Notropis buchanani - Meek, 1896
Ghost Shiner
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Notropis buchanani Meek, 1896 (TSN 163414)
French Common Names: méné fantôme
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.104871
Element Code: AFCJB28230
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Minnows and Carps
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Notropis
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Notropis buchanani
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 16Sep1996
Global Status Last Changed: 16Sep1996
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Sep1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N3 (26Dec2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S2), Arkansas (S4), Illinois (S3), Indiana (S3), Iowa (S3), Kansas (S5), Kentucky (S4S5), Louisiana (S4), Minnesota (SX), Mississippi (S4), Missouri (S2), Ohio (S4), Oklahoma (S4), Pennsylvania (S1), Tennessee (S4), Texas (S5), West Virginia (S3), Wisconsin (SX)
Canada Ontario (S2)

Other Statuses

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Not at Risk (01Apr1993)
Comments on COSEWIC: Reason for Designation: First recorded in Canada in 1979, this species is found in the Lake St Clair and Lake Huron drainage systems in southwestern Ontario. Populations appear to be stable.

Status History: Designated Not at Risk in April 1993. More recently (2015) considered a low priority candidate for re-assessment.

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Mississippi River basin from Pennsylvania to southeastern Nebraska, eastern Kansas, and western Oklahoma, and from Minnesota and Wisconsin south to northern Alabama and Louisiana; Gulf Slope drainages from Calcasieu River, Louisiana, to Rio Grande, Texas and Mexico; common in western part of range, absent in Ozarks, uncommon to rare in east (Page and Burr 1991). Recently recorded in southwestern Ontario, where common in suitable habitat (Holm and Houston 1993; Holm and Houston, 1993, Can. Field-Nat. 107:440-445).

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of subpopulations and locations.

Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but relatively large.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Localized threats may exist, but on a range-wide scale no major threats are known.

Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable or slowly declining.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: Mississippi River basin from Pennsylvania to southeastern Nebraska, eastern Kansas, and western Oklahoma, and from Minnesota and Wisconsin south to northern Alabama and Louisiana; Gulf Slope drainages from Calcasieu River, Louisiana, to Rio Grande, Texas and Mexico; common in western part of range, absent in Ozarks, uncommon to rare in east (Page and Burr 1991). Recently recorded in southwestern Ontario, where common in suitable habitat (Holm and Houston 1993; Holm and Houston, 1993, Can. Field-Nat. 107:440-445).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MNextirpated, MO, MS, OH, OK, PA, TN, TX, WIextirpated, WV
Canada ON

