Notropis melanostomus - Bortone, 1989
Blackmouth Shiner
Other English Common Names: Swamp shiner
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Notropis melanostomus Bortone, 1989 (TSN 163485)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.101090
Element Code: AFCJB28B50
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Minnows and Carps
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Notropis
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Notropis melanostomus
Taxonomic Comments: Most closely related to N. ortenburgeri (apparently sister species) (Bortone 1989, Suttkus and Bailey 1990).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 16Apr2012
Global Status Last Changed: 02Jan1997
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Small, apparently disjunct distribution in Forida, Mississippi, and Alabama; recent surveys have significantly expanded the known locations and area of occupancy; trend is poorly known, but threatened by land development.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2 (02Jan1997)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S1), Florida (S1), Mississippi (S1S2)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: VU - Vulnerable
American Fisheries Society Status: Threatened (01Aug2008)

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 5000-20,000 square km (about 2000-8000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range includes the Blackwater-Yellow river system (Pensacola Bay drainage), Florida; Bay Minette Creek (a tributary to the lower end of the Mobile-Tensaw Delta), Alabama; and lower Pascagoula River system (lower Black Creek and Chickasawhay River), Mississippi (Ross 2001, Boschung and Mayden 2004, Page and Burr 2011).

Area of Occupancy: 101-2,000 1-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Area of occupancy is unknown but probably does not exceed 2,000 square kilometers.

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by at least several distinct occurrences, but these are confined to small portions of only a few watersheds.

Prior to 1995, N. melanostomus had been collected from only three localities in Mississippi; eight new localities were discovered in Mississippi in 1995, and the species was first recorded in Alabama in 2003 (O'Connell et al. 2005). Probably there has not been enough sampling to accurately represent the actual range-wide distribution of this species.

Population Size: 10,000 - 100,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 10,000. This species can be locally numerous, but overall it is rare (Suttkus and Bailey 1990). Number of individuals in Florida has been estimated to be between 10,000 and 20,000; the species is rarely collected by conventional methods. Page and Burr (2011) characterized this species as rare as localized.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Unknown

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Type locality was modified by nearby clearing and construction (Suttkus and Bailey 1990). Preferred habitat is being encroached rapidly by commercial and "domestic" development (Bortone 1989). Development along lower Blackwater River and Pond Creek threatens the occurrence there. Pollution is a major potential threat in most areas. Short life span and periodic habitat drying (e.g., of oxbow lakes) make the species vulnerable to local extirpation.

Jelks et al. (2008) categorized this species as Threatened due to (1) present or threatened destruction, modification, or reduction of habitat or range and (2) restricted range.

Short-term Trend: Unknown
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past three generations is unknown.

Long-term Trend: Unknown
Long-term Trend Comments: The spotty occurrence of this species in ephemeral habitat makes it difficult to determine trends.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Further surveys, including multiple surveys of single sites, are needed in areas of suitable habitat, including oxbows and backwaters in the Escatawpa and Perdido River systems in Alabama (B. R. Kuhajda). Populations in the lower Blackwater River, Pascagoula River, Chickasawhay River, and Black Creek should be monitored. Shoal River site should be surveyed to determine if the species still exists there.

Protection Needs: Maintain natural integrity of stream systems; prevent pollution, over-use of water table, habitat disturbance. Protect lower Blackwater, Shoal and Pascagoula rivers and their tributaries (lower reaches especially). Retain naturally forested corridors along and upstream of occurrences, and prevent development and the placement of septic tanks within associated floodplain.

Distribution
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Global Range: (5000-20,000 square km (about 2000-8000 square miles)) Range includes the Blackwater-Yellow river system (Pensacola Bay drainage), Florida; Bay Minette Creek (a tributary to the lower end of the Mobile-Tensaw Delta), Alabama; and lower Pascagoula River system (lower Black Creek and Chickasawhay River), Mississippi (Ross 2001, Boschung and Mayden 2004, Page and Burr 2011).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, FL, MS

