Neotamias siskiyou - (A.H. Howell, 1922)
Siskiyou Chipmunk
Synonym(s): Tamias siskiyou (A.H. Howell, 1922)
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Tamias siskiyou (A. H. Howell, 1922) (TSN 180204)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.101954
Element Code: AMAFB02070
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Mammals - Rodents
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Mammalia Rodentia Sciuridae Neotamias
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.
Concept Reference Code: B93WIL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Tamias siskiyou
Taxonomic Comments: Elevated to full species status (from subspecies of T. townsendii) by Sutton and Nadler (1974); see also Sutton (1987). Full species status of siskiyou was originally rejected by Levenson and Hoffmann (1984) and Jones et al. (1986). See Gannon and Lawlor (1989) for vocalization information supporting recognition of siskiyou as a distinct species. Jones et al. (1992) and Hoffmann et al. (in Wilson and Reeder 1993) accepted T. siskiyou as a distinct species.

Sutton and Patterson (2000) subsequently delineated two subspecies: the interior nominate T. siskiyou siskiyou (A.H. Howell, 1922) and the coastal T. siskiyou humboldti Sutton and Patterson.

Formerly included in genus Eutamias, which recently was included in the genus Tamias (Levenson et al. 1985; Jones et al. 1992, Hoffmann et al., in Wilson and Reeder 1993). Based on patterns of variation in ectoparasites (Jameson 1999) and molecular phylogenetics (Piaggio and Spicer 2001), the North American mammal checklist by Baker et al. (2003) placed all North American chipmunks (except Tamias striatus) in the genus Neotamias. Thorington and Hoffmann (in Wilson and Reeder 2005) noted that chipmunks could be legitimately allocated to one (Tamias), two (Neotamias, Tamias), or three (Tamias, Neotamias, Eutamias) genera; they chose to adopt the single-genus (Tamias) arrangement.

See Sutton (1992) for a key to the species of chipmunks.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4?
Global Status Last Reviewed: 05Nov1996
Global Status Last Changed: 05Nov1996
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N4? (05Sep1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States California (SNR), Oregon (S4?)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Siskiyou Mountains and coast of northern California to central Oregon (Hoffmann et al., in Wilson and Reeder 1993).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Siskiyou Mountains and coast of northern California to central Oregon (Hoffmann et al., in Wilson and Reeder 1993).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA, OR

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: Sechrest, 2002

Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Probably similar to T. TOWNSENDII which breeds in the spring and produces 1 litter of 4-6 altricial young between May and July.
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Conifer, Woodland - Conifer
Special Habitat Factors: Burrowing in or using soil, Fallen log/debris
Habitat Comments: Found at elevations of 6,000-7,000 ft. in the Canadian life zone.
Adult Food Habits: Frugivore, Granivore, Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Frugivore, Granivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: Feeds on seeds, fruit, fungi, insects, etc.
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Phenology Comments: Active throughout most of the year. Probably remains in its burrow during severe winter weather.
Economic Attributes
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Economic Comments: Sciurid mycophagy may play important role in forest ecology (Maser and Maser 1988).
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Chipmunks

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals in appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Mapping Guidance: If parts of the occurrence are separated (by less than 1 kilometer), these should be mapped as separate polygons.
Separation Barriers: Major water barriers of greater than 30 meters width; major roads of more than 30 meters of bare clearance.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Home ranges generally small, 0.2-4.0 hectares (Broadbooks 1970, Sheppard 1972, Gashwiler 1965, Storer et al. 1944, Roberts 1962, Brown 1971, Eliot 1968, Wadsworth 1972). However, dispersal movements may extend to at least 0.86 km (Roberts 1976). Given that recorded dispersal can be a conservative indicator of actual dispersal characteristics, especially when methods other than radio-telemetry are used to monitor movements, the separation distance used here for suitable habitat assumes that chipmunk dispersal is more extensive than currently documented. Certainly these mammals are capable of making extensive movements. The separation distance for suitable habitat is a compromise between the documented sedentary habits and the likely low probability that two locations separated by less than several kilometers of suitable habitat would represent different populations.

Barriers: In a study of small mammals and road-crossing, no TAMIAS STRIATUS (n=179) crossed highways with more than 30 meters of clearance (Oxley et al. 1974).

