Notropis albizonatus - Warren and Burr, 1994
Palezone Shiner
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Notropis albizonatus Warren and Burr in Warren, Burr and Grady, 1994 (TSN 553283)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.105904
Element Code: AFCJB28A90
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Minnows and Carps
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Notropis
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Warren, M. L., B. M. Burr, and J. M. Grady. 1994. Notropis albizonatus, a new cyprinid fish endemic to the Tennessee and Cumberland river drainages, with a phylogeny of the Notropis procne species group. Copeia 1994:868-86.
Concept Reference Code: A94WAR01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Notropis albizonatus
Taxonomic Comments: A member of the Notropis procne species group (Warren et al. 1994). Highly distinctive, with negligible differences between the allopatric populations (Starnes 1995). 1995).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 02Mar2012
Global Status Last Changed: 21Nov2007
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: The two extant populations occur in the Paint Rock River, Alabama, and the Little South Fork of the Cumberland River, Kentucky; extirpated at the other two historical localities; populations have been fragmented by habitat alteration (primarily impoundments); extant populations are impacted by deteriorated water quality; limited distribution makes this species vulnerable to extirpation from stochastic events.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1 (21Nov2007)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S1), Kentucky (S1), Tennessee (SH)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (27Apr1993)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R4 - Southeast
IUCN Red List Category: EN - Endangered
American Fisheries Society Status: Endangered (01Aug2008)

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 100-1000 square km (about 40-400 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: The palezone darter is known from Little South Fork (Cumberland River drainage), Wayne and McCreary counties, Kentucky; Marrowbone Creek (Cumberland River drainage), Cumberland County, Kentucky (single specimen collected in 1947); Cove Creek, a Clinch River tributary in the Tennessee River drainage, Campbell County, Tennessee (single specimen collected in 1936); and Paint Rock River system (upper Tennessee River drainage), Jackson County, Alabama (USFWS 1993, 1997; Warren et al. 1994). In addition to the Paint Rock River occurrence, Boschung and Mayden (2004) mapped but did not comment on two localities in the Tennessee River drainage from which the species was indicated as extirpated in northern Alabama. It is likely that the species formerly was more widespread within the Tennessee and Cumberland river drainages (Starnes and Etnier 1986).

The recently documented range includes only two widely disjunct populations. One is in a 12-km (Boschung and Mayden 2004) reach of the Paint Rock River, where the species occurs in greatest abundance from lowermost Estill Fork downstream about 3-4 kilometers. Based on many surveys, it is believed that few if any additional populations likely exist in the Tennessee River drainage (USFWS 1997). The other population occupies the unimbayed mainstem of the Little South Fork of the Cumberland River, where the area of greatest abundance occurs from about Freedom Church Ford upstream to the mouth of Corder Creek) (USFWS 1993, Warren et al. 1994); the species may occur upstream possibly as far as the Highway 167 bridge, 1 mile southwest of Mt. Pisgah, Wayne County, Kentucky (based on a single specimen, identification unconfirmed, taken in 1987), whereas the downstream limit corresponds with the unsuitable habitat of the impounded backwaters of Lake Cumberland (see USFWS 1997). Overall, the occupied section of the Little South Fork appears to be not more than about 50 river-kilometers (Freedom Church Ford to near Mt. Pisgah), but the species is most numerous in a small reach of only 10 kilometers (Warren and Burr 1998). Historical and recent survey efforts suggest that the palezone shiner is absent from other areas of the Cumberland River drainage (USFWS 1997).

The Cove Creek and Marrowbone Creek localities, represented by single specimens, have not yielded further specimens, despite adequate survey efforts, and these areas currently have poor or unsuitable conditions for palezone shiners (USFWS 1997).

Area of Occupancy: 21-100 1-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Area of occupancy appears to be less than 62 square kilometers, based on a linear distance of occupancy of not more than 62 kilometers and a grid size of 1 km x 1 km.

