Notropis stramineus - (Cope, 1865)
Sand Shiner
Synonym(s): Notropis deliciosus (Girard, 1856) ;Notropis ludibundus
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Notropis stramineus (Cope, 1865) (TSN 163419)
French Common Names: méné paille
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.104717
Element Code: AFCJB28930
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Minnows and Carps
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Notropis
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Notropis stramineus
Taxonomic Comments: Because the name Notropis stramineus is a junior synonym of Cyprinella ludibunda Girard, 1856 (= Notropis ludibundus), Mayden and Gilbert (1989) proposed that the specific name stramineus should be replaced by the name ludibundus. This change was adopted by Page and Burr (1991). However, the name ludibundus has been unused since its original proposal. A petition has been submitted to the ICZN to conserve the familiar name stramineus. Pending the ICZN decision, the 1991 AFS checklist (Robins et al. 1991) retained the name as N. stramineus. Published opinion supports conservation of the specific name stramineus (Bull. Zool. Nomen. 57:111-112).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 18Aug2015
Global Status Last Changed: 17Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (18Aug2015)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Arizona (SNA), Arkansas (SNR), Colorado (S5), Illinois (S5), Indiana (S5), Iowa (S5), Kansas (S5), Kentucky (S4S5), Michigan (S5), Minnesota (SNR), Missouri (SNR), Montana (S4), Navajo Nation (SNA), Nebraska (S5), New Mexico (S4), New York (S3), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (S5), Oklahoma (S5), Pennsylvania (S5), South Dakota (S5), Tennessee (S5), Texas (S3), Utah (SNA), Vermont (S4), Virginia (S2), West Virginia (S5), Wisconsin (S5), Wyoming (S5)
Canada Manitoba (S5), Ontario (S4), Quebec (S4), Saskatchewan (S3S4)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: St. Lawrence-Great Lakes, Hudson Bay (Red River), and Mississippi River basins from St. Lawrence River (southern Quebec) to eastern Saskatchewan, and south to Tennessee and Texas, west to eastern Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, and New Mexico; Gulf Slope drainages from Trinity River to Rio Grande, Texas, New Mexico, and Mexico; one of the most common shiners (Page and Burr 1991).

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of subpopulations and locations.

Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but relatively large.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Localized threats may exist, but on a range-wide scale no major threats are known.

Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable or slowly declining.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: St. Lawrence-Great Lakes, Hudson Bay (Red River), and Mississippi River basins from St. Lawrence River (southern Quebec) to eastern Saskatchewan, and south to Tennessee and Texas, west to eastern Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, and New Mexico; Gulf Slope drainages from Trinity River to Rio Grande, Texas, New Mexico, and Mexico; one of the most common shiners (Page and Burr 1991).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AR, AZexotic, CO, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MI, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, NNexotic, NY, OH, OK, PA, SD, TN, TX, UTexotic, VA, VT, WI, WV, WY
Canada MB, ON, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.

