Noturus exilis - Nelson, 1876
Slender Madtom
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Noturus exilis Nelson, 1876 (TSN 164010)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.102496
Element Code: AFCKA02250
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - North American Freshwater Catfishes
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Siluriformes Ictaluridae Noturus
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Noturus exilis
Taxonomic Comments: See Grady and LeGrande (1992) for a study of phylogenetic relationships, modes of speciation, and historical biogeography of NOTURUS madtom catfishes. See Lundberg (1992) for a synthesis of recent work on the systematic relationships of ictalurid catfishes.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 19Sep1996
Global Status Last Changed: 19Sep1996
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S3), Arkansas (S4), Illinois (S3), Iowa (S3), Kansas (S4), Kentucky (S1), Minnesota (S1), Mississippi (SH), Missouri (SNR), Oklahoma (S5), Tennessee (S4S5), Wisconsin (S1)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Green, Cumberland, and Tennessee river drainages, central Kentucky to northern Alabama; upper Mississippi River basin from southern Wisconsin and southern Minnesota to Ozark and Ouachita highlands of Arkansas, Kansas, and Oklahoma; common (Page and Burr 1991).

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of subpopulations and locations.

Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but relatively large.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Localized threats may exist, but on a range-wide scale no major threats are known.

Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable or slowly declining.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Green, Cumberland, and Tennessee river drainages, central Kentucky to northern Alabama; upper Mississippi River basin from southern Wisconsin and southern Minnesota to Ozark and Ouachita highlands of Arkansas, Kansas, and Oklahoma; common (Page and Burr 1991).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, IA, IL, KS, KY, MN, MO, MS, OK, TN, WI

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Lauderdale (01077), Limestone (01083)
IA Benton (19011)*, Buchanan (19019), Linn (19113)
KY Calloway (21035), Edmonson (21061)*, Logan (21141)*, Pendleton (21191), Simpson (21213)*, Taylor (21217)*, Trigg (21221)
MN Mower (27099)
MS Tishomingo (28141)*
OK Cherokee (40021), Delaware (40041), Ottawa (40115)
WI Dodge (55027)*, Green (55045)*, Iowa (55049)*, Jefferson (55055), Lafayette (55065)*, Walworth (55127)*, Washington (55131), Waukesha (55133)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
04 Milwaukee (04040003)+
05 South Fork Licking (05100102)+, Upper Green (05110001)+, Barren (05110002), South Fork Cumberland (05130104), Stones (05130203), Harpeth (05130204), Lower Cumberland (05130205)+, Red (05130206)+
06 Wheeler Lake (06030002)+, Upper Elk (06030003), Lower Elk (06030004)+, Pickwick Lake (06030005), Bear (06030006)+, Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001), Upper Duck (06040002), Lower Duck (06040003), Buffalo (06040004), Kentucky Lake (06040005)+
07 Maquoketa (07060006)*, Flint-Henderson (07080104), South Skunk (07080105)*, Skunk (07080107), Upper Cedar (07080201)+, Middle Cedar (07080205)+, Lower Cedar (07080206), Upper Rock (07090001)+, Crawfish (07090002)+, Pecatonica (07090003)+, Lower Rock (07090005)*, Kishwaukee (07090006)*, Middle Des Moines (07100004)*, Boone (07100005)*, North Raccoon (07100006)*, Bear-Wyaconda (07110001), North Fabius (07110002), South Fabius (07110003), The Sny (07110004), North Fork Salt (07110005), South Fork Salt (07110006), Salt (07110007), Cuivre (07110008), Peruque-Piasa (07110009), Des Plaines (07120004), Upper Illinois (07120005)*, Upper Fox (07120006), Lower Fox (07120007), Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001), Lower Illinois (07130011), Cahokia-Joachim (07140101), Meramec (07140102), Bourbeuse (07140103), Big (07140104), Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105), Whitewater (07140107), Upper Kaskaskia (07140201)*
08 Upper St. Francis (08020202), Lower White-Bayou Des Arc (08020301)
10 South Fork Big Nemaha (10240007), One Hundred and Two (10240013)*, Upper Kansas (10270101), Middle Kansas (10270102), Delaware (10270103), Lower Kansas (10270104), Lower Big Blue (10270205), Upper Marais Des Cygnes (10290101), Lower Marais Des Cygnes (10290102), Little Osage (10290103), Marmaton (10290104), Harry S. Missouri (10290105), Sac (10290106), Pomme De Terre (10290107), South Grand (10290108), Lake of the Ozarks (10290109), Niangua (10290110), Lower Osage (10290111), Upper Gasconade (10290201), Big Piney (10290202), Lower Gasconade (10290203), Lower Missouri-Crooked (10300101), Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102), Lower Missouri (10300200)
11 Beaver Reservoir (11010001), James (11010002), Bull Shoals Lake (11010003), Middle White (11010004), Buffalo (11010005), North Fork White (11010006), Current (11010008), Lower Black (11010009), Spring (11010010), Eleven Point (11010011), Strawberry (11010012), Little Red (11010014), Neosho headwaters (11070201), Upper Neosho (11070204), Lake O' the Cherokees (11070206), Spring (11070207)+, Elk (11070208), Lower Neosho (11070209)+, Dirty-Greenleaf (11110102), Illinois (11110103)+, Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104), Poteau (11110105), Frog-Mulberry (11110201), Dardanelle Reservoir (11110202), Lake Conway-Point Remove (11110203), Petit Jean (11110204), Cadron (11110205), Fourche La Fave (11110206), Lower Arkansas-Maumelle (11110207), Mountain Fork (11140108)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Spawns in spring, also may spawn later (July-August). Some females may spawn in 1st summer (Vives 1987). Male guards eggs.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, High gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool, Riffle
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Uses a wide range of depths and current velocities in various riverine macrohabitats (Banks and DiStefano 2002); riffles of creeks and small rivers in moderate to fast current; also in rocky pools with current strong enough to keep bottom free of silt and in deep leaf-litter of calm pools with clear cool water. Can be numerous in aquatic vegetation. Rarely in springs and rarely along wave-swept margins of large impoundments (Page and Burr 1991). Eggs are laid under rocks in pools and raceways (Burr and Mayden 1984).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats mostly insects and other small invertebrates obtained from bottom (Becker 1983); e.g., ephemeropteran naiads and dipteran larvae (Vives 1987), chironomids.
Adult Phenology: Nocturnal
Immature Phenology: Nocturnal
Length: 13 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Madtoms

