Nyctanassa violacea - (Linnaeus, 1758)
Yellow-crowned Night-Heron
Other English Common Names: yellow-crowned night-heron
Other Common Names: Matirão, Socó-do-Mangue, Savacu
Synonym(s): Nycticorax violaceus
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Nyctanassa violacea (Linnaeus, 1758) (TSN 174842) ;Nycticorax violaceus (Linnaeus, 1758) (TSN 174838)
French Common Names: Bihoreau violacé
Spanish Common Names: Pedrete Corona Clara
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.106355
Element Code: ABNGA13010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Wading Birds
Image 7764

© Larry Master

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Pelecaniformes Ardeidae Nyctanassa
Genus Size: A - Monotypic genus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Nyctanassa violacea
Taxonomic Comments: Placed by some authors in genus Nycticorax; transferred to Nyctanassa by AOU (1989). DNA-DNA hybridization data support maintenance of Nyctanassa as distinct from Nycticorax (Sheldon, 1987, Auk 104:97-108).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 20Nov1996
Global Status Last Changed: 20Nov1996
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Common in many portions of the large range, but trends are unknown for many regions.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5B,N5N (05Jan1997)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S2N,S4B), Arkansas (S3B), Colorado (S1B), Connecticut (S1B), Delaware (S1B), District of Columbia (SHB), Florida (S3), Georgia (S3S4), Illinois (S1), Indiana (S2B), Iowa (S3B,S3N), Kansas (S3B), Kentucky (S2B), Louisiana (S2N,S5B), Maryland (S3B), Massachusetts (S1B,S2N), Michigan (SNRN), Minnesota (SNRB), Mississippi (S3B,S1N), Missouri (SNRB), Nebraska (SNRN), New Jersey (S2B,S2N), New York (S2), North Carolina (S2B), Ohio (S1), Oklahoma (S4B), Pennsylvania (S1B), Rhode Island (S1B,S1N), South Carolina (SNRB,SNRN), South Dakota (SUB), Tennessee (S3), Texas (S4B), Virginia (S2S3B,S3N), West Virginia (S1N), Wisconsin (S1B)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: BREEDS: central Baja California, central Sonora, central and northeastern Texas, Oklahoma, northeastern Kansas, southeastern Minnesota, southern Michigan, and Massachusetts south along both coasts of Mexico to northwestern Peru and eastern Brazil, Galapagos, Bahamas, and Antilles. NORTHERN WINTER: north to central Baja California, central Sonora, Gulf Coast, and South Carolina (rarely Virginia). In the U.S., highest winter densities are in southwestern Florida (Root 1988).

Number of Occurrences: > 300

Population Size Comments: See Spendelow and Patton (1988) for information on distribution and abundance of coastal U.S. breeding populations (surveys yielded less than 2000 at coastal sites, which probably is an under-estimation).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threats include disturbance and loss/degradation of nesting and foraging habitat. Probably susceptible to reduced reproductive success caused by pesticide contamination.

Short-term Trend Comments: Populations in the south-central U.S. may be benefiting from crayfish aquaculture; bird population increases may be related to favorable foraging opportunities afforded by expanding crayfish aquaculture (Fleury and Sherry 1995).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) BREEDS: central Baja California, central Sonora, central and northeastern Texas, Oklahoma, northeastern Kansas, southeastern Minnesota, southern Michigan, and Massachusetts south along both coasts of Mexico to northwestern Peru and eastern Brazil, Galapagos, Bahamas, and Antilles. NORTHERN WINTER: north to central Baja California, central Sonora, Gulf Coast, and South Carolina (rarely Virginia). In the U.S., highest winter densities are in southwestern Florida (Root 1988).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, WI, WV

