Notropis chalybaeus - (Cope, 1867)
Ironcolor Shiner
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Notropis chalybaeus (Cope, 1867) (TSN 163403)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.100254
Element Code: AFCJB28310
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Minnows and Carps
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Notropis
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Notropis chalybaeus
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 06Apr2000
Global Status Last Changed: 06Apr2000
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Large range in the lowlands of the eastern and central U.S.; many disjunct populations, especially in the Midwest, where declines and extirpations have occurred as a result of stream siltation and water pollution.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4 (18Feb2000)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SH), Arkansas (S3), Delaware (S1), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S3), Illinois (S2), Indiana (S4), Iowa (SX), Louisiana (S3), Maryland (S1), Michigan (S1), Mississippi (S1), Missouri (S1), New Jersey (S1), New York (S1), North Carolina (S2S3), Oklahoma (S1), Pennsylvania (S1), South Carolina (SNR), Texas (S3), Virginia (S3), Wisconsin (SX)

Other Statuses

American Fisheries Society Status: Vulnerable (01Aug2008)

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Atlantic, Gulf, and Mississippi basins, in lowlands from Hudson River, New York, to Pearl River, Louisiana, and Sabine River, Texas-Louisiana; north in Former Mississippi Embayment (on west side of Mississippi River only) to southeastern Missouri. Disjunct populations in San Marcos River, Texas; Illinois River drainage, Illinois and Indiana; Cedar River, Iowa (extirpated); Wisconsin River and Lake Winnebago system, Wisconsin; and Lake Michigan drainage, southern Michigan and northern Indiana.

Common in certain parts of New York (Smith 1985). Apparently extirpated from Pennsylvania (Cooper 1983). Generally rare and uncommon in Virginia (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994). Uncommon in North Carolina (F. Rhode, W. Palmer). Relatively common in South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida (J. Crane, L. Hartle, C. Gilbert). Uncommon in Arkansas and endangered in Oklahoma (Robison 1974, 1977). Locally abundant but geographically restricted in Missouri (Pflieger1997). Rare in Michigan and probably extirpated from Iowa and Wisconsin (Becker 1983). Rated as rare or extremely restricted in Illinois (Smith 1979). Recently rare in Alabama (S. Mettee). Infrequently collected and never abundant in Louisiana (S. Mettee, N. Douglas). Now rare in Mississippi (Albanese and Slack 1998).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of subpopulations and locations.

Population Size: 10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but relatively large.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Decline in north is due to siltation, increased turbidity, and pollution (Herkert 1992). In Mississippi, habitat degradation may be driving small populations to extinction (Albanese and Slack 1998).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Has declined in the northern part of the range (Herkert 1992). In Mississippi, surveys of 11 historical sites and 13 additional sites in close proximity to historical sites yielded no N. chalybaeus; three specimens were found in one new locality (Albanese and Slack 1998). Many populations in Missouri have disappeared in the last 30 years, and the continued survival of this species in Missouri is doubtful (Pflieger 1997). Regarded as vulnerable by Warren et al. (2000).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Atlantic, Gulf, and Mississippi basins, in lowlands from Hudson River, New York, to Pearl River, Louisiana, and Sabine River, Texas-Louisiana; north in Former Mississippi Embayment (on west side of Mississippi River only) to southeastern Missouri. Disjunct populations in San Marcos River, Texas; Illinois River drainage, Illinois and Indiana; Cedar River, Iowa (extirpated); Wisconsin River and Lake Winnebago system, Wisconsin; and Lake Michigan drainage, southern Michigan and northern Indiana.

Common in certain parts of New York (Smith 1985). Apparently extirpated from Pennsylvania (Cooper 1983). Generally rare and uncommon in Virginia (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994). Uncommon in North Carolina (F. Rhode, W. Palmer). Relatively common in South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida (J. Crane, L. Hartle, C. Gilbert). Uncommon in Arkansas and endangered in Oklahoma (Robison 1974, 1977). Locally abundant but geographically restricted in Missouri (Pflieger1997). Rare in Michigan and probably extirpated from Iowa and Wisconsin (Becker 1983). Rated as rare or extremely restricted in Illinois (Smith 1979). Recently rare in Alabama (S. Mettee). Infrequently collected and never abundant in Louisiana (S. Mettee, N. Douglas). Now rare in Mississippi (Albanese and Slack 1998).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, DE, FL, GA, IAextirpated, IL, IN, LA, MD, MI, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OK, PA, SC, TX, VA, WIextirpated