U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Lake George (02010001), Otter (02010002), Winooski (02010003), Ausable (02010004)*, Lamoille (02010005), Great Chazy-Saranac (02010006)*
04 Beartrap-Nemadji (04010301), Bad-Montreal (04010302), Lake Superior (04020300), Manitowoc-Sheboygan (04030101), Door-Kewaunee (04030102), Peshtigo (04030105), Menominee (04030108), Cedar-Ford (04030109), Upper Fox (04030201), Wolf (04030202), Lake Winnebago (04030203), Little Calumet-Galien (04040001), Pike-Root (04040002), Milwaukee (04040003), St. Joseph (04050001), Pere Marquette-White (04060101), Boardman-Charlevoix (04060105), Brevoort-Millecoquins (04060107), Lake Michigan (04060200)*, Carp-Pine (04070002), Lake St. Clair (04090002), Detroit (04090004), St. Joseph (04100003), St. Marys (04100004), Upper Maumee (04100005), Tiffin (04100006)*, Auglaize (04100007), Lower Maumee (04100009)*, Cedar-Portage (04100010), Sandusky (04100011)*, Huron-Vermilion (04100012), Black-Rocky (04110001), Cuyahoga (04110002)*, Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003), Grand (04110004), Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101), Cattaraugus (04120102), Buffalo-Eighteenmile (04120103), Niagara (04120104), Lake Erie (04120200), Oak Orchard-Twelvemile (04130001), Upper Genesee (04130002), Lower Genesee (04130003), Salmon-Sandy (04140102)*, Chaumont-Perch (04150102)*, Upper St. Lawrence (04150301), Indian (04150303)
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001), Conewango (05010002), Middle Allegheny-Tionesta (05010003), French (05010004), Clarion (05010005), Middle Allegheny-Redbank (05010006), Lower Allegheny (05010009), West Fork (05020002), Upper Monongahela (05020003), Cheat (05020004), Lower Monongahela (05020005), Upper Ohio (05030101), Shenango (05030102), Mahoning (05030103)*, Beaver (05030104), Connoquenessing (05030105), Upper Ohio-Wheeling (05030106), Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201), Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202), Little Kanawha (05030203), Hocking (05030204), Tuscarawas (05040001)*, Mohican (05040002), Walhonding (05040003), Muskingum (05040004), Wills (05040005)*, Licking (05040006), Middle New (05050002), Greenbrier (05050003), Gauley (05050005), Upper Kanawha (05050006), Elk (05050007), Lower Kanawha (05050008), Coal (05050009), Upper Scioto (05060001), Lower Scioto (05060002), Paint (05060003), Upper Guyandotte (05070101), Lower Guyandotte (05070102), Tug (05070201), Upper Levisa (05070202), Lower Levisa (05070203), Big Sandy (05070204), Upper Great Miami (05080001), Lower Great Miami (05080002), Whitewater (05080003), Raccoon-Symmes (05090101), Twelvepole (05090102), Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103), Little Sandy (05090104), Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201), Little Miami (05090202), Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203)*, Licking (05100101), South Fork Licking (05100102), North Fork Kentucky (05100201), Middle Fork Kentucky (05100202), South Fork Kentucky (05100203), Upper Kentucky (05100204), Lower Kentucky (05100205), Upper Wabash (05120101), Salamonie (05120102), Mississinewa (05120103), Eel (05120104), Middle Wabash-Deer (05120105), Tippecanoe (05120106), Wildcat (05120107), Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108), Vermilion (05120109), Sugar (05120110), Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111), Embarras (05120112), Lower Wabash (05120113), Little Wabash (05120114), Upper White (05120201), Lower White (05120202), Eel (05120203), Driftwood (05120204), Lower East Fork White (05120208), South Fork Cumberland (05130104), Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Salt (05140102), Rolling Fork (05140103), Blue-Sinking (05140104)
06 South Fork Holston (06010102), Holston (06010104), Pigeon (06010106), Lower French Broad (06010107), Nolichucky (06010108), Watts Bar Lake (06010201), Lower Little Tennessee (06010204), Lower Clinch (06010207), Emory (06010208)
