Notropis dorsalis - (Agassiz, 1854)
Bigmouth Shiner
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.104308
Element Code: AFCJB28410
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Minnows and Carps
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Notropis
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Notropis dorsalis
Taxonomic Comments: See Wiley and Titus (1992) for information on the phylogenetic relationships among this and other members of the Hybopsis dorsalis species group of Mayden (1989) (retained in the genus Notropis in the 1991 AFS checklist; Robins et al. 1991). Raley and Wood (2001) used mtDNA data to confirm that the N. dorsalis group belongs in the genus Notropis.

Three subspecies (piptolepis, dorsalis, and keimi) sometimes are recognized, but they are in need of further study (Page and Burr 1991).
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 18Aug2015
Global Status Last Changed: 16Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Sep1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N4 (27Dec2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Colorado (S4), Illinois (S5), Indiana (S1), Iowa (S5), Kansas (S2), Michigan (S2), Minnesota (SNR), Missouri (SNR), Nebraska (S4), New York (S2), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (S2), Pennsylvania (S2), South Dakota (S5), Tennessee (S1), West Virginia (SX), Wisconsin (S5), Wyoming (S5)
Canada Manitoba (S4)

Other Statuses

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Not at Risk (01Nov2003)
Comments on COSEWIC: Reason for Designation: There are no demonstrable or potential threats and the species is not particularly sensitive to habitat disturbances. It has been found in five new locations since 1985. It may also be present in unsurveyed areas of suitable habitat in western Manitoba and possibly eastern Saskatchewan.

Status History: Designated Special Concern in April 1985. Status re-examined and designated Not at Risk in November 2003. More recently (2015), considered a low priority candidate for re-assessment.

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Great Lakes, Hudson Bay (Red River), and Mississippi River basins, from northern Michigan to southern Manitoba, and from eastern Illinois to the Platte River system, eastern Wyoming and northern Colorado; disjunct populations in western New York and Pennsylvania, northern West Virginia, northern Ohio, and western Michigan; common over much of range (Page and Burr 1991).

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of subpopulations and locations.

Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but relatively large.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Localized threats may exist, but on a range-wide scale no major threats are known.

Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable or slowly declining.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: Great Lakes, Hudson Bay (Red River), and Mississippi River basins, from northern Michigan to southern Manitoba, and from eastern Illinois to the Platte River system, eastern Wyoming and northern Colorado; disjunct populations in western New York and Pennsylvania, northern West Virginia, northern Ohio, and western Michigan; common over much of range (Page and Burr 1991).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CO, IA, IL, IN, KS, MI, MN, MO, ND, NE, NY, OH, PA, SD, TN, WI, WVextirpated, WY
Canada MB

