Noturus flavipinnis - Taylor, 1969
Yellowfin Madtom
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Noturus flavipinnis Taylor, 1969 (TSN 164012)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.102313
Element Code: AFCKA02060
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - North American Freshwater Catfishes
Image 5

© Noel Burkhead & Virginia Dept of Game and Inland Fisheries (Fishes of Virginia)

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Siluriformes Ictaluridae Noturus
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Noturus flavipinnis
Taxonomic Comments: Subgenus Rabida; closely related to N. miurus.

See Grady and LeGrande (1992) for a study of phylogenetic relationships, modes of speciation, and historical biogeography of Noturus madtom catfishes. See Lundberg (1992) for a synthesis of work on the systematic relationships of ictalurid catfishes.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 05Mar2012
Global Status Last Changed: 21Mar1997
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Small range and area of occupancy in the upper Tennessee River drainage, Georgia (formerly), Tennessee, and Virginia; has declined as a result of impoundments and water pollution; habitat degradation remains a threat to some populations; several extant occurrences remain; reintroductions are in progress.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1 (26Oct2000)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Georgia (SX), Tennessee (S1), Virginia (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LT, XN: Listed threatened, nonessential experimental population (09Sep1977)
Comments on USESA: The following populations are listed by USFWS as nonessential experimental: North Fork Holston River, Virginia and Tennessee; South Fork Holston River, upstream to Ft. Patrick Henry Dam, Tennessee; Holston River, downstream to John Sevier Detention Lake Dam, Tennessee; and all tributaries thereof; Tellico River upstream from Tellico Reservoir, Monroe County, Tennessee; French Broad River below Douglas Dam to its confluence with the Holston River, Knox County Tennessee, and in the free-flowing reach of the Holston River below Cherokee Dam to its confluence with the French Broad River. Listed by USFWS as Threatened elsewhere.
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R4 - Southeast
IUCN Red List Category: VU - Vulnerable
American Fisheries Society Status: Endangered (01Aug2008)

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 100-250 square km (about 40-100 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: This species is confined to the upper Tennessee River drainage, in Georgia (historically), Tennessee, and Virginia. It was probably once widely distributed in the Tennessee River drainage, from the Chickamauga system upstream (USFWS 1983). However, the yellowfin madtom was historically known from only seven streams: South Chickamauga Creek, Catoosa County, Georgia; Clinch River, Tennessee; Hines Creek, a Clinch River tributary, Anderson County, Tennessee; North Fork Holston River, Smyth County, Virginia; Copper Creek, Scott and Russell Counties, Virginia; Powell River, Hancock County, Tennessee (and recently found in the Virginia portion of the river); and Citico Creek, Monroe County, Tennessee (USFWS 1983). Although there are no historical records from Abrams Creek, Blount County, Tennessee, Lennon and Parker (1959) reported that the brindled madtom (the name given by early collectors for the yellowfin) was collected during a reclamation project of lower Abrams Creek in 1957. Based on this observation, Dinkins and Shute (1996) and others concluded that the species once occurred in the middle and lower reaches of Abrams Creek. Four small extant populations still exist, one each in Citico Creek (about 5 stream kilometers), Copper Creek (lower 47 river kilometers plus a disjunct site about 31 kilometers upstream; Jenkins and Burkhead 1994), Clinch River (roughly at least 24 stream kilometers; Conservation Fisheries, Inc., newsletter, December 2004), and the Powell River (where recent surveys have expanded known range); most of these populations are widely separated by impoundments (see USFWS 2007).

Conservation Fisheries, Inc. (CFI), has reintroduced the species into Abrams Creek, and a population is apparently becoming reestablished (Rakes et al. 1998). Yellowfin madtoms also have been released in the Tellico River upstream from Tellico Reservoir, Monroe County, Tennessee (USFWS 2001, 2002). Early indications show that the released fishes are surviving in the Tellico River (see USFWS 2007). It will take several more years of reintroductions to ensure future success similar to the Abrams Creek reintroductions (USFWS 2007). CFI has also successfully placed yellowfin madtoms in an existing nonessential experimental population (NEP) on the North Fork Holston River, Washington County, Virginia. This site is separated from the NEP on the lower Holston River (see following information) by reservoirs, and the fish is not known from any of these reservoirs or intervening river sections. These reservoirs and river sections act as barriers to movement by the fish and assure that the North Fork Holston River population will remain geographically isolated and easily identifiable as a distinct population from the Lower Holston River population (USFWS 2007). Conservation actions also include release of this species into probable historical habitat in the free-flowing reach of the French Broad River from below Douglas Dam to its confluence with the Holston River, Knox County, Tennessee, and in the free-flowing reach of the Holston River from below Cherokee Dam to its confluence with the French Broad River (USFWS 2007). This is a nonessential experimental population (USFWS 2007). Although there are no historical records from the lower Holston River or French Broad River system, USFWS and others believe that the species once likely inhabited these river reaches.

