Nasua narica - (Linnaeus, 1766)
White-nosed Coati
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Nasua narica (Linnaeus, 1766) (TSN 552462)
Spanish Common Names: Pizote, Cozumbo
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.103087
Element Code: AMAJE03010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Mammals - Carnivores
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Mammalia Carnivora Procyonidae Nasua
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.
Concept Reference Code: B93WIL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Nasua narica
Taxonomic Comments: Decker (1991) regarded N. narica of North and Central America as specifically distinct from N. nasua of South America. Jones et al. (1992) and Wozencraft (in Wilson and Reeder 1993, 2005) followed Decker in recognizing N. nasua and N. narica as distinct species. See Decker (1991) for a phylogenetic analysis on procyonid genera (analysis based on skeletal and soft morphological characters).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 18Nov1996
Global Status Last Changed: 18Nov1996
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N4 (05Sep1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Arizona (S4), New Mexico (S2), Texas (S1)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species Protection Status (CITES): Appendix III

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Central Arizona, southwestern New Mexico, and southern Texas south through Mexico (except Baja California) and Central America to northernmost Colombia, South America (Wozencraft, in Wilson and Reeder 1993). In Arizona and New Mexico, breeds from the Animas Mountains in southwestern New Mexico west to the Baboquivari Mountains in Arizona, and north as far as the Gila River; occurrences from farther north likely represent occasional wanderers or released captives (Gompper 1995). Current distribution and breeding status in Texas is uncertain.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Central Arizona, southwestern New Mexico, and southern Texas south through Mexico (except Baja California) and Central America to northernmost Colombia, South America (Wozencraft, in Wilson and Reeder 1993). In Arizona and New Mexico, breeds from the Animas Mountains in southwestern New Mexico west to the Baboquivari Mountains in Arizona, and north as far as the Gila River; occurrences from farther north likely represent occasional wanderers or released captives (Gompper 1995). Current distribution and breeding status in Texas is uncertain.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AZ, NM, TX

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002; Sechrest, 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NM Catron (35003)*, Grant (35017)*, Hidalgo (35023), Socorro (35053)
TX Hidalgo (48215), Starr (48427)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
12 Central Laguna Madre (12110207)+
13 Rio Grande-Albuquerque (13020203)+, Playas Lake (13030201)+, Los Olmos (13090001)+
15 Upper Gila (15040001)+*, Animas Valley (15040003)+, San Simon (15040006)+*, San Bernardino Valley (15080302)+*, Cloverdale (15080303)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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General Description: See Gompper (1995).
Diagnostic Characteristics: See Gompper (1995).
Reproduction Comments: Brief pair-bond. Gestation lasts about 77 days. Young are born in early summer (June-July). Litter size is 4-6.
Ecology Comments: Often travels in groups of a dozen or more individuals; groups consist of mothers and young males and females during much of year. Males solitary most of year (Hoffmeister 1986).
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Palustrine Habitat(s): Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Cropland/hedgerow, Forest - Conifer, Forest - Hardwood, Forest - Mixed, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Hardwood, Woodland - Mixed
Special Habitat Factors: Standing snag/hollow tree
Habitat Comments: Broken tropical forests of coastal plains, pine forest, mesquite grassland, oak scrub. In southwestern U.S.: canyons (oak-sycamore-walnut, oak-pine, shrub-grass); usually near water. Dens in crevice, under tree roots, in cave or mine, or in hollow trees (Leopold 1959).
Adult Food Habits: Carnivore, Frugivore, Granivore, Herbivore, Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Carnivore, Frugivore, Granivore, Herbivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: Omnivorous. Preferred foods are fruits and berries, but bulbs, roots, leaves, insects, worms, spiders, lizards, small mammals, birds, and bird eggs also are eaten. May eat cultivated crops. Forages on ground and in trees.
Adult Phenology: Crepuscular, Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Crepuscular, Diurnal
Phenology Comments: Some activity at night but primarily diurnal; most active in morning and evening. Active throughout the year.
Length: 134 centimeters
Weight: 12200 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals in appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Barriers: Major water bodies (arbitrarily set at 1 kilometer or more across).
Alternate Separation Procedure: Occurrences generally should be based on major occupied physiographic or ecogeographic units that are separated along areas of relatively low coati density or use. These units may be based on available sightings/records or on movements of radio-tagged individuals, or they may be based on the subjective determinations by biologists familiar with coatis and their habitats. Where occupied habitat is exceptionally extensive and continuous, that habitat may be subdivided into multiple contiguous occurrences as long as that does not reduce the occurrence rank (i.e., do not split up an A occurrence into multiple occurrences that would be ranked less than A). The dividing lines should be made as much as possible along lines of limited coati use.
Separation Justification: In Arizona, solitary males studied for 6 months had home ranges of about 1.8 sq km (Lanning 1976), and females studied during the parturition season had home ranges of about 2.0 sq km (Ratnayeke et al. 1994; home ranges calculated using minimum-convex polygon). Kaufmann et al. (1976) reportd that home ranges of males in Arizona varied from 0.7 to 2.7 sq km. Extensive movements in Arizona suggested that coatis may be nomadic or seminomadic in this part of their geographic range (Wallmo and Gallizioli 1954, Kaufmann et al. 1976). In another study in southeastern Arizona, home ranges averaged 13.6 sq km (range 7.8-22.4 sq km) for troops (matriarchal groups) (n =9) and 6.1 sq km (range 3.4-10.7 sq km) for solitary males (n = 7; kernel-density estimator) (Haas 2002). Home ranges and core areas of males tended to follow streams with permanent water. Home ranges of troops typically encompassed several drainages, but core areas also tended to follow permanent streams (Haas 2002). Locations of annual home ranges and core areas shifted slightly from year to year, indicating minor range drift but no nomadism by radiocollared coatis in this population (Haas 2002). Home ranges in the northern extent of the range are larger than those recorded in moist tropical forests. For example, home ranges of groups on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, were 0.35 to 0.45 sq km (Kaufmann 1962).

