Notropis buccatus - (Cope, 1865)
Silverjaw Minnow
Synonym(s): Ericymba buccata Cope, 1865
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Notropis buccatus (Cope, 1865) (TSN 163478)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.797928
Element Code: AFCJB60010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Minnows and Carps
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Notropis
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Pera, T. P., and J. W. Armbruster. 2006. A new species of Notropis (Cypriniformes:Cyprinidae) from the southeastern United States. Copeia 2006(3):423-430.
Concept Reference Code: A06PER01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Notropis buccatus
Taxonomic Comments: Coburn and Cavender (1992) merged Ericymba into Notropis, an action adopted in the 1991 AFS checklist (Robins et al. 1991). In contrast, Page and Burr (1991), Mayden et al. (1992), Etnier and Starnes (1993), Mettee et al. (1996), Warren et al. (2000), and Ross (2001) retained this species in the monotypic genus Ericymba. Wiley and Titus (1992) referred this species to the genus Hybopsis. Recent molecular data indicate that the silverjaw minnow is a member of the Notropis dorsalis species group and should be included in the genus Notropis (as Notropis buccatus) (Raley and Wood 2001). Nelson et al. (2004) adopted this change. Based on a mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences, Schönhuth and Mayden (2010) retained Ericymba as a distinct genus.

See Amemiya et al. (1992) for a brief discussion of the systematic relationships of this species.

Pera and Armbruster (2006) recognized the northern and southern populations of N. buccatus as two distinct species. The southern population is now known as Notropis amplamala.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 24Jan2007
Global Status Last Changed: 28Feb2000
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (24Jan2007)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States District of Columbia (SH), Illinois (S5), Indiana (S5), Kentucky (S4S5), Maryland (S4), Michigan (S4), Missouri (S4), New York (S2), Ohio (S5), Pennsylvania (S5), Tennessee (S1), Virginia (S3), West Virginia (S5)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Mississippi River, Ohio River, and Atlantic coastal tributaries north of the Cumberland River from eastern Missouri to Virginia and Maryland (Pera and Armbruster 2006).

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of subpopulations and locations.

Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but relatively large.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Localized threats may exist, but on a range-wide scale no major threats are known.

Short-term Trend Comments: Currently stable (Warren et al. 2000).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Mississippi River, Ohio River, and Atlantic coastal tributaries north of the Cumberland River from eastern Missouri to Virginia and Maryland (Pera and Armbruster 2006).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States DC, IL, IN, KY, MD, MI, MO, NY, OH, PA, TN, VA, WV

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
MO Bollinger (29017)*, Cape Girardeau (29031), Franklin (29071), Jefferson (29099), Madison (29123), Perry (29157)*, Reynolds (29179), Scott (29201)*, St. Francois (29187), St. Louis (29189)*, Ste. Genevieve (29186), Washington (29221)*, Wayne (29223)*
NY Chautauqua (36013), Wyoming (36121)
TN Campbell (47013)*, Claiborne (47025)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Raystown (02050303), Lower Juniata (02050304), Lower Susquehanna-Swatara (02050305), Lower Susquehanna (02050306), Gunpowder-Patapsco (02060003), South Branch Potomac (02070001), North Branch Potomac (02070002), Cacapon-Town (02070003), Conococheague-Opequon (02070004), Middle Potomac-Catoctin (02070008), Monocacy (02070009), Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan (02070010), Rapidan-Upper Rappahannock (02080103)
04 Little Calumet-Galien (04040001), St. Joseph (04050001), Huron (04090005), Ottawa-Stony (04100001), Raisin (04100002), St. Joseph (04100003), St. Marys (04100004), Upper Maumee (04100005), Tiffin (04100006), Auglaize (04100007), Blanchard (04100008), Lower Maumee (04100009)*, Cedar-Portage (04100010), Sandusky (04100011), Huron-Vermilion (04100012), Black-Rocky (04110001), Cuyahoga (04110002), Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003), Grand (04110004), Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101), Buffalo-Eighteenmile (04120103)+
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001)+, Conewango (05010002)+, Middle Allegheny-Tionesta (05010003), French (05010004)+, Clarion (05010005), Middle Allegheny-Redbank (05010006), Kiskiminetas (05010008), Lower Allegheny (05010009), Tygart Valley (05020001), West Fork (05020002), Upper Monongahela (05020003), Cheat (05020004), Lower Monongahela (05020005), Youghiogheny (05020006), Upper Ohio (05030101), Shenango (05030102), Mahoning (05030103)*, Beaver (05030104), Connoquenessing (05030105), Upper Ohio-Wheeling (05030106), Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201), Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202), Little Kanawha (05030203), Hocking (05030204), Tuscarawas (05040001), Mohican (05040002), Walhonding (05040003), Muskingum (05040004), Wills (05040005), Licking (05040006), Middle New (05050002), Greenbrier (05050003), Lower New (05050004), Gauley (05050005), Upper Kanawha (05050006), Elk (05050007), Lower Kanawha (05050008), Coal (05050009), Upper Scioto (05060001), Lower Scioto (05060002), Paint (05060003), Upper Guyandotte (05070101), Lower Guyandotte (05070102), Tug (05070201), Upper Levisa (05070202), Lower Levisa (05070203), Big Sandy (05070204), Upper Great Miami (05080001), Lower Great Miami (05080002), Whitewater (05080003), Raccoon-Symmes (05090101), Twelvepole (05090102), Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103), Little Sandy (05090104), Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201), Little Miami (05090202), Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203), Licking (05100101), North Fork Kentucky (05100201), Middle Fork Kentucky (05100202), South Fork Kentucky (05100203), Upper Kentucky (05100204), Lower Kentucky (05100205), Upper Green (05110001), Lower Green (05110005), Upper Wabash (05120101), Salamonie (05120102), Mississinewa (05120103), Eel (05120104), Middle Wabash-Deer (05120105), Tippecanoe (05120106), Wildcat (05120107), Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108), Vermilion (05120109), Sugar (05120110), Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111), Embarras (05120112), Lower Wabash (05120113), Little Wabash (05120114), Skillet (05120115), Upper White (05120201), Lower White (05120202), Eel (05120203), Driftwood (05120204), Flatrock-Haw (05120205), Upper East Fork White (05120206), Muscatatuck (05120207), Lower East Fork White (05120208), Patoka (05120209), Upper Cumberland (05130101)+, Rockcastle (05130102), Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103), Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Salt (05140102), Rolling Fork (05140103), Blue-Sinking (05140104), Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201), Highland-Pigeon (05140202), Saline (05140204), Tradewater (05140205)
07 Kankakee (07120001), Iroquois (07120002), Upper Illinois (07120005), Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001)*, Upper Sangamon (07130006), Cahokia-Joachim (07140101)+, Meramec (07140102)+, Bourbeuse (07140103)+, Big (07140104)+, Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105)+, Big Muddy (07140106), Whitewater (07140107)+, Upper Kaskaskia (07140201), Middle Kaskaskia (07140202), Shoal (07140203), Lower Kaskaskia (07140204)*
08 Upper St. Francis (08020202)+
11 Upper Black (11010007)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Spawns in spring and/or summer; may be 2 spawning peaks in some areas. Sexually mature in 1 year, lives 4 years. Adults school while spawning (Smith 1979).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: May migrate short distance to spawning areas (Cooper 1983).
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Riffle
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Often in headwater streams with moderate flow and clean sand or gravel bottom. Shallow sandy riffles and raceways of creeks and small to medium rivers (Page and Burr 1991). Spawns over sand or gravel on a riffle. Eggs are scattered over the bottom (Cooper 1983).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats immature midges and mayflies, cladocerans, detritus. Mostly a benthic feeder but young eat pelagic zooplankton (Cooper 1983, Smith 1979).
Length: 6 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Small Cyprinids