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
KS Atchison (20005), Brown (20013), Doniphan (20043), Douglas (20045)*, Jefferson (20087), Leavenworth (20103), Marshall (20117), Nemaha (20131), Republic (20157)
MI Allegan (26005)*, Baraga (26013), Barry (26015)*, Clare (26035), Houghton (26061)*, Ionia (26067)*, Kent (26081), Lake (26085)*, Manistee (26101)*, Mecosta (26107)*, Missaukee (26113), Montcalm (26117)*, Muskegon (26121)*, Newaygo (26123), Oceana (26127), Osceola (26133), Ottawa (26139), Roscommon (26143)*, Wexford (26165)
NY Allegany (36003), Cattaraugus (36009), Chautauqua (36013), Erie (36029), Genesee (36037), Livingston (36051), Niagara (36063), Steuben (36101), Ulster (36111), Wyoming (36121)
OH Cuyahoga (39035), Lorain (39093), Medina (39103)*
PA Crawford (42039), McKean (42083), Potter (42105)
TN Tipton (47167)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Middle Hudson (02020006)+, Tioga (02050104)+
04 Beartrap-Nemadji (04010301), Bad-Montreal (04010302)*, Ontonagon (04020102)+*, Sturgeon (04020104)+, Upper Fox (04030201), Wolf (04030202), Lake Winnebago (04030203), Pike-Root (04040002), Milwaukee (04040003), Black-Macatawa (04050002)+, Kalamazoo (04050003)+, Lower Grand (04050006)+, Thornapple (04050007)+*, Pere Marquette-White (04060101)+, Muskegon (04060102)+, Manistee (04060103)+*, Black-Rocky (04110001)+, Cuyahoga (04110002)+, Cattaraugus (04120102)+, Buffalo-Eighteenmile (04120103)+, Niagara (04120104)+, Upper Genesee (04130002)+, Lower Genesee (04130003)+
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001)+, Conewango (05010002)+, French (05010004)+, Tygart Valley (05020001), Vermilion (05120109)
07 Mississippi Headwaters (07010101), Prairie-Willow (07010103), Elk-Nokasippi (07010104), Long Prairie (07010108), Platte-Spunk (07010201), Clearwater-Elk (07010203), Twin Cities (07010206), Rum (07010207), Upper Minnesota (07020001), Lac Qui Parle (07020003), Hawk-Yellow Medicine (07020004), Redwood (07020006), Middle Minnesota (07020007), Cottonwood (07020008), Blue Earth (07020009), Lower Minnesota (07020012), Upper St. Croix (07030001), Namekagon (07030002), Snake (07030004), Lower St. Croix (07030005), Rush-Vermillion (07040001), Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003), Zumbro (07040004), Trempealeau (07040005), La Crosse-Pine (07040006), Black (07040007), Root (07040008), Upper Chippewa (07050001), Lower Chippewa (07050005), Eau Claire (07050006), Red Cedar (07050007), Coon-Yellow (07060001), Upper Iowa (07060002), Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003), Turkey (07060004), Apple-Plum (07060005), Maquoketa (07060006), Upper Wisconsin (07070001), Lake Dubay (07070002), Castle Rock (07070003), Baraboo (07070004), Lower Wisconsin (07070005), Kickapoo (07070006), Copperas-Duck (07080101), Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102), Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103), Flint-Henderson (07080104), South Skunk (07080105), North Skunk (07080106), Skunk (07080107), Upper Cedar (07080201), Shell Rock (07080202), Winnebago (07080203), West Fork Cedar (07080204), Middle Cedar (07080205), Lower Cedar (07080206), Upper Iowa (07080207), Middle Iowa (07080208), Lower Iowa (07080209), Upper Rock (07090001), Crawfish (07090002), Pecatonica (07090003), Sugar (07090004), Lower Rock (07090005), Kishwaukee (07090006), Green (07090007), Des Moines Headwaters (07100001), Upper Des Moines (07100002), East Fork Des Moines (07100003), Middle Des Moines (07100004), Boone (07100005), North Raccoon (07100006), South Raccoon (07100007), Lake Red Rock (07100008), Lower Des Moines (07100009), Bear-Wyaconda (07110001), North Fabius (07110002), South Fabius (07110003), The Sny (07110004), North Fork Salt (07110005), South Fork Salt (07110006), Salt (07110007), Cuivre (07110008), Peruque-Piasa (07110009), Kankakee (07120001)*, Iroquois (07120002), Chicago (07120003)*, Des Plaines (07120004), Upper Illinois (07120005), Upper Fox (07120006), Lower Fox (07120007), Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001), Vermilion (07130002), Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003), Mackinaw (07130004), Spoon (07130005), Upper Sangamon (07130006), South Fork Sangamon (07130007), Lower Sangamon (07130008)*, Salt (07130009), La Moine (07130010), Lower Illinois (07130011), Macoupin (07130012), Cahokia-Joachim (07140101), Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105), Upper Kaskaskia (07140201), Middle Kaskaskia (07140202), Shoal (07140203), Lower Kaskaskia (07140204)*
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100)+
09 Bois De Sioux (09020101), Upper Red (09020104), Elm-Marsh (09020107), Eastern Wild Rice (09020108), Sandhill-Wilson (09020301), Red Lakes (09020302), Red Lake (09020303), Clearwater (09020305), Turtle (09020307), Pembina (09020313)
10 Ponca (10150001), Upper Niobrara (10150003), Middle Niobrara (10150004), Snake (10150005), Keya Paha (10150006), Lower Niobrara (10150007), Lower James (10160011), Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101), Upper Big Sioux (10170202), Lower Big Sioux (10170203), Rock (10170204), Upper North Platte (10180002), Medicine Bow (10180004), Little Medicine Bow (10180005), Sweetwater (10180006), Middle North Platte-Casper (10180007), Glendo Reservoir (10180008), Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff (10180009), Lower Laramie (10180011), Horse (10180012), Pumpkin (10180013), Lower North Platte (10180014), Upper South Platte (10190002), Middle South Platte-Cherry Creek (10190003), St. Vrain (10190005), Big Thompson (10190006), Cache La Poudre (10190007), Lone Tree-Owl (10190008), Crow (10190009), Middle South Platte-Sterling (10190012), Pawnee (10190014), Upper Lodgepole (10190015), Lower Lodgepole (10190016), Lower South Platte (10190018), Middle Platte-Buffalo (10200101), Middle Platte-Prairie (10200103), Lower Platte-Shell (10200201), Lower Platte (10200202), Upper Middle Loup (10210001), Dismal (10210002), Lower Middle Loup (10210003), Lower North Loup (10210007), Calamus (10210008), Cedar (10210010), Upper Elkhorn (10220001), Lower Elkhorn (10220003), Blackbird-Soldier (10230001), Floyd (10230002), Little Sioux (10230003), Monona-Harrison Ditch (10230004), Maple (10230005), Big Papillion-Mosquito (10230006), Boyer (10230007), Keg-Weeping Water (10240001), West Nishnabotna (10240002), East Nishnabotna (10240003), Nishnabotna (10240004), Tarkio-Wolf (10240005)+, South Fork Big Nemaha (10240007)+, Big Nemaha (10240008)+, West Nodaway (10240009), Nodaway (10240010), Independence-Sugar (10240011)+, Platte (10240012), One Hundred and Two (10240013), Middle Republican (10250016)+, Lower Republican (10250017)+, Delaware (10270103)+, Lower Kansas (10270104)+, Lower Big Blue (10270205)+, Upper Grand (10280101), Thompson (10280102), Lower Grand (10280103), Upper Chariton (10280201), Lower Chariton (10280202), Little Chariton (10280203), Lower Missouri-Crooked (10300101), Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102), Lower Missouri (10300200)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
Help
Reproduction Comments: Spawns in late spring and summer. Eggs hatch in 1-2 days. Sexually mature at age 1 or 2 (Becker 1983).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool
Habitat Comments: Runs and pools of shallow open headwaters, creeks, and small to medium rivers with bottom predominantly sand, often overlain with silt (Lee et al. 1980, Page and Burr 1991); sometimes also in lakes. Channelization of prairie streams has increased favorable habitat in some areas. Spawns probably in mid-water, with eggs drifting downstream (Lee et al. 1980).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats mainly insects, but also bottom ooze and plant material (Lee et al. 1980), mostly taken from bottom (Becker 1983).
Length: 7 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Group Name: Small Cyprinids