Old records of yellowfin madtom from Lyons Creek at the Tennessee River in Tennessee may actually pertain to N. eleutherus (see Jenkins and Burkhead 1994).

Area of Occupancy: 21-500 1-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Linear distance of occupancy appears to be less than or not more more than 100 stream kilometers.

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5
Number of Occurrences Comments: Three of the seven clearly documented populations are extirpated, though reintroductions are in progress and have added at least one established occurrence (subpopulation) to the remaining four.

Population Size: 1000 - 10,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but presumably is at least a few thousand. This species is generally regarded as rare, but it is difficult to inventory due to secretive and nocturnal habits. A very small population exists in Copper Creek (Burkhead and Jenkins 1991, Jenkins and Burkhead 1994; Conservation Fisheries, Inc.). Data from the 1980s indicated a population of about 500 adults in Citico Creek (Shute 1984); surveys there in the early 2000s found record numbers of yellowfin madtoms (Conservation Fisheries, Inc.). Surveys in 2004 found numerous yellowfin madtoms in the upper Clinch River (Conservation Fisheries, Inc., newsletter, December 2004). Recent surveys indicate that the Powell River population is more widespread and larger than formerly known.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very few (1-3)

Overall Threat Impact: High
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Major threats to this species are impoundments, chemical spills, mining, dredging, and pollution (USFWS, Virginia Field Office). Some historical populations were lost due to water impoundment and pollution. Powell River population is threatened by coal- and gravel-mining operations in and near the upper Powell River (Etnier and Starnes 1993). Citico Creek population potentially is threatened by acid contamination related to the shale chemistry in the region. Some reaches of Copper Creek, Virginia, have been impacted by heavy cutting of riparian brush and trees (Burkhead and Jenkins 1991) and by agricultural run-off (Conservation Fisheries, Inc.).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable to increase of <25%
Short-term Trend Comments: Reintroductions that began in the mid-1980s have modestly increased the area of occupancy, number of subpopulations, and population size.

Long-term Trend: Decline of 30-70%
Long-term Trend Comments: Three of the seven historical populations have been extirpated.

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Protection Needs: The delisting criteria in the recovery plan (USFWS 1983) (1) Protect and enhance existing populations and/or reestablish populations so that viable populations exist in Copper Creek, Citico Creek, and the Powell River; (2) recreate and/or discover two additional viable populations; (3) ensure that noticeable improvements in coal-related problems and substrate quality exist in the Powell River; and (4) protect the species and its habitat in all five rivers from present and foreseeable threats that may adversely affect essential habitat or the survival of any of the populations.

Distribution
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Global Range: (100-250 square km (about 40-100 square miles)) This species is confined to the upper Tennessee River drainage, in Georgia (historically), Tennessee, and Virginia. It was probably once widely distributed in the Tennessee River drainage, from the Chickamauga system upstream (USFWS 1983). However, the yellowfin madtom was historically known from only seven streams: South Chickamauga Creek, Catoosa County, Georgia; Clinch River, Tennessee; Hines Creek, a Clinch River tributary, Anderson County, Tennessee; North Fork Holston River, Smyth County, Virginia; Copper Creek, Scott and Russell Counties, Virginia; Powell River, Hancock County, Tennessee (and recently found in the Virginia portion of the river); and Citico Creek, Monroe County, Tennessee (USFWS 1983). Although there are no historical records from Abrams Creek, Blount County, Tennessee, Lennon and Parker (1959) reported that the brindled madtom (the name given by early collectors for the yellowfin) was collected during a reclamation project of lower Abrams Creek in 1957. Based on this observation, Dinkins and Shute (1996) and others concluded that the species once occurred in the middle and lower reaches of Abrams Creek. Four small extant populations still exist, one each in Citico Creek (about 5 stream kilometers), Copper Creek (lower 47 river kilometers plus a disjunct site about 31 kilometers upstream; Jenkins and Burkhead 1994), Clinch River (roughly at least 24 stream kilometers; Conservation Fisheries, Inc., newsletter, December 2004), and the Powell River (where recent surveys have expanded known range); most of these populations are widely separated by impoundments (see USFWS 2007).

