Noturus miurus - Jordan, 1877
Brindled Madtom
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Noturus miurus Jordan, 1877 (TSN 164020)
French Common Names: chat-fou tacheté
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.100965
Element Code: AFCKA02160
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - North American Freshwater Catfishes
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Siluriformes Ictaluridae Noturus
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Noturus miurus
Taxonomic Comments: Known to hybridize with N. GYRINUS and N. EXILIS (Lee et al. 1980). See Grady and LeGrande (1992) for a study of phylogenetic relationships, modes of speciation, and historical biogeography of NOTURUS madtom catfishes. See Lundberg (1992) for a synthesis of recent work on the systematic relationships of ictalurid catfishes.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 24Jun2007
Global Status Last Changed: 19Sep1996
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N3 (26Dec2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S1), Arkansas (S4), Illinois (S3), Indiana (S4), Kansas (S1), Kentucky (S4S5), Louisiana (S4), Michigan (S2), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (SNR), New York (S3S4), Ohio (S5), Oklahoma (S2?), Pennsylvania (S2), Tennessee (S5), West Virginia (S4)
Canada Ontario (S2)

Other Statuses

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Not at Risk (01May2001)
Comments on COSEWIC: Reason for Designation: This species is at the northern periphery of its range in Canada where populations appear to be increasing. Recent range expansion has compensated for the possible disappearance of some populations.

Status History: Designated Special Concern in April 1985. Status re-examined and designated Not at Risk in May 2001. More recently (2015) considered a medium priority candidate for re-assessment.

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range encompasses the Lake Erie and Lake Ontario drainages, Ontario and New York, and extends southwest through most of the Ohio River basin and lower Mississippi River basin (west to eastern Kansas and Oklahoma); Mohawk River, New York; also the Pearl River and Lake Pontchartrain drainages on central Gulf Slope, Mississippi and Louisiana (Lee et al. 1980, Page and Burr 1991).

Area of Occupancy: >12,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 81 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (e.g., see map in Lee et al. 1980).

Population Size: 10,000 - 1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 10,000. This species seldom is seen in large numbers, but it is not uncommon in the core of the range (Rohde, in Lee et al. 1980; Burr and Warren 1986).

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Overall, no major threats are known. However, in some areas, extirpations have occurred as a result of deterioration of water quality (e.g., from coal mine wastes, sewage, and excessive siltation above impoundments of streams) (Smith 1979).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Warren et al. (2000) categorized the trend as "currently stable" in the southeastern United States.

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%
Long-term Trend Comments: This species has been extirpated from significant portions of its range in Illinois (Smith 1979), but in most areas it appears to remain widely distributed and relatively common.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Range encompasses the Lake Erie and Lake Ontario drainages, Ontario and New York, and extends southwest through most of the Ohio River basin and lower Mississippi River basin (west to eastern Kansas and Oklahoma); Mohawk River, New York; also the Pearl River and Lake Pontchartrain drainages on central Gulf Slope, Mississippi and Louisiana (Lee et al. 1980, Page and Burr 1991).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MI, MO, MS, NY, OH, OK, PA, TN, WV
Canada ON