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat. For some species (e.g., slender chub), an impoundment may constitute a barrier. For others (e.g., flame chub) a stream larger than 4th order may be a barrier.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. In some species, individuals may migrate variable distances between spawning areas and nonspawning habitats.

Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) for cyprinids are arbitrary but reflect the presumption that movements and appropriate separation distances generally should increase with fish size. Hence small, medium, and large cyprinids, respectively, have increasingly large separation distances. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 07Oct1993
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Amemiya, C. T., P. K. Powers, and J. R. Gold. 1992. Chromosomal evolution in North American cyprinids. Pages 515--533 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Coburn, M. M., and T. M. Cavender. 1992. Interrelationships of North American cyprinid fishes. Pages 328-373 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Cooper, E.L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania. Penn State Univ. Press, University Park, PA.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • Hoyt, R. D. 1971a. The reproductive biology of the silverjaw minnow, Ericymba buccata (Cope), in Kentucky. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 100(3):510-519.

  • Huffaker, Steve. 1971. Upper West Fork of the Whitewater River Stream Survey Report; Wayne, Randolph, Rush, Henry, Fayette Counties. Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Fish and Wildlife. 28 pp.

  • Mayden, R. L. 1989. Phylogenetic studies of North American minnows, with emphasis on the genus Cyprinella (Teleostei: Cypriniformes). University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Miscellaneous Publication (80):1-189.

  • Mayden, R. L., B. M. Burr, L. M. Page, and R. R. Miller. 1992. The native freshwater fishes of North America. Pages 827-863 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Pera, T. P., and J. W. Armbruster. 2006. A new species of Notropis (Cypriniformes:Cyprinidae) from the southeastern United States. Copeia 2006(3):423-430.

  • Raley, M. E., and R. M. Wood. 2001. Molecular systematics of members of the Notropis dorsalis species group (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae). Copeia 2001:638-645.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Ross, S. T. (with W. M. Brennaman, W. T. Slack, M. T. O'Connell, and T. L. Peterson). 2001a. The Inland Fishes of Mississippi. University Press of Mississippi: Mississippi. xx + 624 pp.

  • Schönhuth, S. and R. L. Mayden. 2010. Phylogenetic relationships in the genus Cyprinella (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae) based on mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 55(2010):77-98.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

  • Smith, C.L. 1985. The Inland Fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY. 522pp.

  • Wallace, D.C. 1972. The ecology of the silverjaw minnow, Ericymba buccata (Cope). American Midland Naturalist 87:172-190.

  • Wallace, D.C. 1976. Feeding behavior and developmental, seasonal and diet changes in the food of the silverjaw minnow, Ericymba buccata (Cope). American Midland Naturalist 95(2):361-376.

  • Warren, M. L., Jr., B. M. Burr, S. J. Walsh, H. L. Bart, Jr., R. C. Cashner, D. A. Etnier, B. J. Freeman, B. R. Kuhajda, R. L. Mayden, H. W. Robison, S. T. Ross, and W. C. Starnes. 2000. Diversity, distribution, and conservation status of the native freshwater fishes of the southern United States. Fisheries 25(10):7-31.

  • Wiley, E. O., and T. A. Titus. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships among members of the Hybopsis dorsalis species group (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas 152:1-18.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Jenkins, R. E., and N. M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. xxiii + 1079 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, New York, xi + 522 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

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