Necturus beyeri complex - Viosca, 1937
Gulf Coast Waterdog
Synonym(s): Necturus beyeri Viosca, 1937 ;Necturus sp. cf. beyeri
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Necturus beyeri Viosca, 1937 (TSN 173629)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.100737
Element Code: AAAAE01020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Amphibians - Salamanders
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Amphibia Caudata Proteidae Necturus
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Frost, D. R. 1985. Amphibian species of the world. A taxonomic and geographical reference. Allen Press, Inc., and The Association of Systematics Collections, Lawrence, Kansas. v + 732 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B85FRO01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Necturus beyeri complex
Taxonomic Comments: Bart et al. (1997) determined/confirmed that N. alabamensis and N. beyeri are distinct species and that the name N. alabamensis applies only to the waterdog in the upper Black Warrior River drainage (see Bart et al. [1997] for an account of the nomenclatural history of this and related species). Waterdogs included here in the N. beyeri complex evidently comprise multiple species (Guttman et al. 1990, Bart et al. 1997); further study is needed to resolve the taxonomic status of the involved populations. In this database, the N. beyeri complex includes "Necturus sp. cf. beyeri" of Bart et al. (1997).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 28Mar2002
Global Status Last Changed: 30Oct2001
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N4 (05Nov1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNR), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S3), Louisiana (S3), Mississippi (S4), Texas (S3)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 20,000-2,500,000 square km (about 8000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Lower Coastal Plain from Texas eastward to the Mobile Bay drainage in Alabama (Bart et al. 1997). Acknowledging the unresolved taxonomy of Necturus on the eastern Gulf Slope, Bart et al. (1997) recommended that Necturus populations in this region (Lake Pontchartrain through Ochlockonee River drainages) be referred to as Necturus sp. cf. beyeri (in this database, these populations are allocated to the N. beyeri complex until the situation is resolved).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: The degree to which this species has been detrimentally impacted by stream siltation and pollution is unknown (Petranka 1998).

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable

Environmental Specificity: Very narrow to narrow.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (20,000-2,500,000 square km (about 8000-1,000,000 square miles)) Lower Coastal Plain from Texas eastward to the Mobile Bay drainage in Alabama (Bart et al. 1997). Acknowledging the unresolved taxonomy of Necturus on the eastern Gulf Slope, Bart et al. (1997) recommended that Necturus populations in this region (Lake Pontchartrain through Ochlockonee River drainages) be referred to as Necturus sp. cf. beyeri (in this database, these populations are allocated to the N. beyeri complex until the situation is resolved).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, FL, GA, LA, MS, TX

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: IUCN, Conservation International, NatureServe, and collaborators, 2004


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
GA Baker (13007), Clayton (13063)*, Dougherty (13095)*, Fayette (13113)*, Grady (13131), Lee (13177)*, Macon (13193), Marion (13197)*, Sumter (13261), Talbot (13263)*, Taylor (13269), Terrell (13273)*, Thomas (13275), Webster (13307)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Upper Ochlockonee (03120002)+, Middle Chattahoochee-Walter F. George Reservoir (03130003)+*, Upper Flint (03130005)+, Middle Flint (03130006)+, Kinchafoonee-Muckalee (03130007)+*, Lower Flint (03130008)+*, Ichawaynochaway (03130009)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Lays clutches of 37-67 eggs, April-June. Paedomorphic.
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, SPRING/SPRING BROOK
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Spring-fed streams with sandy bottom. Bottom dweller. In Louisiana, closely associated with leaf litter deposits in stream; may burrow into bottom during warm season (Bart and Holzenthal 1985). Probably attaches eggs to objects in water.
Adult Food Habits: Carnivore, Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Carnivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: In Louisiana, diet of juveniles and subadults includes mainly isopods, midges, and small mayflies; adult diet mainly large mayflies and caddisflies (Bart and Holzenthal 1985).
Adult Phenology: Nocturnal
Immature Phenology: Nocturnal
Length: 22 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Proteid Salamanders (Waterdogs)

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including larvae or eggs) in or near appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Barriers: Dams and impoundments (except N. maculosus); upland habitat
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: These salamanders are strictly aquatic and cannot cross upland habitat. With the exception of N. maculosus, these salamanders are unlikely to successfully traverse an impoundment to reach suitable habitat downstream from a dam, unless the impoundment is very small. Because waterdogs do not climb and probably cannot use fishways, virtually all dams constitute a barrier to upstream movements.