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IA Clayton (19043)*
MO Adair (29001)*, Andrew (29003), Atchison (29005)*, Audrain (29007), Barton (29011), Bates (29013), Boone (29019), Buchanan (29021)*, Callaway (29027), Cape Girardeau (29031), Carroll (29033), Cass (29037)*, Cedar (29039)*, Chariton (29041), Clark (29045)*, Cole (29051), Cooper (29053), Franklin (29071), Gasconade (29073), Henry (29083)*, Hickory (29085)*, Howard (29089), Jackson (29095)*, Jasper (29097), Jefferson (29099)*, Lafayette (29107)*, Lewis (29111)*, Lincoln (29113), Marion (29127), Miller (29131)*, Moniteau (29135), Monroe (29137), Montgomery (29139), Morgan (29141), Nodaway (29147), Osage (29151), Perry (29157)*, Pettis (29159), Pike (29163), Polk (29167)*, Ralls (29173), Ray (29177)*, Saline (29195), Scott (29201)*, Shelby (29205), St. Charles (29183), St. Clair (29185)*, St. Louis (29189), St. Louis (city) (29510), Ste. Genevieve (29186)*, Vernon (29217)*, Warren (29219)
OH Adams (39001), Belmont (39013)*, Brown (39015), Clermont (39025), Gallia (39053), Henry (39069), Jefferson (39081)*, Lucas (39095), Meigs (39105)*, Monroe (39111)*, Morgan (39115), Muskingum (39119), Washington (39167), Wood (39173)
PA Allegheny (42003)
WV Fayette (54019)*, Kanawha (54039)*, Marshall (54051)*, Mason (54053), Monongalia (54061), Putnam (54079)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
04 Lower Maumee (04100009)+
05 Upper Monongahela (05020003)+, Lower Monongahela (05020005)+, Upper Ohio (05030101)+, Upper Ohio-Wheeling (05030106), Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201)+*, Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202)+, Little Kanawha (05030203), Hocking (05030204)*, Muskingum (05040004)+, Upper Kanawha (05050006)+, Lower Kanawha (05050008)+, Raccoon-Symmes (05090101)+, Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103), Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201)+, Little Miami (05090202)+, Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203), Licking (05100101), North Fork Kentucky (05100201), South Fork Kentucky (05100203), Upper Kentucky (05100204), Lower Kentucky (05100205), Upper Green (05110001), Middle Green (05110003), Rough (05110004), Lower Green (05110005), Lower Wabash (05120113), Little Wabash (05120114), Skillet (05120115)*, Lower White (05120202), Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103), Stones (05130203), Lower Cumberland (05130205), Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Salt (05140102), Rolling Fork (05140103), Blue-Sinking (05140104), Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201), Highland-Pigeon (05140202), Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203), Saline (05140204), Lower Ohio (05140206)
06 Upper Clinch (06010205)*, Powell (06010206)*, Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001), Guntersville Lake (06030001), Wheeler Lake (06030002), Pickwick Lake (06030005), Bear (06030006), Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001), Lower Duck (06040003), Kentucky Lake (06040005)
07 Rush-Vermillion (07040001), Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003), La Crosse-Pine (07040006), Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003)+, Apple-Plum (07060005), Lower Wisconsin (07070005)+*, Copperas-Duck (07080101), Flint-Henderson (07080104), Bear-Wyaconda (07110001)+*, South Fabius (07110003)+, The Sny (07110004)+, North Fork Salt (07110005)+, South Fork Salt (07110006)+, Salt (07110007)+, Cuivre (07110008)+, Peruque-Piasa (07110009)+, Kankakee (07120001), Iroquois (07120002), Upper Illinois (07120005), Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001)*, Lower Illinois (07130011)*, Cahokia-Joachim (07140101)+, Meramec (07140102)+, Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105)+, Cache (07140108)*, Lower Kaskaskia (07140204)
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100), Lower Mississippi-Helena (08020100), Lower White-Bayou Des Arc (08020301), Cache (08020302)*, Lower White (08020303), Big (08020304), Lower Arkansas (08020401), Lower Mississippi-Greenville (08030100), Little Tallahatchie (08030201), Yalobusha (08030205), Upper Yazoo (08030206), Big Sunflower (08030207), Lower Ouachita-Smackover (08040201), Lower Ouachita-Bayou De Loutre (08040202), Lower Saline (08040204)*, Bayou Bartholomew (08040205), Lower Ouachita (08040207), Lower Red (08040301), Boeuf (08050001), Bayou Macon (08050002), Lower Mississippi-Natchez (08060100), Upper Big Black (08060201), Lower Big Black (08060202), Bayou Pierre (08060203), Homochitto (08060205), Buffalo (08060206), Lower Mississippi-Baton Rouge (08070100)*, Bayou Teche (08080102)*