07 Prairie-Willow (07010103), Elk-Nokasippi (07010104), Twin Cities (07010206), Upper Minnesota (07020001), Hawk-Yellow Medicine (07020004), Middle Minnesota (07020007), Blue Earth (07020009), Le Sueur (07020011), Upper St. Croix (07030001), Namekagon (07030002), Lower St. Croix (07030005), Rush-Vermillion (07040001), Cannon (07040002), Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003), Zumbro (07040004), Trempealeau (07040005), La Crosse-Pine (07040006), Black (07040007), Root (07040008), Upper Chippewa (07050001), Lower Chippewa (07050005), Red Cedar (07050007), Coon-Yellow (07060001), Upper Iowa (07060002), Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003), Turkey (07060004), Apple-Plum (07060005), Maquoketa (07060006), Upper Wisconsin (07070001)*, Lake Dubay (07070002), Castle Rock (07070003), Lower Wisconsin (07070005), Kickapoo (07070006), Copperas-Duck (07080101), Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102), Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103), Flint-Henderson (07080104), South Skunk (07080105), North Skunk (07080106), Skunk (07080107), Upper Cedar (07080201), Shell Rock (07080202), Winnebago (07080203), West Fork Cedar (07080204), Middle Cedar (07080205), Lower Cedar (07080206), Upper Iowa (07080207), Middle Iowa (07080208), Lower Iowa (07080209), Upper Rock (07090001), Crawfish (07090002), Pecatonica (07090003), Sugar (07090004), Lower Rock (07090005), Kishwaukee (07090006), Green (07090007), Des Moines Headwaters (07100001), Upper Des Moines (07100002), East Fork Des Moines (07100003), Middle Des Moines (07100004), Boone (07100005), North Raccoon (07100006), South Raccoon (07100007), Lake Red Rock (07100008), Lower Des Moines (07100009), Bear-Wyaconda (07110001), North Fabius (07110002), South Fabius (07110003), The Sny (07110004), North Fork Salt (07110005), South Fork Salt (07110006), Salt (07110007), Cuivre (07110008), Peruque-Piasa (07110009), Kankakee (07120001), Iroquois (07120002), Chicago (07120003), Des Plaines (07120004), Upper Illinois (07120005), Upper Fox (07120006), Lower Fox (07120007), Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001), Vermilion (07130002), Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003), Mackinaw (07130004), Spoon (07130005), Upper Sangamon (07130006), South Fork Sangamon (07130007), Lower Sangamon (07130008), Salt (07130009), La Moine (07130010), Lower Illinois (07130011), Macoupin (07130012), Cahokia-Joachim (07140101), Meramec (07140102), Bourbeuse (07140103), Big (07140104), Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105), Big Muddy (07140106), Whitewater (07140107), Upper Kaskaskia (07140201), Middle Kaskaskia (07140202), Shoal (07140203), Lower Kaskaskia (07140204)*
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100), Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201), New Madrid-St. Johns (08020201), Little River Ditches (08020204)
09 Upper Souris (09010001), Willow (09010004), Bois De Sioux (09020101), Middle Sheyenne (09020203), Lower Sheyenne (09020204), Sandhill-Wilson (09020301), Red Lake (09020303), Turtle (09020307), Pembina (09020313), Little Fork (09030005)
10 Teton (10030205), Fort Peck Reservoir (10040104), Big Dry (10040105), Little Dry (10040106), Upper Musselshell (10040201), Middle Musselshell (10040202), Lower Musselshell (10040205), Prarie Elk-Wolf (10060001), Redwater (10060002), Little Wind (10080002), Popo Agie (10080003), Lower Wind (10080005), Upper Bighorn (10080007), Upper Tongue (10090101), Lower Tongue (10090102), Upper Powder (10090202), South Fork Powder (10090203), Salt (10090204), Crazy Woman (10090205), Clear (10090206), Middle Powder (10090207), Little Powder (10090208), Lower Powder (10090209), Mizpah (10090210), Lower Yellowstone-Sunday (10100001), Lower Yellowstone (10100004), O'fallon (10100005), Upper Little Missouri (10110201), Boxelder (10110202), Middle Little Missouri (10110203), Lower Little Missouri (10110205), Antelope (10120101), Upper Cheyenne (10120103), Lance (10120104), Lightning (10120105), Angostura Reservoir (10120106), Beaver (10120107), Middle Cheyenne-Spring (10120109), Middle Cheyenne-Elk (10120111), Upper Belle Fourche (10120201), Lower Belle Fourche (10120202), Lower Lake Oahe (10130105), Knife (10130201), Upper Heart (10130202), Lower Heart (10130203), Upper Cannonball (10130204), Cedar (10130205), Lower Cannonball (10130206), South Fork Grand (10130302), Grand (10130303), Lower Moreau (10130306), Bad (10140102), Medicine Knoll (10140103), Upper