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .1 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Based on a home range of about 1 hectare (see Separation Justification).
Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G., and S. G. Cannings
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 13Apr1993
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Baker, R. J., L. C. Bradley, R. D. Bradley, J. W. Dragoo, M. D. Engstrom, R. S. Hoffman, C. A. Jones, F. Reid, D. W. Rice, and C. Jones. 2003a. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 2003. Museum of Texas Tech University Occasional Papers 229:1-23.

  • Banfield, A. W. F. 1974. The mammals of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Canada. 438 pp.

  • Broadbooks, H. E. 1970a. Home ranges and territorial behavior of the yellow-pine chipmunk, Eutamius amoenus. Journal of Mammalogy 51:310-26.

  • Broadbooks, H. E. 1970b. Populations of the yellow pine chipmunk, Eutamias amoenus. American Midland Naturalist 83:472-488.

  • Brown, J. H. 1971. Mechanisms of competitive exclusion between two species of chipmunks. Ecology 52:305-311.

  • Elliot, L. 1978. Social behavior and foraging ecology of the eastern chipmunk (TAMIAS STRIATUS) in the Adirondack Mountains. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 265. 107 pp.

  • Gannon, W. L., and T. E. Lawlor. 1989. Variation of the chip vocalization of three species of Townsend chipmunks (genus EUTAMIAS). J. Mamm. 70:740-753.

  • Gashwiler, J. S. 1965. Longevity and home range of a Townsend chipmunk. Journal of Mammalogy 46:693.

  • Grinnell, J. 1933. Review of the recent mammal fauna of California. University of California Publications in Zoology 40:71-234.

  • Hall, E. R. 1981a. The Mammals of North America, second edition. Vols. I & II. John Wiley & Sons, New York, New York. 1181 pp.

  • Ingles, L. G. 1965. Mammals of the Pacific States. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California.

  • Jackson, H. H. 1961. Mammals of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 504 pp.

  • Jameson, E. W., Jr. 1999. Host-ectoparasite relationships among North American chipmunks. Acta Theriologica 44:225-231.

  • Jones, J. K., Jr., D. C. Carter, H. H. Genoways, R. S. Hoffman, D. W. Rice, and C. Jones. 1986. Revised checklistof North American mammals north of Mexico, 1986. Occas. Papers Mus., Texas Tech Univ., 107:1-22.

  • Jones, J. K., Jr., R. S. Hoffman, D. W. Rice, C. Jones, R. J. Baker, and M. D. Engstrom. 1992a. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 1991. Occasional Papers, The Museum, Texas Tech University, 146:1-23.

  • Levenson, H. and R. S. Hoffmann. 1984. Systematic relationships among taxa in the Townsend chipmunk group. Southwestern Nat., 29:157-168.

  • Levenson, H., et al. 1985. Systematics of the Holarctic chipmunks (TAMIAS). J. Mammalogy 66:219-242.

  • Maser, C., and Z. Maser. 1988. Interactions among squirrels, mycorrhizal fungi, and coniferous forests in Oregon. Great Basin Nat. 48:358-369.

  • Oxley, D. J., M. B. Fenton and G. R. Carmody. 1974. The effects of roads on populations of small mammals. Journal of Applied Ecology 11: 51-59.

  • Piaggio, A. J., and G. S. Spicer. 2001. Molecular phylogeny of the chipmunks inferred from mitochondrial cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase II gene sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 20:335-350.

  • Roberts, D. R. 1962. Rodent movements in a cutover forest of the Sierra Nevada, California. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley.

  • Sheppard, D. 1972. Home ranges of chipmunks (EUTAMIAS) in Alberta. Journal of Mammalogy 53:379- 380.

  • Storer, T. I., F. C. Evans, and F. G. Palmer. 1944. Some rodent populations in the Sierra Nevada of California. Ecological Monographs 14:166-192.

  • Sutton, D. A. 1992. Tamias amoenus. Am. Soc. Mamm., Mammalian Species No. 390:1-8.

  • Sutton, D.A. and C.F. Nadler. 1974. Systematic revision of three Townsend chipmunks (EUTAMIAS TOWNSENDII). The South- western Naturalist 19(2):199-212.

  • Wadsworth, C. E. 1972. Observations of the Colorado chipmunk in southeastern Utah. Southwestern Naturalist 16:451-454.

  • Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.

  • Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 2005. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Third edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. Two volumes. 2,142 pp. Available online at: http://vertebrates.si.edu/msw/mswcfapp/msw/index.cfm

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