Nocomis biguttatus - (Kirtland, 1841)
Hornyhead Chub
Synonym(s): Hybopsis bigutata
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Nocomis biguttatus (Kirtland, 1840) (TSN 163395)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.105726
Element Code: AFCJB26020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Minnows and Carps
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Nocomis
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Nocomis biguttatus
Taxonomic Comments: Morphological and reproductive-behavioral data indicate that the genus Nocomis is monophyletic (Maurakis et al. 1991). Morphological data indicate that the biguttatus group of Nocomis is most closely related to the micropogon group (Lachner and Jenkins 1971), whereas reproductive-behavioral data indicate that N. leptocephalus and N. biguttatus form a monophyletic group (Maurakis et al. 1991).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 18Aug2015
Global Status Last Changed: 16Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N4N5 (27Dec2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Arkansas (S4), Colorado (SX), Illinois (S5), Indiana (S4), Iowa (S5), Kansas (S1), Kentucky (S2), Michigan (S5), Minnesota (SNR), Missouri (SNR), Nebraska (SH), New York (S3), North Dakota (S3), Ohio (S4), Pennsylvania (S1), South Dakota (S3), Wisconsin (S5), Wyoming (S1)
Canada Manitoba (S4), Ontario (S4)

Other Statuses

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Not at Risk (01Apr1988)
Comments on COSEWIC: Reason for Designation: Siltation and turbidity may limit this species where it occurs in the Great Lakes area. It appears to be stable however, and some range extensions have recently occurred.

Status History: Designated Not at Risk in April 1988. More recently (2015) considered a low priority candidate for re-assessment.

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range extends from the Mohawk River system, New York, west through the Great Lakes and Mississippi River basins to the Red River drainage (Hudson Bay basin), Manitoba and North Dakota; south to the Ohio River drainage; Ozark drainages, Missouri and Arkansas; isolated populations in lower Kentucky River system (Kentucky), Platte and Cheyenne river systems, (Nebraska, Wyoming and Colorado), and Kansas River, Kansas (Page and Burr 2011).

Area of Occupancy: Unknown 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of subpopulations and locations.

Population Size: 100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but relatively large. This species is common throughout much of its range (Page and Burr 2011).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Localized threats may exist, but on a range-wide scale no major threats are known.

Short-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but probably relatively stable or slowly declining. See Dalton (1989) for information on status in Canada.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Range extends from the Mohawk River system, New York, west through the Great Lakes and Mississippi River basins to the Red River drainage (Hudson Bay basin), Manitoba and North Dakota; south to the Ohio River drainage; Ozark drainages, Missouri and Arkansas; isolated populations in lower Kentucky River system (Kentucky), Platte and Cheyenne river systems, (Nebraska, Wyoming and Colorado), and Kansas River, Kansas (Page and Burr 2011).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AR, COextirpated, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MI, MN, MO, ND, NE, NY, OH, PA, SD, WI, WY
Canada MB, ON