Conservation Fisheries, Inc. (CFI), has reintroduced the species into Abrams Creek, and a population is apparently becoming reestablished (Rakes et al. 1998). Yellowfin madtoms also have been released in the Tellico River upstream from Tellico Reservoir, Monroe County, Tennessee (USFWS 2001, 2002). Early indications show that the released fishes are surviving in the Tellico River (see USFWS 2007). It will take several more years of reintroductions to ensure future success similar to the Abrams Creek reintroductions (USFWS 2007). CFI has also successfully placed yellowfin madtoms in an existing nonessential experimental population (NEP) on the North Fork Holston River, Washington County, Virginia. This site is separated from the NEP on the lower Holston River (see following information) by reservoirs, and the fish is not known from any of these reservoirs or intervening river sections. These reservoirs and river sections act as barriers to movement by the fish and assure that the North Fork Holston River population will remain geographically isolated and easily identifiable as a distinct population from the Lower Holston River population (USFWS 2007). Conservation actions also include release of this species into probable historical habitat in the free-flowing reach of the French Broad River from below Douglas Dam to its confluence with the Holston River, Knox County, Tennessee, and in the free-flowing reach of the Holston River from below Cherokee Dam to its confluence with the French Broad River (USFWS 2007). This is a nonessential experimental population (USFWS 2007). Although there are no historical records from the lower Holston River or French Broad River system, USFWS and others believe that the species once likely inhabited these river reaches.

Old records of yellowfin madtom from Lyons Creek at the Tennessee River in Tennessee may actually pertain to N. eleutherus (see Jenkins and Burkhead 1994).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States GAextirpated, TN, VA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
GA Walker (13295)*
TN Anderson (47001)*, Blount (47009), Claiborne (47025), Hancock (47067), Knox (47093)*, Monroe (47123), Union (47173)*
VA Lee (51105), Russell (51167), Scott (51169), Smyth (51173)*, Washington (51191)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
06 North Fork Holston (06010101)+*, Watts Bar Lake (06010201)+, Lower Little Tennessee (06010204)+, Upper Clinch (06010205)+, Powell (06010206)+, Lower Clinch (06010207)+*, Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: A small, nocturnal catfish.
General Description: See Jenkins and Burkhead (1994).
Diagnostic Characteristics: See Jenkins and Burkhead (1994).
Reproduction Comments: Spawns within the period from about mid-May to mid-July, beginning when water temperatures are 20-23 C. May guard eggs. Most are mature in 2 years, many adults are 3 years old, maximum longevity may be 5 years (Jenkins 1975, Lee et al. 1980, Burkhead and Jenkins 1991, Jenkins and Burkhead 1994, Dinkins and Shute 1996).
Ecology Comments: Low vagility (Burkhead and Jenkins 1991, Dinkins and Shute 1996).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes medium-sized and large creeks and small rivers that are unpolluted, warm or warm to cool, usually relatively unsilted (Powell River may be very silty), and of moderate to gentle gradient. This species generally occurs in slow pools and occasionally small backwaters off runs and riffles, rarely in runs. It is generally under cover (sticks, logs, leaf litter, undercut banks, tree roots, rocks, trash) during daylight hours. At night, it is often on the streambed in open clean gravel and rubble areas away from banks and riffles. It may occur in slightly to moderately silted bank areas during day or night. Eggs are laid in cavities beneath flat rocks in pools at depths of usually less than 1 meter. For further information, see Burkhead and Jenkins (1991), Jenkins and Burkhead (1994), and Dinkins and Shute (1996).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats various immature benthic insects; feeds most heavily at night, may feed opportunistically during day on organisms that come near diurnal retreat (Jenkins 1975).
Adult Phenology: Nocturnal
Immature Phenology: Nocturnal
Phenology Comments: Apparently feeds both day and night.
Length: 10 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary
Help
Management Requirements: See recovery plan (USFWS 1983).
Monitoring Requirements: Difficult to inventory, especially in daylight; seining at night is more effective than are seining or electrofishing during daylight (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994).
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Group Name: Madtoms

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam/impoundment; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Madtoms are generally regarded as sedentary, at least over the short term, but dispersal characteristics are unknown. Separation distance is arbitrary but reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 04Feb2011
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 02Jul2001
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Bauer, B. H., G. R. Dinkins, and D. A. Etnier. 1983. Discovery of Noturus baileyi and N. flavipinnis in Citico Creek, Little Tennessee River system. Copeia 1983:558-560.

  • Burkhead, N. M., and R. E. Jenkins. 1991. Fishes. Pages 321-409 in K. Terwilliger (coordinator). Virginia's Endangered Species: Proceedings of a Symposium. McDonald and Woodward Publishing Company, Blacksburg, Virginia.