Haas (2002) reported that two marked male coatis in Arizona began raiding gardens and bird feeders of residences located at the base of the mountains. These males were translocated from their home ranges to the far side of the mountain range, distances of 9 and 18 km. Both males returned within 4 months to reoccupy their respective home ranges.

Dispersal has not been adequately studied, but clearly these mammals are capable of extensive movements such that dispersal of 10s of kilometers would not be unexpected. Thus it seems most reasonable to base occurrences on major occupied landscape features rather than on specific prescribed separation distances.

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .94 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Based on a small home range in Arizona of 70 hectares (Kaufmann et al. 1976).
Date: 10Mar2005
Author: Hammerson, G., and S. Cannings
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 10Mar2005
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Alberico, M., A. Cadena, J. Hernández-Camacho, and Y. Muñoz-Saba. 2000. Mamíferos (Synapsida: Theria) de Colombia. Biota Colombiana. 1(1):43-75.

  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • Bradley, R.D., L.K. Ammerman, R.J. Baker, L.C. Bradley, J.A. Cook. R.C. Dowler, C. Jones, D.J. Schmidly, F.B. Stangl Jr., R.A. Van den Bussche and B. Würsig. 2014. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 2014. Museum of Texas Tech University Occasional Papers 327:1-28. Available at: http://www.nsrl.ttu.edu/publications/opapers/ops/OP327.pdf

  • Carrillo, E., G. Wong, and A. Cuarón. 2000. Monitoring mammal populations in Costa Rican protected areas under different hunting restrictions. Conservation Biology 14:1580-1591.

  • Decker, D. M., and W. C. Wozencraft. 1991. Phylogenetic analysis of recent procyonid genera. Journal of Mammalogy 72:42-55.

  • Escamilla, A., M. Sanvicente, M. Sosa, and C. Galindo-Leal. 2000. Habitat mosaic, wildlife availability, and hunting in the tropical forest of Calakmul, Mexico. Conservation Biology 14:1592-1601.

  • Gompper, M. E. 1995. NASUA NARICA. Mammalian Species (487):1-10.

  • Gompper, M. E. 1995. Nasua narica. American Society of Mammalogists, Mammalian Species 487:1-10.

  • Haas, C. C. 2002. Home-range dynamics of white-nosed coatis in southeastern Arizona. Journal of Mammalogy 83:934-946.

  • Hall, E. R. 1981a. The Mammals of North America, second edition. Vols. I & II. John Wiley & Sons, New York, New York. 1181 pp.

  • Henke, Scott E., and J. G. Young. 1997. First sight records of a white-nosed coati in Texas in nearly thirty years. Texas Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources 10:51-53.

  • Hoffmeister, D. F. 1986. Mammals of Arizona. University of Arizona Press and Arizona Game and Fish Department. 602 pp.

  • Jones, J. K., Jr. and C. Jones. 1992. Revised checklist of recent land mammals of Texas, with annotations. The Texas Journal of Science 44(1):53-74.

  • Jones, J. K., Jr., C. Jones, and D. J. Schmidly. 1988. Annotated checklist of recent land mammals of Texas. Occasional Papers The Museum Texas Tech University 119:1-26.

  • Jones, J. K., Jr., R. S. Hoffman, D. W. Rice, C. Jones, R. J. Baker, and M. D. Engstrom. 1992a. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 1991. Occasional Papers, The Museum, Texas Tech University, 146:1-23.

  • Jones, J. K., S. Demarais, and C. T. McAllister. 1995. Contribution to a bibliography of recent Texas mammals 1981-1990. Special Publications, The Museum Texas Tech University 38:1-64.

  • Kaufmann, J. H. 1962. Ecology and social behavior of the coati, NASUA NARICA, on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. University of California Publications in Zoology 60:95-222.

  • Kaufmann, J. H., D. V. Lanning, and S. E. Poole. 1976. Current status and distribution of the coati in the United States. Journal of Mammalogy 57:621-37.

  • Lanning, D. V. 1976. Density and movements of the coati in Arizona. Journal of Mammalogy 57:609-611.

  • Leopold, A. S. 1959. Wildlife of Mexico. University of California Press, Berkeley.

  • OWEN, JAMES G. 1990. AN ANALYSIS OF THE SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF MAMMALIAN DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS IN TEXAS. ECOLOGY 71(5):1823-1832.

  • OWEN, JAMES G. 1990. PATTERNS OF MAMMALIAN SPECIES RICHNESS IN RELATION TO TEMPERATURE, PRODUCTIVITY, AND VARIANCE IN ELEVATION. J. MAMM. 71(1):1-13.

  • Rappole, J. H. and A. R. Tipton. 1987. An assessment of potentially endangered mammals of Texas. Cooperative Agreement #14-16-0002-86-927. Final Report submitted to U.S. Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Endangered Species, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 1 November 1987.

  • Ratnayeke, S., A. Bixler, and J. L. Gittleman. 1994. Home range movements of solitary, reproductive female coatis, Nasua narica, in south-eastern Arizona. Journal of Zoology (London) 223:322-326.

  • Wallmo, O. C., and S. Gallizioli. 1954. Status of the coati in Arizona. Journal of Mammalogy 35:48-54.

  • Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.

  • Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 2005. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Third edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. Two volumes. 2,142 pp. Available online at: https://www.departments.bucknell.edu/biology/resources/msw3/

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