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5
Number of Occurrences Comments: Current range includes two widely disjunct populations (USFWS 1997, Boschung and Mayden 2004).

Population Size: 2500 - 100,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but presumably is at least several thousand. The species is locally common to abundant in the Little South Fork of the Cumberland River (Burr and Warren 1986). Branson and Schuster (1982) collected several hundred specimens from the Little South Fork of the Cumberland River, including more than 200 from a single site. However, the species tends to be highly localized, and high densities do not prevail throughout the whole occupied range.

Overall Threat Impact: High
Overall Threat Impact Comments: SUMMARY: Populations have been fragmented by habitat alteration (primarily impoundments), and extant populations are being impacted by deteriorated water quality primarily resulting from poor land-use practices (principally agriculture and coal mining) (USFWS 1997). The present limited distribution makes local populations vulnerable to extirpation from stochastic events (USFWS 1997). Warren et al. (2000) categorized this species as "endangered" (in danger of extinction throughout all of a significant portion of its range).

FURTHER DETAILS: Distribution apparently has been reduced by such factors as impoundments, stream channelization, and the general deterioration of water quality from siltation and other pollutants contributed from coal mining, poor land use (e.g., silvicultural) practices, and waste discharges (USFWS 1993, 1997; Warren and Burr 1990, Warren et al. 1994). Impoundments eliminate and degrade riverine habitat and form barriers that block or inhibit colonization of suitable habitat or recolonization of areas where the species has been extirpated. Releases of cold water from dams, and water-level fluctuations caused by dam operations, have made downstream areas less suitable for native fishes (see USFWS 1997).

Little South Fork is currently receiving toxic runoff from surface mining, and the limited distribution of the species within the Paint Rock River appears to be correlated with increasing agriculture and associated increase in stream siltation in the downstream reaches (Warren and Burr 1998).

Existing populations inhabit short river reaches and are vulnerable to extirpation from accidental spills of toxic materials (USFWS 1997). The palezone shiner has relatively short lifespan and consequently is extremely vulnerable to short-term and/or localized habitat alterations. In addition, occupied stream reaches are isolated from each other and from any potential unoccupied habitat by impoundments, so natural recolonization of any extirpated population is not possible (USFWS 1997). Absence of natural gene flow between populations leaves the long-term genetic viability of these isolated populations in question (USFWS 1997).

Short-term Trend: Unknown
Short-term Trend Comments: Current trend is not well documented, but there is reason to believe that the species may be declining (see threats information).

Long-term Trend: Decline of 30-70%
Long-term Trend Comments: Two of the four known populations have been eliminated (USFWS 1997), but the extent of extirpation is not known due to insufficient information on the distribution prior to extensive habitat changes.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Protection Needs: Surface mining activities or channel modification projects should be precluded in both the Little South Fork and Paint Rock River (Warren and Burr 1998).

Distribution
Help
Global Range: (100-1000 square km (about 40-400 square miles)) The palezone darter is known from Little South Fork (Cumberland River drainage), Wayne and McCreary counties, Kentucky; Marrowbone Creek (Cumberland River drainage), Cumberland County, Kentucky (single specimen collected in 1947); Cove Creek, a Clinch River tributary in the Tennessee River drainage, Campbell County, Tennessee (single specimen collected in 1936); and Paint Rock River system (upper Tennessee River drainage), Jackson County, Alabama (USFWS 1993, 1997; Warren et al. 1994). In addition to the Paint Rock River occurrence, Boschung and Mayden (2004) mapped but did not comment on two localities in the Tennessee River drainage from which the species was indicated as extirpated in northern Alabama. It is likely that the species formerly was more widespread within the Tennessee and Cumberland river drainages (Starnes and Etnier 1986).