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002; WILDSPACETM 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CT Fairfield (09001), Middlesex (09007), New Haven (09009)
DE New Castle (10003)
FL Alachua (12001), Bay (12005), Brevard (12009), Calhoun (12013), Charlotte (12015), Citrus (12017), Collier (12021), DeSoto (12027), Duval (12031), Gadsden (12039), Glades (12043), Gulf (12045), Hamilton (12047), Hardee (12049), Hillsborough (12057), Indian River (12061)*, Lee (12071)*, Leon (12073), Manatee (12081), Marion (12083), Miami-Dade (12086), Monroe (12087), Orange (12095), Palm Beach (12099), Pinellas (12103), Polk (12105), Putnam (12107), Sarasota (12115), St. Lucie (12111)*, Taylor (12123)
GA Appling (13001), Bryan (13029)*, Camden (13039), Charlton (13049), Chatham (13051), Cobb (13067), Emanuel (13107)*, Fulton (13121), Glynn (13127), Irwin (13155)*, Jenkins (13165)*, Lanier (13173), Long (13183), Lowndes (13185), Richmond (13245), Screven (13251), Telfair (13271)*, Toombs (13279), Ware (13299), Wheeler (13309)*, Wilcox (13315)*
IA Clinton (19045), Fremont (19071)
IL Champaign (17019), Cook (17031), DuPage (17043)*, Edwards (17047), Jasper (17079)*, Johnson (17087), Lawrence (17101), Madison (17119), Marion (17121), Massac (17127)*, Monroe (17133), Pulaski (17153), Rock Island (17161)*, St. Clair (17163), Williamson (17199), Winnebago (17201)
IN Allen (18003), Blackford (18009)*, Daviess (18027)*, Delaware (18035)*, Dubois (18037), Gibson (18051), Grant (18053)*, Greene (18055), Jackson (18071), Jennings (18079), Lake (18089)*, Martin (18101), Pike (18125), Posey (18129), Pulaski (18131), Sullivan (18153), Vigo (18167), Warrick (18173)
KS Douglas (20045), Greenwood (20073), Labette (20099), Linn (20107), Sedgwick (20173), Stafford (20185)
KY Ballard (21007), Boyle (21021)*, Bullitt (21029), Calloway (21035), Christian (21047), Fayette (21067), Greenup (21089), Hickman (21105), Hopkins (21107), Jefferson (21111), Marshall (21157), McLean (21149)*, Union (21225), Warren (21227)*
MD Baltimore County (24005), Worcester (24047)*
MS George (28039), Hancock (28045), Hinds (28049), Holmes (28051), Jackson (28059), Madison (28089), Noxubee (28103), Oktibbeha (28105), Panola (28107), Quitman (28119), Rankin (28121), Sharkey (28125), Tallahatchie (28135), Yazoo (28163)
NC Carteret (37031), Dare (37055), Durham (37063), Forsyth (37067), Guilford (37081), Mecklenburg (37119)
NJ Atlantic (34001), Bergen (34003), Cape May (34009), Hudson (34017), Middlesex (34023), Monmouth (34025), Ocean (34029), Union (34039)
NY Bronx (36005), Kings (36047), Nassau (36059), Queens (36081), Richmond (36085), Suffolk (36103), Westchester (36119)
OH Cuyahoga (39035)*, Delaware (39041)*, Franklin (39049), Hamilton (39061)*, Montgomery (39113)
PA Cumberland (42041), Dauphin (42043), Delaware (42045)*, Lancaster (42071), Montgomery (42091)*, York (42133)
RI Washington (44009)
SC Charleston (45019)
SD Brown (46013), Union (46127)*
VA Fairfax (51059), Gloucester (51073)*, Hampton (City) (51650), Norfolk (City) (51710), Northampton (51131), Roanoke (City) (51770)*, Virginia Beach (City) (51810)
WI Buffalo (55011), Columbia (55021), Crawford (55023), Grant (55043), Juneau (55057), Rock (55105), Waupaca (55135)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Pawcatuck-Wood (01090005)+, Quinnipiac (01100004)+, Housatonic (01100005)+, Saugatuck (01100006)+
02 Bronx (02030102)+, Hackensack-Passaic (02030103)+, Sandy Hook-Staten Island (02030104)+, Raritan (02030105)+, Northern Long Island (02030201)+*, Southern Long Island (02030202)+, Long Island Sound (02030203)+, Lower Delaware (02040202)+*, Schuylkill (02040203)+*, Delaware Bay (02040204)+, Mullica-Toms (02040301)+, Great Egg Harbor (02040302)+, Chincoteague (02040303)+*, Eastern Lower Delmarva (02040304)+, Lower Susquehanna-Swatara (02050305)+, Lower Susquehanna (02050306)+, Gunpowder-Patapsco (02060003)+, Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan (02070010)+, York (02080107)+*, Lynnhaven-Poquoson (02080108)+, Pokomoke-Western Lower Delmarva (02080111)+, Hampton Roads (02080208)+