Heavily silted or polluted streams may constitute a barrier or at least unsuitable habitat, depending on the severity of the conditions.

Based on data for the hellbender (Cryptobranchus allegheniensis), home ranges probably tend to be small, but information on periodic long-range movements, dispersal distances, and recolonization ability is not available.

The separation distance for unsuitable habitat reflects the nominal minimum value of 1 km. The 10-km separation distance for suitable habitat reflects the ease of movement and dispersal along riverine habitats and the likely low probability than locations separated by less than 10 km of suitable habitat would represent independent populations.

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .1 km
Date: 15Mar2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 28Mar2002
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 20Dec1989
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • BART, H.L., M.A.BAILEY, R.E.ASHTON,JR., AND P.E. MOLER. 1997. TAXONOMIC AND NOMENCLATURAL STATUS OF THE UPPER BLACK WARRIOR RIVER WATERDOG. JOURNAL OF HERPETOLOGY. VOL.31, NO. 2, PP. 192-201.

  • Bart, H. L., Jr., M. A. Bailey, R. E. Ashton, Jr., and P. E. Moler. 1997. Taxonomic and nomenclatural status of the upper Black Warrior River waterdog. Journal of Herpetology 31(2):192-201.

  • Bart, H. L., Jr., M. A. Bailey, R. E. Ashton, Jr., and P. E. Moler. 1997. Taxonomic and nomenclatural status of the upper Black Warrior River waterdog. Journal of Herpetology 31:192-201.

  • Bart, H. L., Jr., and R. W. Holzenthal. 1985. Feeding ecology of NECTURUS BEYERI in Louisiana. J. Herpetol. 19: 402-410.

  • Behler, J. L., and F. W. King. 1979. The Audubon Society field guide to North American reptiles and amphibians. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. 719 pp.

  • Blackburn, L., P. Nanjappa, and M. J. Lannoo. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Copyright, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana, USA.

  • Cliburn, J.W. 1976. A key to the amphibians and reptiles of Mississippi. Fourth edition. Mississippi Museum of Natural Science, Jackson, Mississippi. 71 pp.

  • Conant, R. 1975. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. Second Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. xvii + 429 pp.

  • Cook, F.A. 1957. Salamanders of Mississippi. Mississippi Game and Fish Commission Museum. 28 pp.

  • Crother, B. I. (editor). 2008. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Sixth edition. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Herpetological Circular 37:1-84.

  • DIXON, JAMES R. 1987. AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF TEXAS, WITH KEYS, TAXONOMIC SYNOPSES, BIBLIOGRAPHY, AND DISTRIBUTION MAPS. TEXAS A& M UNIV. PRESS, COLLEGE STATION. xii + 434 pp.

  • Dundee, H.E., and D.A. Rossman. 1989. The amphibians and reptiles of Louisiana. Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge. 300 pp.

  • Frost, D. R. 1985. Amphibian species of the world. A taxonomic and geographical reference. Allen Press, Inc., and The Association of Systematics Collections, Lawrence, Kansas. v + 732 pp.

  • Frost, D. R. 2002. Amphibian Species of the World: an online reference. V2.21 (15 July 2002). Electronic database available at http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html.

  • GARRETT, JUDITH M. AND DAVID G. BARKER. 1987. A FIELD GUIDE TO REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS OF TEXAS. TEXAS MONTHLY PRESS, AUSTIN. xi + 225 pp.

  • Guttman, S.I., L.A. Weight, P.A. Moler, R.E. Ashton, Jr., B.W. Mansell and J. Peavy. 1990. An electrophoretic analysis of Necturus from the southeastern United States. Journal of Herpetology. 24:163-175.

  • Lohoefener, R. and R. Altig. 1983. Mississippi herpetology. Mississippi State University Research Center, NSTL Station, Mississippi. 66 pp.

  • Maxson, L. R., P. E. Moler, and B. W. Mansell. 1988. Albumin evolution in salamanders of the genus NECTURUS. Journal of Herpetology 22:231-235.

  • Mirarchi, R.E., editor. 2004. Alabama Wildlife. Volume 1. A checklist of vertebrates and selected invertebrates: aquatic mollusks, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 209 pages.

  • Mount, R. H. 1975. The reptiles and amphibians of Alabama. Auburn University Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn, Alabama. vii + 347 pages.

  • Mount, R.H. 1975. The reptiles and amphibians of Alabama. Auburn University, Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn. 347 pp.

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