White (10140201), Middle White (10140202), Lower White (10140204), Ponca (10150001), Niobrara Headwaters (10150002), Upper Niobrara (10150003), Middle Niobrara (10150004), Snake (10150005), Keya Paha (10150006), Lower Niobrara (10150007), Upper James (10160003), Middle James (10160006), Turtle (10160009), Lower James (10160011), Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101), Upper Big Sioux (10170202), Lower Big Sioux (10170203), Rock (10170204), Upper North Platte (10180002), Medicine Bow (10180004), Little Medicine Bow (10180005), Sweetwater (10180006), Middle North Platte-Casper (10180007), Glendo Reservoir (10180008), Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff (10180009), Lower Laramie (10180011), Horse (10180012), Pumpkin (10180013), Lower North Platte (10180014), Upper South Platte (10190002), Middle South Platte-Cherry Creek (10190003), Clear (10190004), St. Vrain (10190005), Big Thompson (10190006), Cache La Poudre (10190007), Lone Tree-Owl (10190008), Crow (10190009), Middle South Platte-Sterling (10190012), Beaver (10190013), Pawnee (10190014), Upper Lodgepole (10190015), Lower Lodgepole (10190016), Sidney Draw (10190017), Lower South Platte (10190018), Middle Platte-Buffalo (10200101), Wood (10200102), Middle Platte-Prairie (10200103), Lower Platte-Shell (10200201), Lower Platte (10200202), Salt (10200203), Upper Middle Loup (10210001), Dismal (10210002), Lower Middle Loup (10210003), South Loup (10210004), Mud (10210005), Upper North Loup (10210006), Lower North Loup (10210007), Calamus (10210008), Loup (10210009), Cedar (10210010), Upper Elkhorn (10220001), North Fork Elkhorn (10220002), Lower Elkhorn (10220003), Logan (10220004), Blackbird-Soldier (10230001), Floyd (10230002), Little Sioux (10230003), Monona-Harrison Ditch (10230004), Maple (10230005), Big Papillion-Mosquito (10230006), Boyer (10230007), Keg-Weeping Water (10240001), West Nishnabotna (10240002), East Nishnabotna (10240003), Nishnabotna (10240004), Tarkio-Wolf (10240005), Little Nemaha (10240006), South Fork Big Nemaha (10240007), Big Nemaha (10240008), West Nodaway (10240009), Nodaway (10240010), Independence-Sugar (10240011), Platte (10240012), One Hundred and Two (10240013), North Fork Republican (10250002), South Fork Republican (10250003), Upper Republican (10250004), Frenchman (10250005), Stinking Water (10250006), Red Willow (10250007), Medicine (10250008), Harlan County Reservoir (10250009), Upper Sappa (10250010), Lower Sappa (10250011), South Fork Beaver (10250012), Little Beaver (10250013), Beaver (10250014), Prairie Dog (10250015), Middle Republican (10250016), Lower Republican (10250017), Smoky Hill Headwaters (10260001), Upper Smoky Hill (10260003), Ladder (10260004), Hackberry (10260005), Middle Smoky Hill (10260006), Big (10260007), Lower Smoky Hill (10260008), Upper Saline (10260009), Lower Saline (10260010), Upper North Fork Solomon (10260011), Lower North Fork Solomon (10260012), Upper South Fork Solomon (10260013), Lower South Fork Solomon (10260014), Solomon (10260015), Upper Kansas (10270101), Middle Kansas (10270102), Delaware (10270103), Lower Kansas (10270104), Upper Big Blue (10270201), Middle Big Blue (10270202), West Fork Big Blue (10270203), Turkey (10270204), Lower Big Blue (10270205), Upper Little Blue (10270206), Lower Little Blue (10270207), Upper Grand (10280101), Thompson (10280102), Lower Grand (10280103), Upper Chariton (10280201), Lower Chariton (10280202), Little Chariton (10280203), Upper Marais Des Cygnes (10290101), Lower Marais Des Cygnes (10290102), Little Osage (10290103), Marmaton (10290104), Harry S. Missouri (10290105), Sac (10290106), Pomme De Terre (10290107), South Grand (10290108), Lake of the Ozarks (10290109), Niangua (10290110), Lower Osage (10290111), Upper Gasconade (10290201), Lower Gasconade (10290203), Lower Missouri-Crooked (10300101), Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102), Lamine (10300103), Blackwater (10300104), Lower Missouri (10300200)