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Colbert (01033)
KS Chase (20017), Chautauqua (20019)*, Cherokee (20021), Cowley (20035), Elk (20049), Greenwood (20073)*, Lyon (20111)*, Marion (20115)*, Montgomery (20125)*, Wilson (20205)*
MI Hillsdale (26059), Jackson (26075)*, Lenawee (26091)*, Livingston (26093), Macomb (26099), Monroe (26115), Oakland (26125), St. Clair (26147), Washtenaw (26161), Wayne (26163)
PA Crawford (42039), Erie (42049), Greene (42059), Mercer (42085)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Mississippi Coastal (03170009), Upper Pearl (03180001), Middle Pearl-Strong (03180002), Middle Pearl-Silver (03180003), Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004), Bogue Chitto (03180005)
04 St. Clair (04090001)+, Lake St. Clair (04090002)+, Clinton (04090003)+*, Detroit (04090004), Huron (04090005)+, Ottawa-Stony (04100001)+, Raisin (04100002)+, St. Joseph (04100003)+, St. Marys (04100004), Upper Maumee (04100005), Tiffin (04100006)+*, Auglaize (04100007)*, Blanchard (04100008), Lower Maumee (04100009), Cedar-Portage (04100010), Sandusky (04100011)*, Huron-Vermilion (04100012)*, Black-Rocky (04110001)*, Cuyahoga (04110002)*, Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003)*, Grand (04110004), Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101)+, Niagara (04120104), Lake Erie (04120200), Oak Orchard-Twelvemile (04130001)*, Lower Genesee (04130003), Seneca (04140201), Oneida (04140202)
05 Conewango (05010002), French (05010004)+, Middle Allegheny-Redbank (05010006), Upper Ohio (05030101)*, Shenango (05030102)+, Upper Ohio-Wheeling (05030106)+, Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201), Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202), Little Kanawha (05030203), Hocking (05030204), Tuscarawas (05040001)*, Walhonding (05040003), Muskingum (05040004), Wills (05040005)*, Licking (05040006), Gauley (05050005), Elk (05050007), Lower Kanawha (05050008), Coal (05050009), Upper Scioto (05060001), Lower Scioto (05060002), Paint (05060003), Lower Guyandotte (05070102), Tug (05070201), Upper Levisa (05070202), Lower Levisa (05070203), Big Sandy (05070204), Upper Great Miami (05080001)*, Lower Great Miami (05080002)*, Whitewater (05080003), Raccoon-Symmes (05090101), Twelvepole (05090102), Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103), Little Sandy (05090104), Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201), Little Miami (05090202)*, Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203), Licking (05100101), South Fork Licking (05100102), North Fork Kentucky (05100201), Middle Fork Kentucky (05100202), South Fork Kentucky (05100203), Upper Kentucky (05100204), Lower Kentucky (05100205), Upper Green (05110001), Barren (05110002), Middle Green (05110003), Rough (05110004), Pond (05110006), Upper Wabash (05120101), Eel (05120104), Middle Wabash-Deer (05120105), Tippecanoe (05120106), Wildcat (05120107), Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108), Vermilion (05120109), Sugar (05120110), Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111), Embarras (05120112), Lower Wabash (05120113), Little Wabash (05120114), Upper White (05120201), Eel (05120203), Driftwood (05120204), Muscatatuck (05120207), Lower East Fork White (05120208), Patoka (05120209), Upper Cumberland (05130101), Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103), Obey (05130105), Upper Cumberland-Cordell Hull (05130106), Lower Cumberland-Old Hickory Lake (05130201), Lower Cumberland-Sycamore (05130202), Stones (05130203), Harpeth (05130204), Lower Cumberland (05130205), Red (05130206), Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Salt (05140102), Rolling Fork (05140103), Blue-Sinking (05140104), Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201), Highland-Pigeon (05140202), Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203), Tradewater (05140205)
06 Lower Elk (06030004), Pickwick Lake (06030005), Bear (06030006)+, Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001), Upper Duck (06040002), Lower Duck (06040003), Buffalo (06040004), Kentucky Lake (06040005), Lower Tennessee (06040006)
07 Whitewater (07140107), Cache (07140108)*
08 Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201), Obion (08010202), South Fork Obion (08010203), North Fork Forked Deer (08010204), South Fork Forked Deer (08010205), Upper Hatchie (08010207), Lower Hatchie (08010208), Wolf (08010210), New Madrid-St. Johns (08020201), Upper St. Francis (08020202), Lower St. Francis (08020203), Little River Ditches (08020204), Little Tallahatchie (08030201), Tallahatchie (08030202), Yocona (08030203), Coldwater (08030204), Yalobusha (08030205), Upper Yazoo (08030206), Ouachita Headwaters (08040101), Upper Ouachita (08040102), Little Missouri (08040103), Lower Ouachita-Smackover (08040201), Upper Saline (08040203), Lower Saline (08040204), Bayou D'arbonne (08040206), Lower Ouachita (08040207), Castor (08040302), Little (08040304), Upper Big Black (08060201), Lower Big Black (08060202), Bayou Pierre (08060203), Coles Creek (08060204), Homochitto (08060205), Buffalo (08060206), Amite (08070202), Tickfaw (08070203), Tangipahoa (08070205), Liberty Bayou-Tchefuncta (08090201)
11 Middle White (11010004), Upper Black (11010007), Lower Black (11010009), Spring (11010010), Eleven Point (11010011), Strawberry (11010012), Little Red (11010014), Kaw Lake (11060001), Upper Verdigris (11070101)+, Fall (11070102), Middle Verdigris (11070103)+, Caney (11070106)+, Neosho headwaters (11070201), Upper Cottonwood (11070202)+, Lower Cottonwood (11070203), Lake O' the Cherokees (11070206), Spring (11070207)+, Lower Neosho (11070209), Illinois (11110103), Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104), Poteau (11110105), Frog-Mulberry (11110201), Dardanelle Reservoir (11110202), Petit Jean (11110204), Cadron (11110205), Fourche La Fave (11110206)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
Help
Reproduction Comments: Spawns in spring and summer. Male attends nest and fry (Goodyear et al. 1982).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool, Riffle
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes pools or other areas of slow current (less often or seasonally in riffles) in creeks and rivers with substrates of mud, sand, or gravel, in weedy areas or in areas strewn with sticks and leaves; some occurrences are in lakes (Rohde, in Lee et al. 1980; Smith 1985, Burr and Warren 1986; Robison and Buchanan 1988; Pflieger 1997; Ross 2001). Individuals usually are under cover during daylight hours. Eggs are laid under rocks, logs, or in or under other objects, including discarded cans (Goodyear et al. 1982, Etnier and Starnes 1993).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Adult Phenology: Nocturnal
Immature Phenology: Nocturnal
Length: 9 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Madtoms

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam/impoundment; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Madtoms are generally regarded as sedentary, at least over the short term, but dispersal characteristics are unknown. Separation distance is arbitrary but reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 24Jun2007
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 24Jun2007
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries. 2005. Conserving Alabama's wildlife: a comprehensive strategy. Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries. Montgomery, Alabama. 303 pages. [Available online at http://www.dcnr.state.al.us/research-mgmt/cwcs/outline.cfm ]

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 736 pages.