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
DE Kent (10001)*, Sussex (10005)
GA Baker (13007)*, Ben Hill (13017), Bulloch (13031), Burke (13033), Calhoun (13037), Candler (13043)*, Coffee (13069), Dooly (13093), Dougherty (13095), Emanuel (13107), Glascock (13125), Houston (13153), Jasper (13159), Jeff Davis (13161), Jefferson (13163), Jenkins (13165), Johnson (13167), Miller (13201), Richmond (13245)*, Screven (13251), Telfair (13271)*, Treutlen (13283), Washington (13303)
IL Fulton (17057), Grundy (17063)*, Iroquois (17075), Kankakee (17091), Mason (17125), Piatt (17147), Tazewell (17179)*, Will (17197)*
MD Caroline (24011), Charles (24017), Queen Annes (24035), Wicomico (24045), Worcester (24047)*
MI Branch (26023)*, Calhoun (26025)*, Cass (26027)*, St. Joseph (26149)*
MO Dunklin (29069), Mississippi (29133), New Madrid (29143), Pemiscot (29155)*, Scott (29201)*
MS Hancock (28045)*, Harrison (28047)*, Holmes (28051)*, Jackson (28059), Lamar (28073), Marion (28091)*, Pearl River (28109)
NJ Cumberland (34011), Monmouth (34025), Salem (34033)
NY Rockland (36087)*, Sullivan (36105)
OK McCurtain (40089)
PA Bucks (42017)*, Monroe (42089), Montgomery (42091)*, Northampton (42095)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Rondout (02020007)+*, Hackensack-Passaic (02030103)+*, Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead (02040104)+, Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105)+, Crosswicks-Neshaminy (02040201)+, Lower Delaware (02040202), Schuylkill (02040203)+, Cohansey-Maurice (02040206)+, Broadkill-Smyrna (02040207)+, Mullica-Toms (02040301)+, Great Egg Harbor (02040302), Chincoteague (02040303)+, Choptank (02060005)+, Nanticoke (02060008), Chincoteague (02060010), Lower Potomac (02070011)+, Great Wicomico-Piankatank (02080102), Lower Rappahannock (02080104), Western Lower Delmarva (02080109)+, Pokomoke-Western Lower Delmarva (02080111)+*, Lower James (02080206), Hampton Roads (02080208)
03 Lower Roanoke (03010107), Nottoway (03010201), Blackwater (03010202), Ghowan (03010203), Meheriin (03010204), Albemarle (03010205), Upper Tar (03020101), Fishing (03020102), Lower Tar (03020103), Pamlico (03020104), Bogue-Core Sounds (03020106), Upper Neuse (03020201), Middle Neuse (03020202), Contentnea (03020203), Lower Neuse (03020204), New (03030001), Upper Cape Fear (03030004), Lower Cape Fear (03030005), Black (03030006), Northeast Cape Fear (03030007), Lower Pee Dee (03040201), Lynches (03040202), Lumber (03040203), Little Pee Dee (03040204), Black (03040205), Waccamaw (03040206), Carolina Coastal-Sampit (03040207), Lake Marion (03050111), Cooper (03050201), South Carolina Coastal (03050202), North Fork Edisto (03050203), South Fork Edisto (03050204), Edisto (03050205), Four Hole Swamp (03050206), Salkehatchie (03050207), Broad-St. Helena (03050208), Middle Savannah (03060106)+, Brier (03060108)+, Lower Savannah (03060109)+*, Upper Ogeechee (03060201)+, Lower Ogeechee (03060202)+, Canoochee (03060203)+, Upper Oconee (03070101)+, Lower Oconee (03070102)+, Lower Ocmulgee (03070104)+, Little Ocmulgee (03070105)+, Altamaha (03070106)+, Ohoopee (03070107)+, Satilla (03070201)+, St. Marys (03070204), Nassau (03070205), Upper St. Johns (03080101), Oklawaha (03080102), Lower St. Johns (03080103), Daytona - St. Augustine (03080201), Kissimmee (03090101)*, Northern Okeechobee Inflow (03090102), Western Okeechobee Inflow (03090103), Lake Okeechobee (03090201)*, Peace (03100101), Myakka (03100102), Manatee (03100202), Little Manatee (03100203), Alafia (03100204), Hillsborough (03100205), Tampa Bay (03100206), Crystal-Pithlachascotee (03100207), Withlacoochee (03100208), Waccasassa (03110101), Econfina-Steinhatchee (03110102), Aucilla (03110103), Alapaha (03110202), withlacoochee (03110203), Lower Suwannee (03110205), Santa Fe (03110206), Apalachee Bay-St. Marks (03120001), Upper Ochlockonee (03120002), Lower Ochlockonee (03120003), Middle Flint (03130006), Lower Flint (03130008)+, Ichawaynochaway (03130009)+, Spring (03130010)+, Apalachicola (03130011), Chipola (03130012), New (03130013), St. Andrew-St. Joseph Bays (03140101), Yellow (03140103), Blackwater (03140104), Perdido (03140106), Upper Choctawhatchee (03140201), Lower Choctawhatchee (03140203), Lower Conecuh (03140304), Escambia (03140305), Lower Alabama (03150204), Lower Tambigbee (03160203), Mobile - Tensaw (03160204), Escatawpa (03170008)+, Mississippi Coastal (03170009)+, Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004)+
04 Upper Fox (04030201)*, Wolf (04030202)*, St. Joseph (04050001)+, Kalamazoo (04050003)
05 Eel (05120104), Tippecanoe (05120106)
07 Lower Cedar (07080206)*, Kankakee (07120001)+, Iroquois (07120002)+, Des Plaines (07120004)*, Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003)+, Upper Sangamon (07130006)+, Lower Sangamon (07130008)+
08 New Madrid-St. Johns (08020201)+, Lower St. Francis (08020203)+, Little River Ditches (08020204)+, Big (08020304), Lower Arkansas (08020401), Upper Yazoo (08030206)+*, Lower Ouachita-Bayou De Loutre (08040202), Bayou Bartholomew (08040205), Bayou D'arbonne (08040206), Lower Ouachita (08040207), Dugdemona (08040303), Little (08040304), Tensas (08050003), Tangipahoa (08070205)*, Bayou Teche (08080102)
11 Upper White-Village (11010013), Upper Little (11140107)+, Mountain Fork (11140108)+*, Lower Little (11140109)+, Loggy Bayou (11140203), Red Chute (11140204), Bodcau Bayou (11140205), Lower Red-Lake Iatt (11140207), Saline Bayou (11140208), Cross Bayou (11140304), Caddo Lake (11140306)
12 Toledo Bend Reservoir (12010004), Cibolo (12100304)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A two-inch fish (shiner).
Reproduction Comments: Spawns April-September (mostly April-July) in Florida, possibly late May to July in north. Eggs hatch in about 2 days. Sexually mature in 1 year.
Ecology Comments: A schooling species.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Pools and slow runs of low gradient, small acidic creeks and small rivers with sandy substrate. In clear well-vegetated water. Also in soft-bottomed swamps in Illinois. Eggs sink to bottom of sand-bottomed pools.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats mainly small aquatic and terrestrial insects; ingested plant material is not digested (Becker 1983, Lee et al. 1980).
Length: 6 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Small Cyprinids