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CO Boulder (08013)*, Weld (08123)*
IA Clayton (19043)*, Fayette (19065)*, Winneshiek (19191)*
KS Anderson (20003), Bourbon (20011), Chase (20017)*, Douglas (20045)*, Franklin (20059), Linn (20107)*, Lyon (20111), Miami (20121), Osage (20139)*, Wabaunsee (20197)
KY Franklin (21073)
ND Grand Forks (38035)*, Nelson (38063)*, Stutsman (38093)*, Walsh (38099)*
NE Deuel (31049)*, Dodge (31053)*, Douglas (31055)*, Sarpy (31153)*, Washington (31177)*
PA Crawford (42039), Erie (42049), Lawrence (42073)*, Mercer (42085)*
SD Deuel (46039), Grant (46051), Roberts (46109)
WY Albany (56001), Carbon (56007), Fremont (56013), Goshen (56015)*, Platte (56031), Sublette (56035)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
04 Beartrap-Nemadji (04010301), Bad-Montreal (04010302), Black-Presque Isle (04020101), Lake Superior (04020300)*, Manitowoc-Sheboygan (04030101), Door-Kewaunee (04030102), Duck-Pensaukee (04030103), Oconto (04030104), Peshtigo (04030105), Brule (04030106), Menominee (04030108), Cedar-Ford (04030109), Upper Fox (04030201), Wolf (04030202), Lake Winnebago (04030203), Lower Fox (04030204), Little Calumet-Galien (04040001), Pike-Root (04040002)*, Milwaukee (04040003), St. Joseph (04050001), Kalamazoo (04050003), Upper Grand (04050004), Maple (04050005), Lower Grand (04050006), Thornapple (04050007), Pere Marquette-White (04060101), Muskegon (04060102), Manistee (04060103), Betsie-Platte (04060104), Lake Michigan (04060200)*, Lone Lake-Ocqueoc (04070003), Cheboygan (04070004), Black (04070005), Thunder Bay (04070006), Au Sable (04070007), Kawkawlin-Pine (04080102), Pigeon-Wiscoggin (04080103), Birch-Willow (04080104), Tittabawassee (04080201), Pine (04080202), Shiawassee (04080203), Flint (04080204), Cass (04080205), Saginaw (04080206), St. Clair (04090001), Lake St. Clair (04090002), Clinton (04090003), Detroit (04090004), Huron (04090005), Ottawa-Stony (04100001), Raisin (04100002), St. Joseph (04100003), St. Marys (04100004), Upper Maumee (04100005), Tiffin (04100006), Auglaize (04100007)*, Blanchard (04100008)*, Lower Maumee (04100009)*, Cedar-Portage (04100010)*, Sandusky (04100011)*, Huron-Vermilion (04100012), Black-Rocky (04110001), Cuyahoga (04110002), Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003)*, Grand (04110004)*, Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101)+, Cattaraugus (04120102)*, Buffalo-Eighteenmile (04120103)*, Niagara (04120104), Oak Orchard-Twelvemile (04130001), Upper Genesee (04130002), Lower Genesee (04130003), Irondequoit-Ninemile (04140101)*, Seneca (04140201)
05 French (05010004)+, Conemaugh (05010007), Lower Allegheny (05010009), Lower Monongahela (05020005), Upper Ohio (05030101), Shenango (05030102)+, Mahoning (05030103)*, Upper Ohio-Wheeling (05030106), Tuscarawas (05040001)*, Mohican (05040002)*, Walhonding (05040003), Licking (05040006), Upper Scioto (05060001), Paint (05060003)*, Upper Great Miami (05080001), Lower Great Miami (05080002)*, Whitewater (05080003), Little Miami (05090202), Lower Kentucky (05100205)+, Upper Wabash (05120101), Eel (05120104), Middle Wabash-Deer (05120105), Tippecanoe (05120106), Wildcat (05120107), Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108), Vermilion (05120109), Sugar (05120110), Little Wabash (05120114)*, Upper White (05120201), Driftwood (05120204), Flatrock-Haw (05120205), Upper East Fork White (05120206), Patoka (05120209)
07 Mississippi Headwaters (07010101), Prairie-Willow (07010103), Elk-Nokasippi (07010104), Platte-Spunk (07010201), Clearwater-Elk (07010203), Twin Cities (07010206), Upper Minnesota (07020001)+, Lac Qui Parle (07020003)+, Hawk-Yellow Medicine (07020004), Chippewa (07020005), Middle Minnesota (07020007), Blue Earth (07020009), Lower Minnesota (07020012), Upper St. Croix (07030001), Namekagon (07030002), Lower St. Croix (07030005), Rush-Vermillion (07040001), Cannon (07040002), Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003), Zumbro (07040004), Trempealeau (07040005), Black (07040007), Root (07040008), Upper Chippewa (07050001), Flambeau (07050002), South Fork Flambeau (07050003), Jump (07050004), Lower Chippewa (07050005), Eau Claire (07050006), Red Cedar (07050007), Coon-Yellow (07060001), Upper Iowa (07060002), Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003), Turkey (07060004)+, Apple-Plum (07060005), Maquoketa (07060006), Upper Wisconsin (07070001), Lake Dubay (07070002), Castle Rock (07070003), Baraboo (07070004), Lower Wisconsin (07070005), Kickapoo (07070006)*, Copperas-Duck (07080101), Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102), Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103), Flint-Henderson (07080104), South Skunk (07080105), Upper Cedar (07080201), Shell Rock (07080202), Winnebago (07080203), West Fork Cedar (07080204), Middle Cedar (07080205), Lower Cedar (07080206), Upper Iowa (07080207), Middle Iowa (07080208), Lower Iowa (07080209), Upper Rock (07090001), Crawfish (07090002), Pecatonica (07090003), Sugar (07090004), Lower Rock (07090005), Kishwaukee (07090006), Green (07090007), Des Moines Headwaters (07100001), Upper Des Moines (07100002), East Fork Des Moines (07100003), Middle Des Moines (07100004), Boone (07100005), North Raccoon (07100006)*, North Fabius (07110002), South Fabius (07110003), Salt (07110007)*, Kankakee (07120001), Iroquois (07120002), Chicago (07120003), Des Plaines (07120004), Upper Illinois (07120005), Upper Fox (07120006), Lower Fox (07120007), Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001), Vermilion (07130002), Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003), Mackinaw (07130004), Spoon (07130005), Upper Sangamon (07130006), South Fork Sangamon (07130007), Lower Sangamon (07130008), Salt (07130009), La Moine (07130010), Lower Illinois (07130011), Macoupin (07130012), Cahokia-Joachim (07140101), Meramec (07140102), Bourbeuse (07140103), Big (07140104), Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105)*, Whitewater (07140107), Upper Kaskaskia (07140201)
08 Upper St. Francis (08020202)
09 Bois De Sioux (09020101), Otter Tail (09020103), Upper Red (09020104), Buffalo (09020106), Lower Sheyenne (09020204), Sandhill-Wilson (09020301), Red Lake (09020303), Clearwater (09020305), Turtle (09020307)+, Forest (09020308)+*
10 Popo Agie (10080003)+, James Headwaters (10160001)+*, Pipestem (10160002)+*, Upper James (10160003)+*, Upper Big Sioux (10170202)+*, Lower Big Sioux (10170203), Rock (10170204)*, Upper North Platte (10180002)+, Medicine Bow (10180004)+, Sweetwater (10180006)+, Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff (10180009)+, Upper Laramie (10180010)+, Lower Laramie (10180011)+, Middle South Platte-Cherry Creek (10190003)+*, St. Vrain (10190005)+*, Cache La Poudre (10190007)+*, Lone Tree-Owl (10190008)+*, Lower Lodgepole (10190016)+, Lower Elkhorn (10220003)+*, Blackbird-Soldier (10230001), Floyd (10230002)*, Little Sioux (10230003), Big Papillion-Mosquito (10230006)+*, One Hundred and Two (10240013)*, Smoky Hill Headwaters (10260001)*, Big (10260007)*, Upper Saline (10260009)*, Middle Kansas (10270102)+, Lower Kansas (10270104)+, Upper Marais Des Cygnes (10290101)+, Lower Marais Des Cygnes (10290102)+, Little Osage (10290103), Marmaton (10290104)+, Harry S. Missouri (10290105), Sac (10290106), Pomme De Terre (10290107), South Grand (10290108), Lake of the Ozarks (10290109), Niangua (10290110), Lower Osage (10290111), Upper Gasconade (10290201), Big Piney (10290202), Lower Gasconade (10290203), Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102), Lamine (10300103), Lower Missouri (10300200)
11 Beaver Reservoir (11010001), James (11010002), Bull Shoals Lake (11010003), Middle White (11010004), Buffalo (11010005), North Fork White (11010006), Upper Black (11010007), Current (11010008), Lower Black (11010009), Spring (11010010), Eleven Point (11010011), Little Red (11010014), Lower Cottonwood (11070203)+*, Upper Neosho (11070204)*
14 Big Sandy (14040104)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Spawns in spring and early summer (mostly late May and early June in northern Wisconsin; Vives 1990). Sexually mature by age 2-3 years. Longevity about 4 years in north.
Ecology Comments: Nests commonly used for spawning by syntopic shiners (genus NOTROPIS, subgenus LUXILIS), some of which may not spawn elsewhere (Vives 1990).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Generally in small to medium size, moderate to low gradient, cool to warm, typically clear, gravelly streams; in pools and slow to moderate runs, occasionally associated with higher aquatic plants; not common in rivers or lakes (Lee et al. 1980). Occurs in creeks and small to medium rivers, according to Page and Burr (1991). Spawns over gravel nest made by male in relatively shallow water often below a riffle. In northern Wisconsin, nested in areas with significantly greater depths and faster currents than were generally available; most nests built over sand in open areas (Vives 1990). Eggs settle among stones and buried as male adds more stones.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats mainly aquatic invertebrates. Consumes plant material, which may be of little nutritional value (Becker 1983).
Length: 22 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Medium Cyprinids

