Nemastylis floridana - Small
Fall-flowering Ixia
Other English Common Names: Fall-flowering Pleatleaf
Other Common Names: fallflowering pleatleaf
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Nemastylis floridana Small (TSN 503936)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.160079
Element Code: PMIRI0B010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Iris Family
Image 10429

© Alfred R. Schotz

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Liliales Iridaceae Nemastylis
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Nemastylis floridana
Taxonomic Comments: One of two species in the southeastern United States.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 29Mar2012
Global Status Last Changed: 04Jan1985
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: The Florida Natural Areas Inventory database has 23 occurrences which have been seen in the 15 years between 1997 and 2012. Drainage, clearing, and agriculture are destroying the remaining suitable habitat.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Florida (S2)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Endemic to eastern Florida, primarily in the St. Johns River drainage. Known from the following counties: Flagler, Volusia, Lake, Seminole, Orange, Brevard, Osceola, Pasco, Polk, Palm Beach, Martin, Broward Counties (reported extirpated); reported from Okeechobee.

Area of Occupancy: 26-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Endemic to eastern counties of FL, primarily in the St. Johns River drainage. Once widespread in eastern FL, this species now occurs in about 15 managed areas, where it may be locally abundant if its habitat is frequently burned (Chafin 2000).

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: The Florida Natural Areas Inventory database has 23 occurrences which have been seen in the 15 years between 1997 and 2012 (EO data in the NatureServe central database as of February 2012).

Population Size Comments: Large populations (1000's of plants) have been reported.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Some (13-40)

Overall Threat Impact: High
Overall Threat Impact Comments: The threats to this rare plant are high (or even very high). These threats include residential and commercial development, conversion/modification of habitat for wood and pulp plantations and routine plantation operations (including wetland drainage, and the use of fertilizers and herbicides). The lack of fire and effects of fire suppression activities are big threats since this rare plant depends on frequent fire, such as every 2-3 years. Mowing and clearing of roadside ditches is also a threat, where the rare plants occur along roadsides.

Short-term Trend: Decline of 30-50%

Long-term Trend: Decline of 50-70%
Long-term Trend Comments: Once widespread in eastern FL, this species now occurs in about 15 managed areas, where it may be locally abundant if its habitat is frequently burned (Chafin 2000).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Cannot tolerate drainage and filling.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Endemic to eastern Florida, primarily in the St. Johns River drainage. Known from the following counties: Flagler, Volusia, Lake, Seminole, Orange, Brevard, Osceola, Pasco, Polk, Palm Beach, Martin, Broward Counties (reported extirpated); reported from Okeechobee.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FL

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
FL Brevard (12009), Flagler (12035), Lake (12069), Okeechobee (12093), Orange (12095), Osceola (12097), Palm Beach (12099), Pasco (12101), Polk (12105), Seminole (12117)*, St. Johns (12109), Volusia (12127)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Upper St. Johns (03080101)+, Lower St. Johns (03080103)+, Daytona - St. Augustine (03080201)+, Cape Canaveral (03080202)+, Vero Beach (03080203)+, Kissimmee (03090101)+, Florida Southeast Coast (03090206)+, Withlacoochee (03100208)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial, terrestrial herb from a small, brown, fibrous-coated bulb reaching 1.5 m tall. Basal leaves are linear, 4-5 cm long at maturity. Two-flowered inflorescence; flowers are deep blue, gradually lightening toward the base (Ward 1979); open in the late afternoon. Nemastylis floridana may be characterized by filaments united entirely or only in the lower half, rarely joined only near base; cauline leaves narrow, less than 4 mm wide, or bractlike; plants fall blooming; usually several branched and exceeding 40 cm in height; style arms about 5 mm long (Goldblatt 1975). Flowering: (July) August - October (December), late afternoon (3:30) 4:00 - 6:00 (6:30) pm. Fruiting: 4-weeks post flowering

Technical Description: "Plants slender, tall, to 120 cm. Bulbs about 1.5 cm in diameter, brown, ovate. Basal leaves 2 or 3, linear, up to 1 cm wide, plicate. Stem slender, several- to many-branched. Cauline leaves leaflike below, bractlike toward the apex. Inflorescence usually 2-flowered, spathes herbaceous with dry apices; the inner spathe 2.5-3 cm long, the outer one about half that length. Flowers dark blue, opening in the late afternoon; tepals ovate-lanceolate, spreading, about 2 cm long. Filaments joined in a tube about 2 mm long; anthers less than 1 cm long. Style branching at the apex of the filament tube; branches about 5 mm long, divided to base. Capsule about 1 cm long, ovoid, truncate" (Goldblatt, 1975).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Nemastylis floridana may be characterized by filaments united entirely or only in the lower half, rarely joined only near base; cauline leaves narrow, less than 4 mm wide, or bractlike; plants fall blooming; usually several branched and exceeding 40 cm in height; style arms about 5 mm long (Goldblatt, 1975).
Difficult to see when not flowering, however, flowers of this family are typically large, showy, and have a perianth tube and nectaries. The similar Bartram's ixia (Calydorea coelestina) is from northern Florida (although it may overlap its range) and flowers only in the morning (mid-April - mid-June).