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat. For some species (e.g., slender chub), an impoundment may constitute a barrier. For others (e.g., flame chub) a stream larger than 4th order may be a barrier.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. In some species, individuals may migrate variable distances between spawning areas and nonspawning habitats.

Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) for cyprinids are arbitrary but reflect the presumption that movements and appropriate separation distances generally should increase with fish size. Hence small, medium, and large cyprinids, respectively, have increasingly large separation distances. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 14Dec1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries. 2005. Conserving Alabama's wildlife: a comprehensive strategy. Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries. Montgomery, Alabama. 303 pages. [Available online at http://www.dcnr.state.al.us/research-mgmt/cwcs/outline.cfm ]

  • Albanese, B., and W. T. Slack. 1998. Status of the ironcolor shiner, Notropis chalybaeus, in Mississippi. Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings (37):1-6.

  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • Anderson, Allison A., C. Hubbs, K. O. Winemiller, and R. J. Edwards. 1995. Texas freshwater fish assemblages following three decades of environmental change. The Southwest Naturalist 40(3):314-321.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. Univ. Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1052 pp.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 736 pages.

  • Burr, B.M., et al. 1989. Reproductive potential and habitat of the ironcolor shiner, NOTROPIS CHALYBAEUS, in Illinois. Unpubl. report submitted to the Ill. Endangered Species Protection Board, Springfield, IL. 27pp.

  • Cooper, E.L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania. Penn State Univ. Press, University Park, PA.

  • Douglas, Neil H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's publ. div. Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Dunn, Joel. 2000-05-11. Memorandum to Natural Heritage Network Zoologists regarding Fish Changes.

  • Herkert, J. R., editor. 1992. Endangered and threatened species of Illinois: status and distribution. Vol. 2: Animals. Illinois Endangered Species Protection Board. iv + 142 pp.