11 Upper Arkansas (11020002), Fountain (11020003), Chico (11020004), Upper Arkansas-Lake Meredith (11020005), Huerfano (11020006), Apishapa (11020007), Horse (11020008), Upper Arkansas-John Martin (11020009), Purgatoire (11020010), Rush (11020012), Middle Arkansas-Lake Mckinney (11030001), Arkansas-Dodge City (11030003), Coon-Pickerel (11030004), Pawnee (11030005), Buckner (11030006), Upper Walnut Creek (11030007), Lower Walnut Creek (11030008), Rattlesnake (11030009), Gar-Peace (11030010), Cow (11030011), Little Arkansas (11030012), Middle Arkansas-Slate (11030013), North Fork Ninnescah (11030014), South Fork Ninnescah (11030015), Ninnescah (11030016), Upper Walnut River (11030017), Lower Walnut River (11030018), Cimarron headwaters (11040001), Upper Cimarron (11040002), North Fork Cimarron (11040003), Upper Cimarron-Liberal (11040006), Crooked (11040007), Upper Cimarron-Bluff (11040008), Lower Cimarron-Eagle Chief (11050001), Lower Cimarron-Skeleton (11050002), Lower Cimarron (11050003), Kaw Lake (11060001), Upper Salt Fork Arkansas (11060002), Medicine Lodge (11060003), Lower Salt Fork Arkansas (11060004), Chikaskia (11060005), Black Bear-Red Rock (11060006), Upper Verdigris (11070101), Middle Verdigris (11070103), Lower Verdigris (11070105), Caney (11070106), Bird (11070107), Neosho headwaters (11070201), Upper Cottonwood (11070202), Lower Cottonwood (11070203), Upper Neosho (11070204), Middle Neosho (11070205), Lake O' the Cherokees (11070206), Spring (11070207), Lower Neosho (11070209), Canadian headwaters (11080001), Cimarron (11080002), Upper Canadian (11080003), Mora (11080004), Conchas (11080005), Upper Canadian-Ute Reservoir (11080006), Ute (11080007), Middle Canadian-Spring (11090106), Lower Canadian-Deer (11090201), Lower Canadian-Walnut (11090202), Little (11090203), Lower Canadian (11090204), Upper Beaver (11100101), Middle Beaver (11100102), Coldwater (11100103), Palo Duro (11100104), Lower Beaver (11100201), Lower Wolf (11100203), Middle North Canadian (11100301), Lower North Canadian (11100302), Deep Fork (11100303), Polecat-Snake (11110101), Dirty-Greenleaf (11110102), Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104), Lower Salt Fork Red (11120202), Middle North Fork Red (11120302), Lower North Fork Red (11120303), Elm Fork Red (11120304), Groesbeck-Sandy (11130101), Blue-China (11130102), Farmers-Mud (11130201), West Cache (11130203), Lake Texoma (11130210), Washita headwaters (11130301), Middle Washita (11130303), Lower Washita (11130304), Bois D'arc-Island (11140101), Blue (11140102), Muddy Boggy (11140103), Clear Boggy (11140104), Pecan-Waterhole (11140106)
12 Elm Fork Trinity (12030103), Pedernales (12090206), Upper Guadalupe (12100201), Medina (12100302), Upper Frio (12110106), Hondo (12110107)
13 Big Bend (13040205), Amistad Reservoir (13040212), Lower Devils (13040302), Pecos headwaters (13060001), Pintada Arroyo (13060002), Upper Pecos (13060003), Taiban (13060004), Arroyo Del Macho (13060005)*, Rio Hondo (13060008)*, Rio Felix (13060009)*, Delaware (13070002)*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Spawns in late spring and summer (peak July-August), mostly at age I and II (Becker 1983). Maximum longevity 3 years.
Ecology Comments: A schooling species.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: May make seasonal movements between rivers and tributary creeks (Becker 1983).
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, CREEK, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool, SPRING/SPRING BROOK
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Habitat Comments: In streams ranging from small spring discharges to large rivers; found rarely in upland areas. Usually associated with sandy substrate in areas with little or no aquatic vegetation and moderate to slow current (runs and pools). Avoids unsheltered locations and clean, unstable sand substrate. Also occupies sandy margins of lakes. May move into shallower water during the day. Spawns in shallows among submerged vegetation in Wisconsin (Becker 1983), in shallow water over sandy substrate in New Mexico (Sublette et al. 1990).
Adult Food Habits: Herbivore, Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats various aquatic and terrestral invertebrates (especially chironomids), algae, and (mainly) bottom particulate matter (Becker 1983). Winter diet mostly chironomids larvae and mayfly and stonefly naiads (Ohio, see Sublette et al. 1990).
Length: 6 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Small Cyprinids