Duration: PERENNIAL
Reproduction Comments: Flowers of this family are typically large, showy, with perianth tube and nectaries.
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, HERBACEOUS WETLAND
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Hardwood, Forest Edge, Forest/Woodland, Woodland - Conifer
Habitat Comments: Low sunny areas in wet flatwoods, swamp, and marsh borders. Also in wet, grassy, sandy peat clearings in slash pine-saw palmetto vegetation, and cabbage palm hammocks.


Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: This rare plant is at risk. Habitats where this species is found should not be drained as this practice eliminates the species along with the grass-sedge complex of which it is a part. Prescribed burnings and/or thinning of overstory may be beneficial to the species (Kral, 1983). Burn flatwoods and prairies every 2 - 3 years. Protect wetlands from draining, ditching, and conversion to pasture and pine plantation (Chafin 2000).
Management Requirements: Burn flatwoods and prairies every 2 - 3 years. Protect wetlands from draining, ditching, and conversion to pasture and pine plantation (Chafin 2000).

Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 29Mar2012
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hardin, E.D., rev. D.L. White (1990), rev. C. Nordman (2012).
Management Information Edition Date: 29Mar2012
Management Information Edition Author: Nordman, C.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 01Jul1992

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Chafin, L. G. 2000. Field guide to the rare plants of Florida. Florida Natural Areas Inventory, Tallahassee. [http://www.fnai.org/FieldGuide/]

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002a. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 26. Magnoliophyta: Liliidae: Liliales and Orchidales. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxvi + 723 pp.

  • Goldblatt, P. 1975. Revision of the bulbous Iridaceae of North America. Brittonia 27: 373-385.

  • Hall, D.W. 1993. Illustrated plants of Florida and the Coastal Plain. Maupin House, Gainesville, Florida. 431 pp.

  • Hall, David W. 1993. Illustrated plants of Florida and the coastal plain. Maupin House, Gainesville, FL. pp. 431.

  • KRAL, R. 1983.A REPORT ON SOME RARE,THREATENED,OR ENDANGEREDFOREST-RELATED VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE SOUTH.VOL I ISOETACEAETHROUGH EUPHORBIACEAE;VOL II AQUIFOLIACEA THROUGH ASTERACEAE& GLOSSARY.USDA FOREST SERV,SE REG.,ATL,GA. TECH PUBL R8-TP2

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kral, R. 1983c. A report on some rare, threatened, or endangered forest-related vascular plants of the South. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service Technical Publication R8-TP2, Athens, GA. 1305 pp.

  • Mackiernan and E. Norman. 1979. Reproductive Biology of Nemastylis floridana Small (Iridaceae) Fl. Sci. 40:229-236.

  • RADFORD, A., H. AHLES AND C. BELL. 1968 MANUAL OF THE VASCULAR FLORA OF THE CAROLINAS. THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA PRESS CHAPEL HILL. 1183 PP + LXI.

  • Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pp.

  • Small, J. K. 1931. Celestial lilies. Journal of the New York Botanical Garden. XXXII(383):260-269.

  • Small, J.K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora. Two volumes. Hafner Publishing Company, New York.

  • Taylor, W.K. 1992. The guide to Florida wildflowers. Taylor Publishing, Dallas, Texas. 320 pp.

  • Taylor, Walter Kingsley. 1992. The Guide to Florida Wildflowers. Taylor Publishing Company, Dallas, Texas. 320 pp.

  • WARD, D.B. (ED). 1979. RARE AND ENDANGERED BIOTA OF FLORIDA, VOLUME 5: PLANTS. UNIVERSITY PRESSES OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE.

  • WUNDERLIN, RICHARD P. 1982. GUIDE TO THE VASCULAR PLANTS OF CENTRAL FLORIDA. UNIV. PRESSES OF FLA., TAMPA, ST. PETERSBURG, FT. MEYERS, SARASOTA

  • Ward, D.B., ed. 1979. Rare and endangered biota of Florida. Vol. 5: Plants. Univ. Presses of Florida, Gainesville.

  • Wunderlin, R.P. 1982. Guide to the vascular plants of central Florida. Univ. Presses Florida, Gainesville. 472 pp.

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