  • Jelks, H. L., S. J. Walsh, N. M. Burkhead, S. Contreras-Balderas, E. Díaz-Pardo, D. A. Hendrickson, J. Lyons, N. E. Mandrak, F. McCormick, J. S. Nelson, S. P. Platania, B. A. Porter, C. B. Renaud, J. Jacobo Schmitter-Soto, E. B. Taylor, and M.L. Warren, Jr. 2008. Conservation status of imperiled North American freshwater and diadromous fishes. Fisheries 33(8):372-407.

  • Keene, C.I., J.L. Platt and C.L. Smith. The occurrence and distribution of the ironcolor shiner (Notropis chalybaeus) in the Bashakill Wetlands of Sullivan County, New York.

  • Marshall, N. 1947. Studies on the life history and ecology of Notropis chalybaeus (Cope). Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 9(3-4):163-188.

  • Mettee, M.F., P. E. O'Neil, and J.M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Inc., Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pages.

  • Mirarchi, R. E., J. T. Garner, M. F. Mettee, and P.E. O'Neil, editors. 2004. Alabama wildlife. Volume 2. Imperiled aquatic mollusks and fishes. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 255 pages

  • Mirarchi, R.E., M.A. Bailey, J.T. Garner, T.M. Haggerty, T.L. Best, M.F. Mettee, and P. O'Neil, editors. 2004. Alabama Wildlife. Volume 4. Conservation and management recommendations for imperiled wildlife. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 221 pages.

  • Mirarchi, R.E., editor. 2004. Alabama Wildlife. Volume 1. A checklist of vertebrates and selected invertebrates: aquatic mollusks, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 209 pages.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Sixth edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 29. 386 pages.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes, North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA. 432pp.

  • Page, LM, H.Espinoza-Perez, L.Findley, C.Gilbert, R. Lea, N. Mandrak, R.Mayden and J.Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico, 7th edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1997a. The fishes of Missouri. Revised edition. Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City. vi + 372 pp.

  • RAESLY, R.L. 1995. STATUS AND DISTRIBUTION OF FRESHWATER FISHES ALONG THE WESTERN SHORE OF THE CHESAPEAKE BAY. RESEARCH PROJECT: 1995 SMALL PROCUREMENT CONTRACT #17451. FINAL REPORT SUBMITTED 11 MARCH 1996.

  • ROSS, STEPHEN T. 1996. INLAND FISHES OF MISSISSIPPI. SELECTED SPECIES ACCOUNTS. COAUTHORED WITH W.M. BRENNEMAM, W.T. SLACK, M.T. O'CONNELL, AND T.L. PETERSON. ILLUSTRATED BY D.G. ROSS. DRAFT COPY.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. 1974. Threatened fishes of Arkansas. Proceedings of the Arkansas Academy of Science 28:59-63.

  • Robison, H. W. 1977. Distribution, habitat notes, and status of the ironcolor shiner, Notropis chalybaeus Cope, in Arkansas. Proceedings of the Arkansas Academy of Science 31:92-94.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, New York, xi + 522 pp.

  • Smith, C.L. 1985. The Inland Fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY. 522pp.

  • Warren, M. L., Jr., B. M. Burr, S. J. Walsh, H. L. Bart, Jr., R. C. Cashner, D. A. Etnier, B. J. Freeman, B. R. Kuhajda, R. L. Mayden, H. W. Robison, S. T. Ross, and W. C. Starnes. 2000. Diversity, distribution, and conservation status of the native freshwater fishes of the southern United States. Fisheries 25(10):7-31.

  • Werner, R.G. 1980. Freshwater fishes of New York State. N.Y.: Syracuse University Press. 186 pp.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Douglas, N. H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Jenkins, R. E., and N. M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. xxiii + 1079 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Marcy, B. C., Jr., D. E. Fletcher, F. D. Martin, M. H. Paller, and M.J.M. Reichert. 2005. Fishes of the middle Savannah River basin. University of Georgia Press, Athens. xiv + 460 pp.

  • Menhinick, E. F. 1991. The freshwater fishes of North Carolina. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission. 227 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1983. Fishes of New York (maps and printout of a draft section on scarce fishes of New York). Unpublished draft.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • State Natural Heritage Data Centers. 1996a. Aggregated element occurrence data from all U.S. state natural heritage programs, including the Tennessee Valley Authority, Navajo Nation and the District of Columbia. Science Division, The Nature Conservancy.

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NatureServe. 2018. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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