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
FL Santa Rosa (12113), Walton (12131)*
MS George (28039)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Yellow (03140103)+*, Blackwater (03140104)+, Mobile - Tensaw (03160204), Lower Chickasawhay (03170003), Pascagoula (03170006)+, Black (03170007)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Blackmouth shiner, Cyprinidae.
General Description: Aside from having usually 10-12 anal rays (instead of 9-10), nearly identical to N. ortenburgeri, which Page and Burr (1991) described as follows: light olive above, with a pale stripe above the silver-black stripe along the side; dark-edged scales on back; strongly upturned mouth; compressed body, deepest at dorsal fin origin; narrow caudal peduncle; dorsal fin origin slightly behind pelvic fin origin; large eye; 35-37 lateral scales. melanostomus grows to 3.8 cm. .
Diagnostic Characteristics: Differs from N. ortenburgeri by having usually 10-12 anal rays (vs. 9-10) (Page and Burr 1991).
Reproduction Comments: Spawning occurs probably late April-July; young-of-year were dominant in collections in late August; early summer populations consist of one-year-olds with a few two-year-olds (Suttkus and Bailey 1990).
Ecology Comments: Gregarious.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes detritus- and silt-bottomed pools and quiet backwaters (variable depth and amount of rooted aquatic vegetation), creeks, small rivers, sloughs, and oxbow lakes (with bald cypress and black gum) off the main channel of medium-sized to large streams; species has been observed in mid-water of open areas near aquatic vegetation, and, in other sites, in shallow marginal areas and around submerged dead branches or brush (Bortone 1989, Suttkus and Bailey 1990, Ross 2001, Boschung and Mayden 2004, Page and Burr 2011).
Length: 3 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Biological Research Needs: Better information is needed on basic ecology, life history, and behavior.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Small Cyprinids

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat. For some species (e.g., slender chub), an impoundment may constitute a barrier. For others (e.g., flame chub) a stream larger than 4th order may be a barrier.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. In some species, individuals may migrate variable distances between spawning areas and nonspawning habitats.

Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) for cyprinids are arbitrary but reflect the presumption that movements and appropriate separation distances generally should increase with fish size. Hence small, medium, and large cyprinids, respectively, have increasingly large separation distances. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 16Apr2012
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Palis, J. G., D. R. Jackson, and G. Hammerson
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 16Apr2012
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries. 2005. Conserving Alabama's wildlife: a comprehensive strategy. Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries. Montgomery, Alabama. 303 pages. [Available online at http://www.dcnr.state.al.us/research-mgmt/cwcs/outline.cfm ]

  • Bortone, S. A. 1989. Notropis melanostomus, a new species of cyprinid fish from the Blackwater-Yellow River drainage of northwest Florida. Copeia 1989:737-741.

  • Bortone, S. A., and C. R. Gilbert. 1992. Blackmouth shiner Notropis melanostomus. Pages 58-62 in C.R. Gilbert, editor. Rare and endangered biota of Florida. Volume II. Fishes. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. xl + 247 pp.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 736 pages.

  • Jelks, H. L., S. J. Walsh, N. M. Burkhead, S. Contreras-Balderas, E. Díaz-Pardo, D. A. Hendrickson, J. Lyons, N. E. Mandrak, F. McCormick, J. S. Nelson, S. P. Platania, B. A. Porter, C. B. Renaud, J. Jacobo Schmitter-Soto, E. B. Taylor, and M.L. Warren, Jr. 2008. Conservation status of imperiled North American freshwater and diadromous fishes. Fisheries 33(8):372-407.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • O'Connell, M. T., A.M.U. O'Connell, and J. D. Williams, 2005. Assessment of rarity of teh blackmouth shiner Notropis melanostomus (Cyprinidae) based on museum and recent survey data. Southeastern Naturalist 4:247-260.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • ROSS, STEPHEN T. 1996. INLAND FISHES OF MISSISSIPPI. SELECTED SPECIES ACCOUNTS. COAUTHORED WITH W.M. BRENNEMAM, W.T. SLACK, M.T. O'CONNELL, AND T.L. PETERSON. ILLUSTRATED BY D.G. ROSS. DRAFT COPY.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Ross, S. T. (with W. M. Brennaman, W. T. Slack, M. T. O'Connell, and T. L. Peterson). 2001a. The Inland Fishes of Mississippi. University Press of Mississippi: Mississippi. xx + 624 pp.

  • Suttkus, R. D., and R. M. Bailey. 1990. Characters, relationships, distribution, and biology of Notropis melanostomus, a recently named cyprinid fish from southeastern United States. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology Occasional Paper (722):1-15.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • State Natural Heritage Data Centers. 1996a. Aggregated element occurrence data from all U.S. state natural heritage programs, including the Tennessee Valley Authority, Navajo Nation and the District of Columbia. Science Division, The Nature Conservancy.

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