Neraudia angulata - Cowan
Angular-fruit Neraudia
Other English Common Names: Angular-fruited Neraudia
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Neraudia angulata Cowan (TSN 19174)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.143496
Element Code: PDURT05010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Nettle Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Urticales Urticaceae Neraudia
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Neraudia angulata
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 27Mar1997
Global Status Last Changed: 15Sep1989
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: This species is endemic to the Waianae Mountains of Oahu. Currently, about 15 occurrences are known, with a total of fewer than 150 plants. Threats to the species include goats, pigs, alien plants, and fire.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Hawaii (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (29Oct1991)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R1 - Pacific

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Fire is the major threat to this species (USFWS 2008). Other threats are feral goats and pigs, cattle, slugs, rats and invasive introduced plant species (including Schinus terebinthifolius, Ageratina riparia, Leucaena leucocephala, Panicum maximum, Passiflora suberosa, Psidium cattleianum, Morellafaya, Grevillea robusta, Schejjlera actinophylla, Syzygium cumini, Oplismenus hirtellus, and Psidium guajava) (USFWS 2008).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States HI

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
HI Honolulu (15003)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
20 Oahu (20060000)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: An erect shrub, 1.5-3 m tall. The leaves are covered with appressed hairs. Male and female flowers are borne on separate plants.
Technical Description: "Erect shrubs 1.5-3 m tall; branches pubescent with erect and +/- appressed hairs. Leaves grayish to greenish on lower surface, thin, elliptic, elliptic-ovate, or ovate, 7-15 cm long, 3-5.5 cm wide, upper surface sparsely sily pubescent, the hairs somewhat spreading or appressed, 0.2-0.4 mm long, lower surface moderately silky pubescent, the hairs appressed or somewhat spreading, 0.3-0.6 mm long, their tips primarily directed toward apex and margins, margins coarsely dentate above the middle or entire, apex long-acuminate or acute, base cuneate to rounded, petioles 0.8-3 cm long, pubescent with appressed and spreading hairs. Staminate flowers on pedicels 0-1 mm long, calyx silky pubescent, the hairs ascending, the lobes 2-3.5 mm long; pistillate flowers sessile, calyx conspicuously angled, silky pubescent, the hairs ascending to erect, also with some short, erect, uncinate hairs, apex 4-toothed, the teeth acuminate to long-acuminate, stigma 2-8 mm long, lacking receptive hairs on 1 surface. Achenes 1.5-2 mm long, angled, surrounded by the conspicuously angled and ridged, fleshy calyx, apical portion conical, not separated from basal portion by a constriction. Seed ovoid." (Wagner et al., 1990)
Diagnostic Characteristics: Lower leaf surface moderately silky pubescent, the hairs appressed or somewhat spreading, their tips primarily directed toward apex and margins; leaf margins coarsely dentate above the middle or entire; pistillate calyx conspicuously angled. Two varieties recognized. Waianae Mountains, Oahu. (Wagner et al., 1990)
Duration: PERENNIAL
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Cliff, Forest - Hardwood, Forest/Woodland, Shrubland/chaparral
Habitat Comments: Dry and moist forests and shrublands on gulch slopes and cliffs.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 27Mar1997
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: JQCL
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 30Sep1992

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Cowan, R.S. 1949. A taxonomic revision of the genus Neraudia (Urticaceae). Pacific Sci. 3:231-270.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2008. Neraudia angulata (No common name) 5-Year Review Short Form Summary. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office, Honolulu. Online. Available: (Accessed 2011).

  • Wagner, W.L., D.R. Herbst, and S.H. Sohmer. 1990. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Univ. Hawaii Press and Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1853 pp.

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