Necturus punctatus - (Gibbes, 1850)
Dwarf Waterdog
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Necturus punctatus (Gibbes, 1850) (TSN 173625)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.103777
Element Code: AAAAE01050
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Amphibians - Salamanders
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Amphibia Caudata Proteidae Necturus
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Frost, D. R. 1985. Amphibian species of the world. A taxonomic and geographical reference. Allen Press, Inc., and The Association of Systematics Collections, Lawrence, Kansas. v + 732 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B85FRO01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Necturus punctatus
Taxonomic Comments: See Maxson et al. (1988) for information on NECTURUS phylogeny based on albumin analysis. Genetically most closely related to N. LEWISI (Guttman et al. 1990).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 18Apr2013
Global Status Last Changed: 18Apr2013
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (18Apr2013)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Georgia (S2S3), North Carolina (S5), South Carolina (SNR), Virginia (S2S3)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 20,000-200,000 square km (about 8000-80,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range encompasses the Coastal Plain from southeastern Virginia to at least central Georgia, and the Fall Line and Piedmont from North Carolina to Georgia; populations westward to Mobile appear to be related to N. beyeri or possibly represent an undescribed species (see Dundee 1998).

Number of Occurrences: 81 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by many and/or large occurrences throughout most of the range. Dundee (1998) mapped well over 100 collection sites.

Population Size: 100,000 - 1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 10,000 and probably exceeds 100,000.

Viability/Integrity Comments: Viable populations occur in most areas of the range in North Carolina (see Petranka 1998).

Overall Threat Impact: Low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: This species persists widely throughout its historical range, despite water pollution.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)

Long-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable

Environmental Specificity: Narrow to moderate.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (20,000-200,000 square km (about 8000-80,000 square miles)) Range encompasses the Coastal Plain from southeastern Virginia to at least central Georgia, and the Fall Line and Piedmont from North Carolina to Georgia; populations westward to Mobile appear to be related to N. beyeri or possibly represent an undescribed species (see Dundee 1998).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States GA, NC, SC, VA

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: IUCN, Conservation International, NatureServe, and collaborators, 2004


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
GA Bibb (13021), Bryan (13029)*, Burke (13033), Crawford (13079), Effingham (13103)*, Glascock (13125), Hancock (13141), Houston (13153), Jefferson (13163), Peach (13225), Richmond (13245), Screven (13251), Twiggs (13289)
VA Brunswick (51025)*, Dinwiddie (51053), Emporia (City) (51595)*, Greensville (51081), Prince George (51149)*, Sussex (51183)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Nottoway (03010201)+, Blackwater (03010202)+*, Meheriin (03010204)+, Middle Savannah (03060106)+, Brier (03060108)+, Upper Ogeechee (03060201)+, Lower Ogeechee (03060202)+*, Ogeechee Coastal (03060204)+*, Upper Ocmulgee (03070103)+, Lower Ocmulgee (03070104)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Paedomorphic. Oviposition probably occurs sometime from March-May in South Carolina (Meffe and Sheldon 1987). Hatchlings appear in fall. Sexually mature in about 5 years.
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, CREEK, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Bottoms of slow, sand- or mud-bottomed streams and connected ditches, cypress swamps; also stream-fed rice fields and mill ponds. Favors bottoms with leaf litter and detritus. Juveniles burrow into bottom. Adults congregate in leaf beds in winter. Eggs probably are attached to undersides of objects in water.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Diet in South Carolina included earthworms, chironomid larvae, crayfish, mayfly nymphs, and salamanders (Meffe and Sheldon 1987).
Length: 19 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Proteid Salamanders (Waterdogs)

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including larvae or eggs) in or near appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Barriers: Dams and impoundments (except N. maculosus); upland habitat
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: These salamanders are strictly aquatic and cannot cross upland habitat. With the exception of N. maculosus, these salamanders are unlikely to successfully traverse an impoundment to reach suitable habitat downstream from a dam, unless the impoundment is very small. Because waterdogs do not climb and probably cannot use fishways, virtually all dams constitute a barrier to upstream movements.

Heavily silted or polluted streams may constitute a barrier or at least unsuitable habitat, depending on the severity of the conditions.

Based on data for the hellbender (Cryptobranchus allegheniensis), home ranges probably tend to be small, but information on periodic long-range movements, dispersal distances, and recolonization ability is not available.

The separation distance for unsuitable habitat reflects the nominal minimum value of 1 km. The 10-km separation distance for suitable habitat reflects the ease of movement and dispersal along riverine habitats and the likely low probability than locations separated by less than 10 km of suitable habitat would represent independent populations.

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .1 km
Date: 15Mar2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 28Mar2002
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 26Oct1993
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Behler, J. L., and F. W. King. 1979. The Audubon Society field guide to North American reptiles and amphibians. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. 719 pp.

  • Blackburn, L., P. Nanjappa, and M. J. Lannoo. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Copyright, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana, USA.

  • Dundee, H.A. 1998. Necturus punctatus. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. 663:1-5.

  • Frost, D. R. 1985. Amphibian species of the world. A taxonomic and geographical reference. Allen Press, Inc., and The Association of Systematics Collections, Lawrence, Kansas. v + 732 pp.

  • Guttman, S.I., L.A. Weight, P.A. Moler, R.E. Ashton, Jr., B.W. Mansell and J. Peavy. 1990. An electrophoretic analysis of Necturus from the southeastern United States. Journal of Herpetology. 24:163-175.

  • MEFFE, G. K., AND AL. L. SHELDON. 1987. HABITAT USE BY DWARF WATERDOGS (NECTURUS PUNCTATUS) IN SOUTH CAROLINA STREAMS, WITH LIFE HISTORY NOTES. HERPETOLOGICA 43(4):490-496.

  • Martof, B. S., W. M. Palmer, J. R. Bailey, and J. R. Harrison, III. 1980. Amphibians and reptiles of the Carolinas and Virginia. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. 264 pp.

  • Maxson, L. R., P. E. Moler, and B. W. Mansell. 1988. Albumin evolution in salamanders of the genus NECTURUS. Journal of Herpetology 22:231-235.

  • Meffe, G. K., and A. L. Sheldon. 1987. Habitat use by dwarf waterdogs (NECTURUS PUNCTATUS) in South Carolina streams, with life history notes. Herpetologica 43:490-496.

  • Petranka, J. W. 1998. Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

  • SEYLE, W., AND G. K. WILLIAMSON. 1988 (IN PREP). REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS OF GEORGIA: RANGE MAPS

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