10 Tarkio-Wolf (10240005)*, Little Nemaha (10240006), Nodaway (10240010)+, Independence-Sugar (10240011)+, Upper Kansas (10270101), Middle Kansas (10270102), Lower Kansas (10270104), Lower Grand (10280103)+, Lower Chariton (10280202)+*, Little Chariton (10280203)+*, Upper Marais Des Cygnes (10290101), Lower Marais Des Cygnes (10290102)+, Little Osage (10290103)+, Marmaton (10290104), Harry S. Missouri (10290105)+, Sac (10290106)+*, Pomme De Terre (10290107)+*, South Grand (10290108)+*, Lower Osage (10290111)+, Lower Gasconade (10290203)+, Lower Missouri-Crooked (10300101)+, Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102)+, Lamine (10300103)+, Blackwater (10300104)+, Lower Missouri (10300200)+
11 Middle Arkansas-Slate (11030013), Ninnescah (11030016), Lower Walnut River (11030018), Lower Cimarron (11050003), Kaw Lake (11060001), Chikaskia (11060005), Black Bear-Red Rock (11060006), Upper Verdigris (11070101), Fall (11070102), Middle Verdigris (11070103), Elk (11070104), Lower Verdigris (11070105), Caney (11070106), Bird (11070107), Neosho headwaters (11070201), Lower Cottonwood (11070203), Upper Neosho (11070204), Middle Neosho (11070205), Lake O' the Cherokees (11070206), Spring (11070207)+, Lower Neosho (11070209), Lower Canadian-Walnut (11090202), Little (11090203), Lower Canadian (11090204), Lower North Canadian (11100302), Deep Fork (11100303), Polecat-Snake (11110101), Dirty-Greenleaf (11110102), Illinois (11110103), Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104), Poteau (11110105), Frog-Mulberry (11110201), Dardanelle Reservoir (11110202), Lake Conway-Point Remove (11110203), Petit Jean (11110204), Lower Arkansas-Maumelle (11110207), Lower Salt Fork Red (11120202), Lower North Fork Red (11120303), Farmers-Mud (11130201), Cache (11130202), West Cache (11130203), Wichita (11130206), Northern Beaver (11130208), Lake Texoma (11130210), Upper Washita (11130302), Middle Washita (11130303), Lower Washita (11130304), Bois D'arc-Island (11140101), Blue (11140102), Muddy Boggy (11140103), Clear Boggy (11140104), Kiamichi (11140105), Pecan-Waterhole (11140106), Upper Little (11140107), Mountain Fork (11140108), Lower Little (11140109), Mckinney-Posten Bayous (11140201), Middle Red-Coushatta (11140202), Lower Red-Lake Iatt (11140207), Lower Sulphur (11140302)
12 Middle Sabine (12010002), Toledo Bend Reservoir (12010004), Lower Sabine (12010005), Middle Neches (12020002), Lower Neches (12020003), Lower Angelina (12020005), Pine Island Bayou (12020007), Sabine Lake (12040201), Middle Brazos-Millers (12060101), Paint (12060103), Lower Clear Fork Brazos (12060104), Middle Brazos-Palo Pinto (12060201), Middle Brazos-Lake Whitney (12060202), Bosque (12060203), North Bosque (12060204), Lower Brazos-Little Brazos (12070101), Navasota (12070103), Little (12070204), South Concho (12090102), Austin-Travis Lakes (12090205), Lower Colorado (12090302), Upper San Antonio (12100301), Lower San Antonio (12100303), Cibolo (12100304), West Matagorda Bay (12100402), Lower Nueces (12110111), South Laguna Madre (12110208)
13 Amistad Reservoir (13040212), Elm-Sycamore (13080001), San Ambrosia-Santa Isabel (13080002), International Falcon Reservoir (13080003), Los Olmos (13090001), Lower Rio Grande (13090002)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
Help
Reproduction Comments: Spawns from June to August in Wisconsin, early May to mid- August in Kansas. Probably first spawns at age of 2 years.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, CREEK, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Pool
Habitat Comments: Low-gradient sections of large creeks and small to large rivers having moderate flow and moderately clear to turbid water. In larger pools and protected backwaters without noticeable current. Bottom may vary from silt/detritus to clean gravel.
Length: 6 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Small Cyprinids