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 15 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 15 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. In some species, individuals may migrate variable distances between spawning areas and nonspawning habitats.

Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) for cyprinids are arbitrary but reflect the presumption that movements and appropriate separation distances generally should increase with fish size. Hence small, medium, and large cyprinids, respectively, have increasingly large separation distances. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than many kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 15 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 19Feb2013
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 26Aug1993
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Andersen, M.D. and B. Heidel. 2011. HUC-based species range maps. Prepared by Wyoming Natural Diversity Database for use in the pilot WISDOM application operational from inception to yet-to-be-determined date of update of tool.

  • Baxter, G.T. and M.D. Stone. 1995. Fishes of Wyoming. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 290 pp.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. Univ. Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1052 pp.

  • CROSS, F.B., AND J.T. COLLINS. 1975. FISHES IN KANSAS. UNIV. KANS. MUS.NAT.HIST., PUB.ED.SERIES NO.3.

  • CROSS, F.B.1967.HANDBOOK OF FISHES IN KANSAS. E. RAYMOND HALL.UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, LAWRENCE, KANSAS.

  • Cooper, E.L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania. Penn State Univ. Press, University Park, PA.

  • Cross, F.B. & Collins, J.T. 1975. Fishes in Kansas. University of Kansas Public Education Series, Museum of Natural History 35?:1-188, 48-49.

  • Dalton, K. W. 1989. Status of the hornyhead chub, Nocomis biguttatus, in Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist 103:180-185.

  • Dalton,K.W. 1988. Status report on the hornyhead chub (Nocomis biguttatus). COSEWIC.

  • Ferguson, M.M., D.L.G. Noakes and R.G. Danzmann. 1981. Morphological and biochomical systematics of chubs, Nocomis biguttatus and N. micropogon (Pisces: Cyprinidae), in southern Ontario. Can. J. Zool. 59: 771-775.

  • General Status, Environment Canada. 2015. Manitoba fish species and subnational ranks proposed by DFO.

  • Lachner, E. A., and R. E. Jenkins. 1971. Systematics, distribution, and evolution of the chub genus Nocomis Girard (Pisces, Cyprinidae) of eastern United States, with descriptions of new species. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 85:1-91.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American Freshwater Fishes. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C.

  • Maurakis, E. G., W. S. Woolcott, and M. H. Sabaj. 1991. Reproductive-behavioral phylogenetics of Nocomis species-groups. American Midland Naturalist 126:103-110.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • PFLIEGER,W.L.1975. THE FISHES OF MISSOURI. SULLIVAN, MARK. MISSOURI DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION.

  • PLATT, D.R. 1974. VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE SAND PRAIRIE NATURAL HISTORY RESERVATION, HARVEY COUNTY, KANSAS. TRANS. KANSAS ACAD. SCI. 76(1): 51-73.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Scott, W. B., and E. J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 184. 966 pp.

  • Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman. 1979. Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa. 966 pp.

  • Simon, James R. 1951. Wyoming Fishes. Bulletin no. 4. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Cheyenne, WY.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

  • Smith, C.L. 1985. The Inland Fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY. 522pp.

  • Vives, S. P. 1990. Nesting ecology and behavior of hornyhead chub Nocomis biguttatus, a keystone species in Allequash Creek, Wisconsin. American Midland Naturalist 124:46-56.

  • Woodling, J. 1985. Colorado's Little Fish: A Guide to the Minnows and Other Lesser Known Fishes in the State of Colorado. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Denver.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Baxter, G. T., and J. R. Simon. 1970. Wyoming fishes. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Cheyenne, Wyoming, 168 pp.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Cross, F. B., and J. T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. Second Edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. xvii + 315 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1983. Fishes of New York (maps and printout of a draft section on scarce fishes of New York). Unpublished draft.

  • Smith, C. L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, New York, xi + 522 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • State Natural Heritage Data Centers. 1996a. Aggregated element occurrence data from all U.S. state natural heritage programs, including the Tennessee Valley Authority, Navajo Nation and the District of Columbia. Science Division, The Nature Conservancy.

  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

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Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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