03 Upper Roanoke (03010101)+*, Albemarle (03010205)+, Pamlico Sound (03020105)+, White Oak River (03020301)+*, Haw (03030002)+, Upper Yadkin (03040101)+, Lower Catawba (03050103)+, Cooper (03050201)+, Middle Savannah (03060106)+, Upper Ogeechee (03060201)+*, Lower Ogeechee (03060202)+*, Ogeechee Coastal (03060204)+, Lower Ocmulgee (03070104)+*, Little Ocmulgee (03070105)+*, Altamaha (03070106)+, Satilla (03070201)+, Cumberland-St. Simons (03070203)+, St. Marys (03070204)+, Upper St. Johns (03080101)+, Oklawaha (03080102)+, Lower St. Johns (03080103)+, Cape Canaveral (03080202)+*, Vero Beach (03080203)+*, Lake Okeechobee (03090201)+, Florida Bay-Florida Keys (03090203)+, Big Cypress Swamp (03090204)+, Caloosahatchee (03090205)+, Florida Southeast Coast (03090206)+, Peace (03100101)+, Myakka (03100102)+, Charlotte Harbor (03100103)+*, Alafia (03100204)+, Tampa Bay (03100206)+, Crystal-Pithlachascotee (03100207)+, Withlacoochee (03100208)+, Econfina-Steinhatchee (03110102)+, Upper Suwannee (03110201)+, Alapaha (03110202)+, Santa Fe (03110206)+, Apalachee Bay-St. Marks (03120001)+, Lower Ochlockonee (03120003)+, Upper Chattahoochee (03130001)+, Apalachicola (03130011)+, St. Andrew-St. Joseph Bays (03140101)+, Noxubee (03160108)+, Pascagoula (03170006)+, Black (03170007)+, Mississippi Coastal (03170009)+, Middle Pearl-Strong (03180002)+, Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004)+
04 Wolf (04030202)+, Little Calumet-Galien (04040001)+, St. Joseph (04100003)+, Black-Rocky (04110001)+*
05 Upper Scioto (05060001)+, Lower Great Miami (05080002)+, Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103)+, Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203)+*, Lower Kentucky (05100205)+, Barren (05110002)+*, Pond (05110006)+, Mississinewa (05120103)+*, Tippecanoe (05120106)+, Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111)+, Embarras (05120112)+, Lower Wabash (05120113)+, Little Wabash (05120114)+, Skillet (05120115)+, Upper White (05120201)+*, Lower White (05120202)+, Muscatatuck (05120207)+, Lower East Fork White (05120208)+, Patoka (05120209)+, Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101)+, Salt (05140102)+, Highland-Pigeon (05140202)+, Lower Ohio (05140206)+
06 Kentucky Lake (06040005)+, Lower Tennessee (06040006)+
07 Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003)+, Castle Rock (07070003)+, Baraboo (07070004)+, Lower Wisconsin (07070005)+, Kickapoo (07070006)+, Copperas-Duck (07080101)+*, Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103)+, Sugar (07090004)+, Chicago (07120003)+, Des Plaines (07120004)+*, Cahokia-Joachim (07140101)+, Big Muddy (07140106)+, Cache (07140108)+, Upper Kaskaskia (07140201)+, Lower Kaskaskia (07140204)+*
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100)+, Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201)+, Little Tallahatchie (08030201)+, Tallahatchie (08030202)+, Upper Yazoo (08030206)+, Big Sunflower (08030207)+
10 Upper James (10160003)+, Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101)+*, Keg-Weeping Water (10240001)+, Lower Kansas (10270104)+, Lower Marais Des Cygnes (10290102)+
11 Rattlesnake (11030009)+, Gar-Peace (11030010)+, Little Arkansas (11030012)+, Middle Arkansas-Slate (11030013)+, Upper Verdigris (11070101)+, Middle Neosho (11070205)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A Wading Bird.
General Description: A stocky heron with a straight, stout, all-dark bill; breeding adult has buffy-white crown, black face with white cheek patch, gray underparts, and long white head plumes; juvenile has dusky upperparts with fine white streaks and spots, and dark-streaked underparts; average length 61 cm, wingspan 107 cm (NGS 1983). Call is a high-pitched "quak," often uttered in series.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Adult differs from adult black-crowned night-heron in having a buffy-white crown (vs. black) and a gray back that does not contrast with the upper wing surface (vs. contrasting black back). Juvenile differs from juvenile black-crowned night-heron in having grayer upperparts with less prominent white spots and streaks, a thinner neck, and a thicker all-dark bill (vs. mostly yellow lower mandible). All ages differ from black-crowned night-heron in having longer legs that, in flight, extend well beyond the end of the tail. Differs from American bittern in having a thicker bill and in lacking flight feathers that are much darker than the back. Lacks the contrasting buffy patches on the upper-wing surface of the much smaller (length 33 cm) least bittern. Has a much thicker bill and a longer neck than does the smaller (length 46 cm) green heron.