  • Burr, B.M. and R.L. Mayden. 1982. Life history of the brindled madtom Noturus miurus in Mill Creek, Illinois (Pisces: Ictaluridae). American Midland Naturalist 107(1):25-41

  • CROSS, F.B., AND J.T. COLLINS. 1975. FISHES IN KANSAS. UNIV. KANS. MUS.NAT.HIST., PUB.ED.SERIES NO.3.

  • Cooper, E.L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania. Penn State Univ. Press, University Park, PA.

  • Douglas, Neil H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's publ. div. Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • Goodyear, C. D., T. A. Edsall, D. M. Ormsby Dempsey, G. D. Moss, and P. E. Polanski. 1982. Atlas of the spawning and nursery areas of Great Lakes fishes. Vol. XIII. Reproductive characteristics of Great Lakes fishes. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service FWS/OBS-82/52. 158 pp.

  • Grady, J. M., and W. H. LeGrande. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships, modes of speciation, and historical biogeography of the madtom catfishes, genus Noturus Rafinesque (Siluriformes: Ictaluridae). Pages 747-777 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Holm, E. and B. Cudmore. 2000. Updated Status of the brindled madtom, Noturus miurus, in Canada. DRAFT Report to the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). 17 pp + figure + maps + appendix.

  • Lundberg, J. G. 1992. The phylogeny of ictalurid catfishes: a synthesis of recent work. Pages 392-420 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Mettee, M.F., P. E. O'Neil, and J.M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Inc., Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pages.

  • Mirarchi, R. E., J. T. Garner, M. F. Mettee, and P.E. O'Neil, editors. 2004. Alabama wildlife. Volume 2. Imperiled aquatic mollusks and fishes. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 255 pages

  • Mirarchi, R.E., M.A. Bailey, J.T. Garner, T.M. Haggerty, T.L. Best, M.F. Mettee, and P. O'Neil, editors. 2004. Alabama Wildlife. Volume 4. Conservation and management recommendations for imperiled wildlife. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 221 pages.

  • Mirarchi, R.E., editor. 2004. Alabama Wildlife. Volume 1. A checklist of vertebrates and selected invertebrates: aquatic mollusks, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 209 pages.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Sixth edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 29. 386 pages.

  • PFLIEGER,W.L.1975. THE FISHES OF MISSOURI. SULLIVAN, MARK. MISSOURI DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION.

  • PLATT, D.R. 1974. VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE SAND PRAIRIE NATURAL HISTORY RESERVATION, HARVEY COUNTY, KANSAS. TRANS. KANSAS ACAD. SCI. 76(1): 51-73.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Parker, B. and P. McKee. 1987. Status of the Brindled Madtom, Noturus miurus, in Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist 101(2): 226-230.

  • Parker, B., and P. McKee. [1985]. Status report on the brindled madtom, Noturus miurus, in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. 10 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1997a. The fishes of Missouri. Revised edition. Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City. vi + 372 pp.

  • ROSS, STEPHEN T. 1996. INLAND FISHES OF MISSISSIPPI. SELECTED SPECIES ACCOUNTS. COAUTHORED WITH W.M. BRENNEMAM, W.T. SLACK, M.T. O'CONNELL, AND T.L. PETERSON. ILLUSTRATED BY D.G. ROSS. DRAFT COPY.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Ross, S. T. (with W. M. Brennaman, W. T. Slack, M. T. O'Connell, and T. L. Peterson). 2001a. The Inland Fishes of Mississippi. University Press of Mississippi: Mississippi. xx + 624 pp.

  • Scott, W. B., and E. J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 184. 966 pp.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

  • Smith, C.L. 1985. The Inland Fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY. 522pp.

  • Sutherland, D.A. 1997. COSSARO Candidate V,T,E, Species Evaluation Form for Brindled Madtom (Noturus miurus). Unpublished report prepared by Natural Heritage Information Centre for Committee on the Status of Species at Risk in Ontario (COSSARO), Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 3 pp.

  • Taylor, W.R. 1969. A revision of the catfish genus Noturus (Rafinesque) with an analysis of higher groups in the Ictaluridae. Smithsonian Institution, U.S. National Museum Bulletin 282. 315 pp.

  • Warren, M. L., Jr., B. M. Burr, S. J. Walsh, H. L. Bart, Jr., R. C. Cashner, D. A. Etnier, B. J. Freeman, B. R. Kuhajda, R. L. Mayden, H. W. Robison, S. T. Ross, and W. C. Starnes. 2000. Diversity, distribution, and conservation status of the native freshwater fishes of the southern United States. Fisheries 25(10):7-31.

  • Werner, R.G. 1980. Freshwater fishes of New York State. N.Y.: Syracuse University Press. 186 pp.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Cross, F. B., and J. T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. Second Edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. xvii + 315 pp.

  • Douglas, N. H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, New York, xi + 522 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

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Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
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NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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