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat. For some species (e.g., slender chub), an impoundment may constitute a barrier. For others (e.g., flame chub) a stream larger than 4th order may be a barrier.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. In some species, individuals may migrate variable distances between spawning areas and nonspawning habitats.

Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) for cyprinids are arbitrary but reflect the presumption that movements and appropriate separation distances generally should increase with fish size. Hence small, medium, and large cyprinids, respectively, have increasingly large separation distances. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 14Feb1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries. 2005. Conserving Alabama's wildlife: a comprehensive strategy. Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries. Montgomery, Alabama. 303 pages. [Available online at http://www.dcnr.state.al.us/research-mgmt/cwcs/outline.cfm ]

  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • Anderson, Allison A., C. Hubbs, K. O. Winemiller, and R. J. Edwards. 1995. Texas freshwater fish assemblages following three decades of environmental change. The Southwest Naturalist 40(3):314-321.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. Univ. Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1052 pp.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 736 pages.

  • CROSS, F.B., AND J.T. COLLINS. 1975. FISHES IN KANSAS. UNIV. KANS. MUS.NAT.HIST., PUB.ED.SERIES NO.3.

  • CROSS, F.B.1967.HANDBOOK OF FISHES IN KANSAS. E. RAYMOND HALL.UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, LAWRENCE, KANSAS.

  • Douglas, Neil H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's publ. div. Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • EDWARDS, ROBERT J. AND SALVADOR CONTRERAS-BALDERAS. 1991. HISTORICAL CHANGES IN THE ICHTHIOFAUNA OF THE LOWER RIO GRANDE (RIO BRAVO DEL NORTE), TEXAS AND MEXICO. SOUTHWEST. NAT. 36(2):201-212.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • Holdm, E. and J. Houston. 1991. Status of the Ghost Shiner, Notropis buchanani, in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Ontario. 13 pp.

  • Holm, E., and G.A.Coker. 1981. First Canadian records of the Ghost Shiner (Notropis buchanani) and the Orangespotted Sunfish (Lepomis humilis). Canadian Field-Naturalist 95(2): 210-211.

  • Holm, E., and J. Houston. 1993. Status report on the ghost shiner Notropis buchanani in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). 16 pp.

  • Mettee, M.F., P. E. O'Neil, and J.M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Inc., Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pages.

  • Mirarchi, R. E., J. T. Garner, M. F. Mettee, and P.E. O'Neil, editors. 2004. Alabama wildlife. Volume 2. Imperiled aquatic mollusks and fishes. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 255 pages

  • Mirarchi, R.E., M.A. Bailey, J.T. Garner, T.M. Haggerty, T.L. Best, M.F. Mettee, and P. O'Neil, editors. 2004. Alabama Wildlife. Volume 4. Conservation and management recommendations for imperiled wildlife. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 221 pages.

  • Mirarchi, R.E., editor. 2004. Alabama Wildlife. Volume 1. A checklist of vertebrates and selected invertebrates: aquatic mollusks, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 209 pages.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Sixth edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 29. 386 pages.

  • PFLIEGER,W.L.1975. THE FISHES OF MISSOURI. SULLIVAN, MARK. MISSOURI DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • ROSS, STEPHEN T. 1996. INLAND FISHES OF MISSISSIPPI. SELECTED SPECIES ACCOUNTS. COAUTHORED WITH W.M. BRENNEMAM, W.T. SLACK, M.T. O'CONNELL, AND T.L. PETERSON. ILLUSTRATED BY D.G. ROSS. DRAFT COPY.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cross, F. B., and J. T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. Second Edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. xvii + 315 pp.

  • Douglas, N. H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • State Natural Heritage Data Centers. 1996a. Aggregated element occurrence data from all U.S. state natural heritage programs, including the Tennessee Valley Authority, Navajo Nation and the District of Columbia. Science Division, The Nature Conservancy.

  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

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Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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