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat. For some species (e.g., slender chub), an impoundment may constitute a barrier. For others (e.g., flame chub) a stream larger than 4th order may be a barrier.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. In some species, individuals may migrate variable distances between spawning areas and nonspawning habitats.

Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) for cyprinids are arbitrary but reflect the presumption that movements and appropriate separation distances generally should increase with fish size. Hence small, medium, and large cyprinids, respectively, have increasingly large separation distances. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 31Aug1993
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Andersen, M.D. and B. Heidel. 2011. HUC-based species range maps. Prepared by Wyoming Natural Diversity Database for use in the pilot WISDOM application operational from inception to yet-to-be-determined date of update of tool.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. Univ. Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1052 pp.

  • CROSS, F.B., AND J.T. COLLINS. 1975. FISHES IN KANSAS. UNIV. KANS. MUS.NAT.HIST., PUB.ED.SERIES NO.3.

  • CROSS, F.B.1967.HANDBOOK OF FISHES IN KANSAS. E. RAYMOND HALL.UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, LAWRENCE, KANSAS.

  • Cooper, E.L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania. Penn State Univ. Press, University Park, PA.

  • Eaton, S.W., R.J. Nemecek and M.M. Kozubowski. 1982. Fishes of the Allegheny River above Kinzua Dam. New York Fish and Game J. 29(2):189-198.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • General Status, Environment Canada. 2015. Manitoba fish species and subnational ranks proposed by DFO.

  • Mayden, R. L. 1989. Phylogenetic studies of North American minnows, with emphasis on the genus Cyprinella (Teleostei: Cypriniformes). University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Miscellaneous Publication (80):1-189.

  • Natural Resources Commission. 2014. Roster of Indiana Animals, Insects, and Plants That Are Extirpated, Endangered, Threatened or Rare. Information Bulletin #2 (Sixth Amendment. 20pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • PFLIEGER,W.L.1975. THE FISHES OF MISSOURI. SULLIVAN, MARK. MISSOURI DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION.

  • PLATT, D.R. 1974. VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE SAND PRAIRIE NATURAL HISTORY RESERVATION, HARVEY COUNTY, KANSAS. TRANS. KANSAS ACAD. SCI. 76(1): 51-73.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Raley, M. E., and R. M. Wood. 2001. Molecular systematics of members of the Notropis dorsalis species group (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae). Copeia 2001:638-645.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman. 1979. Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa. 966 pp.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

  • Smith, C.L. 1985. The Inland Fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY. 522pp.

  • Underhill, J.C. and D.J. Merrell. 1959. Intra-specific variation in the bigmouth shiner, Notropis dorsalis. American Midland Naturalist 61(1):133-147.

  • Werner, R.G. 1980. Freshwater fishes of New York State. N.Y.: Syracuse University Press. 186 pp.

  • Wiley, E. O., and T. A. Titus. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships among members of the Hybopsis dorsalis species group (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas 152:1-18.

  • Woodling, J. 1985. Colorado's Little Fish: A Guide to the Minnows and Other Lesser Known Fishes in the State of Colorado. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Denver.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Baxter, G. T., and J. R. Simon. 1970. Wyoming fishes. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Cheyenne, Wyoming, 168 pp.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Cross, F. B., and J. T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. Second Edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. xvii + 315 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1983. Fishes of New York (maps and printout of a draft section on scarce fishes of New York). Unpublished draft.

  • Smith, C. L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, New York, xi + 522 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2018.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2018 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2018. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.