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat. For some species (e.g., slender chub), an impoundment may constitute a barrier. For others (e.g., flame chub) a stream larger than 4th order may be a barrier.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. In some species, individuals may migrate variable distances between spawning areas and nonspawning habitats.

Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) for cyprinids are arbitrary but reflect the presumption that movements and appropriate separation distances generally should increase with fish size. Hence small, medium, and large cyprinids, respectively, have increasingly large separation distances. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 02Sep1993
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Aquin, P. 1999. Évaluation de la situation des groupes taxonomiques des poissons du Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune. 9 pages.

  • Atton, F.M. and J.J. Merkowsky. 1983. Atlas of Saskatchewan Fish. Saskatchewan Department of Parks and Renewable Resources, Fisheries Branch Technical Report 83-2. 281pp.

  • Legendre, V. et J.F. Bergeron. 1977. Liste des poissons d' eau douce du Québec. MLCP, Service Aménage. Expl. Faune. Rap. dact. 6

  • Mayden, R.L., and C.R. Gilbert. 1989. Notropis ludibundus (Girard) and Notropis tristis (Girard), replacement names for N. stramineus (Cope) and N. topeka (Gilbert) (Teleostei: Cypriniformes). Copeia 1989:1084-1089.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Saskatchewan Environment and Resource Management. 1996. The Fisheries Regulations being Chapter F-16.1 Reg 1 (effective 9 May 1995) as ammended by Saskatchewan Regulations 13/96.

  • Scott, W. B., and E. J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 184. 966 pp.

  • Summerfelt, R.C., and C.O. Minckley. 1969. Aspects of the life history of the sand shiner, Notropos stramineus (Cope), in the Smoky Hill River, Kansas. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 98(3):444-453.

  • Tanyolac, J. 1973. Morphometric variation and life history of the cyprinid fish, Notropis stramineus (Cope). Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas 12, 28 pp.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Baxter, G. T., and J. R. Simon. 1970. Wyoming fishes. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Cheyenne, Wyoming, 168 pp.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Cross, F. B., and J. T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. Second Edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. xvii + 315 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Holton, G. D., and H. E. Johnson. 1996. A field guide to Montana fishes. 2nd edition. Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Montana State Parks and wildlife Interpretive Association, Helena, Montana. 104 pp.

  • Jenkins, R. E., and N. M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. xxiii + 1079 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Menhinick, E. F. 1991. The freshwater fishes of North Carolina. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission. 227 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1983. Fishes of New York (maps and printout of a draft section on scarce fishes of New York). Unpublished draft.

  • Smith, C. L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, New York, xi + 522 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389.

  • Sublette, J. E., M. D Hatch, and M. Sublette. 1990. The fishes of New Mexico. University New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 393 pp.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

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