton. n.d. Native American ethnobotanical database (www.umd.umich.edu/cgi-bin/herb). Department of Anthropology, University of Michigan-Dearborn.

  • Nichols, S.S. and R. Martin. 1990. Wisconsin lake plant database. Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, Information Ciricular 69.

  • Oklahoma Natural Heritage Inventory. n.d. Rare and vulnerable plant species of Oklahoma (http://www.biosurvey.ou.edu/candhome.html). Oklahoma Biological Survey, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma.

  • Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pp.

  • Rousseau, C. 1974. Georgraphical floristics of Quebec-Labrador. Univ. of Laval Press, Quebec, Canada. 799 pp.

  • Scoggan, H.J. 1978-1979. The flora of Canada: Parts 1-4. National Museums Canada, Ottawa. 1711 pp.

  • Scoggan, H.J. 1978. The flora of Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences. Publications in Botany, No. 7(1).

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