  • Dinkins, G. R., and P. W. Shute. 1996. Life histories of Noturus baileyi and N. flavipinnis (Pisces: Ictaluridae), two rare madtom catfishes in Citico Creek, Monroe County, Tennessee. Bulletin of the Alabama Museum of Natural History 18:43-69.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Etnier, D.A., P.W. Shute and G.R. Dinkins. 1984. Management Plan for the Yellowfin and Smoky Madtoms in Citico Creek, Monroe County, Tennessee. Unpublished report to U.S. Forest Service, Cherokee National Forest. 22 pp.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • Grady, J. M., and W. H. LeGrande. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships, modes of speciation, and historical biogeography of the madtom catfishes, genus Noturus Rafinesque (Siluriformes: Ictaluridae). Pages 747-777 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Jelks, H. L., S. J. Walsh, N. M. Burkhead, S. Contreras-Balderas, E. Díaz-Pardo, D. A. Hendrickson, J. Lyons, N. E. Mandrak, F. McCormick, J. S. Nelson, S. P. Platania, B. A. Porter, C. B. Renaud, J. Jacobo Schmitter-Soto, E. B. Taylor, and M.L. Warren, Jr. 2008. Conservation status of imperiled North American freshwater and diadromous fishes. Fisheries 33(8):372-407.

  • Jenkins, R. E. 1975. Unpublished report on yellowfin madtom. Roanoke College, Virginia.

  • Jenkins, R. E., and N. M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. xxiii + 1079 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Lennon, R. E., and P. S. Parker. 1959. The reclamation of Indian and Abrams Creeks, Great Smoky Mountains National Park. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Scientific Report 306. 22 pp.

  • Lundberg, J. G. 1992. The phylogeny of ictalurid catfishes: a synthesis of recent work. Pages 392-420 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Matthews, J.R. and C.J. Moseley (eds.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species of North America. Volume 1. Plants, Mammals. xxiii + pp 1-560 + 33 pp. appendix + 6 pp. glossary + 16 pp. index. Volume 2. Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians, Fishes, Mussels, Crustaceans, Snails, Insects, and Arachnids. xiii + pp. 561-1180. Beacham Publications, Inc., Washington, D.C.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Page, LM, H.Espinoza-Perez, L.Findley, C.Gilbert, R. Lea, N. Mandrak, R.Mayden and J.Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico, 7th edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Rakes, P. L., P. W. Shute, and J. R. Shute. 1998. Captive propagation and population monitoring of rare Southeastern fishes. Final Report for 1997. Field Season and Second Quarter Report for Fiscal Year 1998, prepared for Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency, Contract No. FA-4-10792-5-00. 32 pp.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Shute, P., J.R. Shute, P.L. Rakes and R.G. Biggins. 1998. Recovery Success For Four Listed Fish. Endangered Species Bulletin, 1998 March/June, 23:30-31.

  • Shute, P.W. 1984a. Yellowfin Madtom, Noturus flavipinnis. Final status survey report to USFWS. August 22, 1984.

  • Shute, P.W. 1984b. Ecology of the rare Yellowfin Madtom, Noturus flavipinnis Taylor, in Citico Creek, Tennessee. M.S. thesis, Department of Zoology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville. 100 pp.

  • Taylor, W. R., R. E. Jenkins, and E. A. Lachner. 1971. Rediscovery and description of the ictalurid catfish, Noturus flavipinnis. Proceedings of the Biolgocal Society of Washington 83:469-476.

  • Taylor, W.R. 1969. A revision of the catfish genus Noturus (Rafinesque) with an analysis of higher groups in the Ictaluridae. Smithsonian Institution, U.S. National Museum Bulletin 282. 315 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 13 September 2007. Establishment of nonessential experimental population status for 15 freshwater mussels, 1 freshwater Snail, and 5 fishes in the Lower French Broad River and in the Lower Holston River, Tennessee; final rule. Federal Register 72(177):52434-52461.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1983. Recovery plan yellowfin madtom (Noturus flavipinnis) Taylor. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Atlanta, Georgia.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1988. Determination of nonessential experimental population status for an introduced population of the yellowfin madtom in Virginia and Tennessee. Federal Register 53:29335-29336.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1990. Endangered and threatened species recovery program: report to Congress. 406 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2001. Proposed establishment of nonessential experimental population status for 4 fishes into the Tellico River, from the backwaters of Tellico Reservoir upstream to Tellico River Mile 33, in Monroe County, Tennessee. Federal Register 66:30853-30860.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2002. Establishment of nonessential experimental population status and reintroduction of four fishes in the Tellico River. Federal Register 67(155):52420-52428.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • State Natural Heritage Data Centers. 1996a. Aggregated element occurrence data from all U.S. state natural heritage programs, including the Tennessee Valley Authority, Navajo Nation and the District of Columbia. Science Division, The Nature Conservancy.

  • State Natural Heritage Data Centers. 1996c. Aggregated element occurrence data from all U.S. state natural heritage programs, including the Tennessee Valley Authority, Navajo Nation and the District of Columbia: Export of freshwater fish and mussel records from the Tennessee Valley Authority in 1997. Science Division, The Nature Conservancy.

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