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam/impoundment; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Madtoms are generally regarded as sedentary, at least over the short term, but dispersal characteristics are unknown. Separation distance is arbitrary but reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 30Dec2002
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Banks, S. M., and R. J. DiStefano. 2002. Diurnal habitat associations of the madtoms Noturus albater, N. exilis, N. flavater, and N. flavus in Missouri Ozarks streams. American Midland Naturalist 148:138-145.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. Univ. Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1052 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and R. L. Mayden. 1984. Reproductive biology of the checkered madtom (Noturus flavater) with observations on nesting in the Ozark (N. albater) and slender (N. exilis) madtoms (Siluriformes: Ictaluridae). American Midland Naturalist 112:408-414.

  • CROSS, F.B., AND J.T. COLLINS. 1975. FISHES IN KANSAS. UNIV. KANS. MUS.NAT.HIST., PUB.ED.SERIES NO.3.

  • CROSS, F.B.1967.HANDBOOK OF FISHES IN KANSAS. E. RAYMOND HALL.UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, LAWRENCE, KANSAS.

  • Eddy, S., and J. C. Underhill. 1974. Northern fishes, with special reference to the Upper Mississippi Valley. Third edition. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 414 pp.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • Grady, J. M., and W. H. LeGrande. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships, modes of speciation, and historical biogeography of the madtom catfishes, genus Noturus Rafinesque (Siluriformes: Ictaluridae). Pages 747-777 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Lundberg, J. G. 1992. The phylogeny of ictalurid catfishes: a synthesis of recent work. Pages 392-420 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Lyons, J., P. A. Cochran, and D. Fago. 2000. Wisconsin fishes 2000: status and distribution. University of Wisconsin Sea Grant Institute, Madison, Wisconsin. 87 pp.

  • Mayden, R. L., and B. M. Burr. 1981. Life history of the Slender Madtom, Noturus exilis, in southern Illinois (Pisces: Ictaluridae). Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural History 93, University of Kansas, Lawrence.  64 pp.

  • NatureServe.  2015.  NatureServe Explorer:  an online encyclopedia of life [web application].  Version 7.1.  NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia.  <http://www.natureserve.org/explorer>.  Accessed 19 May 2016.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • PFLIEGER,W.L.1975. THE FISHES OF MISSOURI. SULLIVAN, MARK. MISSOURI DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Phillips, G, L. American Eel Anguilla rostrata (Lesueur, 1817). In J. T. Hatch, G. L. Phillips, K. P. Schmidt, and M. McInerny, editors. The Fishes of Minnesota (in preparation).

  • Proulx, N. 2005.  Status and critical habitat of threatened, special concern, and rare fish species in nonwadeable portions of the Minnesota River. Final report submitted to the State Wildlife Grants Program. 18 pp.

  • ROSS, STEPHEN T. 1996. INLAND FISHES OF MISSISSIPPI. SELECTED SPECIES ACCOUNTS. COAUTHORED WITH W.M. BRENNEMAM, W.T. SLACK, M.T. O'CONNELL, AND T.L. PETERSON. ILLUSTRATED BY D.G. ROSS. DRAFT COPY.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Schmidt, K. 2012. NANFA Members Search for Minnesota's Rarest Fishes. American Currents, 37(4) 2-7: , Fall 2012.

  • Schmidt, K. P. 1991. Stream survey results for the Slender Madtom (Noturus exilis), Crystal Darter (Ammocrypta asprella) and Bluntnose Darter (Etheostoma chlorosomum) in southeastern Minnesota. Final report submitted to the Natural Heritage and Nongame Research Program, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 12 pp.+ appendices.

  • Taylor, W.R. 1969. A revision of the catfish genus Noturus (Rafinesque) with an analysis of higher groups in the Ictaluridae. Smithsonian Institution, U.S. National Museum Bulletin 282. 315 pp.

  • Vives, S. P. 1987. Aspects of the life history of the Slender Madtom, Noturus exilis, in northeastern Oklahoma (Pisces: Ictaluridae). American Midland Naturalist 117:167-176.

  • Vives, S. P. 1987. Aspects of the life history of the slender madtom Noturus exilis in northeastern Oklahoma (Pisces: Ictaluridae). American Midland Naturalist 117:167-176.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cross, F. B., and J. T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. Second Edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. xvii + 315 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Mirarchi, R.E., J.T. Garner, M.F. Mettee, and P.E. O'Neil. 2004b. Alabama wildlife. Volume 2. Imperiled aquatic mollusks and fishes. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. xii + 255 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

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