The recently documented range includes only two widely disjunct populations. One is in a 12-km (Boschung and Mayden 2004) reach of the Paint Rock River, where the species occurs in greatest abundance from lowermost Estill Fork downstream about 3-4 kilometers. Based on many surveys, it is believed that few if any additional populations likely exist in the Tennessee River drainage (USFWS 1997). The other population occupies the unimbayed mainstem of the Little South Fork of the Cumberland River, where the area of greatest abundance occurs from about Freedom Church Ford upstream to the mouth of Corder Creek) (USFWS 1993, Warren et al. 1994); the species may occur upstream possibly as far as the Highway 167 bridge, 1 mile southwest of Mt. Pisgah, Wayne County, Kentucky (based on a single specimen, identification unconfirmed, taken in 1987), whereas the downstream limit corresponds with the unsuitable habitat of the impounded backwaters of Lake Cumberland (see USFWS 1997). Overall, the occupied section of the Little South Fork appears to be not more than about 50 river-kilometers (Freedom Church Ford to near Mt. Pisgah), but the species is most numerous in a small reach of only 10 kilometers (Warren and Burr 1998). Historical and recent survey efforts suggest that the palezone shiner is absent from other areas of the Cumberland River drainage (USFWS 1997).

The Cove Creek and Marrowbone Creek localities, represented by single specimens, have not yielded further specimens, despite adequate survey efforts, and these areas currently have poor or unsuitable conditions for palezone shiners (USFWS 1997).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, KY, TN

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Jackson (01071)
KY Cumberland (21057)*, McCreary (21147), Wayne (21231)
TN Campbell (47013)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
05 Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103)+*, South Fork Cumberland (05130104)+
06 Upper Clinch (06010205)+*, Guntersville Lake (06030001)*, Wheeler Lake (06030002)+, Pickwick Lake (06030005)*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: A fish (shiner) that reaches a maximum standard length of 6 cm.
General Description: A two-inch minnow with a translucent and straw-colored body and a dark midlateral stripe (USFWS 1993).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Differs from other members of the N. PROCNE species group in having a broad, depigmented supralateral stripe bordered ventrally by a dark midlateral stripe of equal intensity; in addition, the predorsal stripe is obsolescent or absent, there is no postdorsal stripe, snout tubercles are absent, lateral lines scales number 36-38, predorsal scale rows number 16-17, and there are unique genotypes for the Pgm-A locus (Warren et al. 1994).
Reproduction Comments: Spawning apparently occurs from late May through June and perhaps early July; collections examined contain at most three distinct size classes (Warren et al. 1994).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, High gradient, Pool
Habitat Comments: This species is most common in upland large creeks and small rivers with permanent flow, in runs and flowing upper portions of pools over clean substrates of bedrock, cobble, and gravel mixed with clean sand (Warren et al. 1994). Warren and Burr (1998) reported that they collected palezone shiners in largest concentrations in depths of 30-75 centimeters and flow velocity of 0.6-4.5 centimeters per second.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary
Help
Stewardship Overview: Needed conservation measures include (USFWS 1997): 1. Use existing legislation and regulations to protect the species. 2. Determine threats and alleviate those that imperil the species' existence. 3. Determine life history requirements. 4. Solicit the assistance of local landowners and initiate projects (i.e., "Partners for Wildlife") to improve riparian habitat. 5. Develop and implement an information and education program. 6. Through augmentation or reintroduction, protect and establish viable populations in the Little South Fork of the Cumberland River and the Paint Rock River. 7. Search for additional populations.
Restoration Potential: Because much of the presumed historic habitat has been impouded or altered, it is unlikely that the species can be recovered to the point of delisting (USFWS 1997).
Management Research Needs: Determine threats; determine life history requirements (USFWS 1997).
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Group Name: Small Cyprinids

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat. For some species (e.g., slender chub), an impoundment may constitute a barrier. For others (e.g., flame chub) a stream larger than 4th order may be a barrier.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. In some species, individuals may migrate variable distances between spawning areas and nonspawning habitats.

Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) for cyprinids are arbitrary but reflect the presumption that movements and appropriate separation distances generally should increase with fish size. Hence small, medium, and large cyprinids, respectively, have increasingly large separation distances. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 02Mar2012
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G., and J. M. Pierson
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 21Nov2007
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries. 2005. Conserving Alabama's wildlife: a comprehensive strategy. Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries. Montgomery, Alabama. 303 pages. [Available online at http://www.dcnr.state.al.us/research-mgmt/cwcs/outline.cfm ]

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 736 pages.

  • Branson, B. A., and G. A. Schuster. 1982. The fishes of the wild river section of the Little South Fork of the Cumberland River, Kentucky. Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science 43(1-2):60-70.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Eager, D. C., and R. M. Hatcher. 1980. Tennessee's rare wildlife. Volume 1. The Vertebrates. Tennesse Wildlife Resources Agency.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • Jelks, H. L., S. J. Walsh, N. M. Burkhead, S. Contreras-Balderas, E. Díaz-Pardo, D. A. Hendrickson, J. Lyons, N. E. Mandrak, F. McCormick, J. S. Nelson, S. P. Platania, B. A. Porter, C. B. Renaud, J. Jacobo Schmitter-Soto, E. B. Taylor, and M.L. Warren, Jr. 2008. Conservation status of imperiled North American freshwater and diadromous fishes. Fisheries 33(8):372-407.

  • Mettee, M.F., P. E. O'Neil, and J.M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Inc., Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pages.

  • Mirarchi, R. E., J. T. Garner, M. F. Mettee, and P.E. O'Neil, editors. 2004. Alabama wildlife. Volume 2. Imperiled aquatic mollusks and fishes. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 255 pages

  • Mirarchi, R.E., M.A. Bailey, J.T. Garner, T.M. Haggerty, T.L. Best, M.F. Mettee, and P. O'Neil, editors. 2004. Alabama Wildlife. Volume 4. Conservation and management recommendations for imperiled wildlife. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 221 pages.

  • Mirarchi, R.E., editor. 2004. Alabama Wildlife. Volume 1. A checklist of vertebrates and selected invertebrates: aquatic mollusks, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 209 pages.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Starnes, W. C. 1995. Taxonomic validation for fish species on the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Category 2 species list. 28 pp.

  • Starnes, W. C., and D. A. Etnier. 1986. Drainage evolution and fish biogeography of the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers drainage realm. Pages 325-361 in C.H. Hocutt and E.O. Wiley, editors. The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, New York. xiii + 866 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1993. Determination of endangered status for the duskytail darter, paleozone shiner and pygmy madtom. Federal Register 58(79):25758-25763.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1997. Recovery plan for palezone shiner (Notropis albizonatus). Atlanta, Georgia. v + 28 pp.

  • Warren, M. L., B. M. Burr, and J. M. Grady. 1994. Notropis albizonatus, a new cyprinid fish endemic to the Tennessee and Cumberland river drainages, with a phylogeny of the Notropis procne species group. Copeia 1994:868-86.

  • Warren, M. L., Jr., and B. M. Burr. 1998. Threatened fishes of the world: Notropis albizonatus Warren, Burr & Grady, 1994 (Cyprinidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes 51:128.

  • Warren, M. L., and B. M. Burr. 1990. Status of the palezone shiner (Notropis sp., cf. procne), a federal candidate for listing. Unpublished report to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Asheville, North Carolina. 27 pp.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • State Natural Heritage Data Centers. 1996a. Aggregated element occurrence data from all U.S. state natural heritage programs, including the Tennessee Valley Authority, Navajo Nation and the District of Columbia. Science Division, The Nature Conservancy.

  • State Natural Heritage Data Centers. 1996c. Aggregated element occurrence data from all U.S. state natural heritage programs, including the Tennessee Valley Authority, Navajo Nation and the District of Columbia: Export of freshwater fish and mussel records from the Tennessee Valley Authority in 1997. Science Division, The Nature Conservancy.

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