Reproduction Comments: Egg laying occurs mainly March-May in Florida, March-June in Louisiana, and April-May farther north. Clutch size usually is 2-5. Incubation, by both sexes, lasts about 27 days. Adults care for young for about 37 days; young may return to the nest site to roost for a few weeks after fledging. Single-brooded, but may lay replacement clutches. May nest in large single-species colony in some areas, but single pairs or small scattered groups on edges of other dense heronries are common (Spendelow and Patton 1988).
Ecology Comments: Usually solitary but sometimes small groups may forage in a limited area.
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Most have departed from the mid-Atlantic coast of the U.S. by mid- to late September (Byrd and Johnston 1991).
Estuarine Habitat(s): Herbaceous wetland, Lagoon, Scrub-shrub wetland, Tidal flat/shore
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian
Habitat Comments: Marshes, swamps, lakes, lagoons, and mangroves; chiefly coastal. Mostly in large cypress swamps in Louisiana, in mangroves in Florida. Prefers mangroves and gallery forest for roosting (Costa Rica, Stiles and Skutch 1989). Nests in trees in wooded situations near water, occasionally in arid scrub on islands; sometimes on ground. Along U.S. Gulf Coast from Alabama to Texas, seems to prefer inland freshwater habitats and riverine swamps for nesting (Spendelow and Patton 1988). Nested 8-23 m up in loblolly pines in Virginia, 20-1100 m from water, primarily in highly populated residential areas (Watts 1989).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats mostly crayfishes and crabs, also other small aquatic animals (Terres 1980); feeds exclusively on crustaceans in the eastern and southern U.S. (Riegner 1982). Forages in shallows or among marsh vegetation, along seashore, on mudflats, in salt ponds, sometimes along river and pond margins (Stiles and Skutch 1989).
Adult Phenology: Circadian
Immature Phenology: Circadian
Phenology Comments: Primarily nocturnal/crepuscular but also commonly active during daylight, especially where tidal changes determine food availability.
Colonial Breeder: Y
Length: 61 centimeters
Weight: 716 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Monitoring Requirements: May be difficult to census by aerial surveys, which may greatly underestimate breeding population (Spendelow and Patton 1988).
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Colonial Wading Birds

Use Class: Breeding
Subtype(s): Foraging Area, Breeding Colony
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding , or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Small heron colonies (rookeries or heronries) are often ephemeral in nature; recommend tracking rookeries which maintain a minimum of 15 active nests over 2-3 years. Where concentrations of non-breeding individuals occur within the boundaries of a breeding occurrence (especially if augmented by migrants), consider creating a separate occurrence with Location Use Class 'Nonbreeding.'
Mapping Guidance: Map Foraging Areas in separate polygons from the breeding colony if they are separated from the colony by areas simply flown over on commuting routes.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Occurrences include breeding colonies and foraging areas, but the separation distance pertains to breediing colonies. Hence, difference occurrences may overlap. Unsuitable habitat: upland areas, except those known to be used regularly for foraging (e.g., meadows used by great egrets).

Separation distance is an arbitrary compromise between the high mobility of these birds and the need for occurrences of practical size for conservation planning. Occurrences do not necessarily represent discrete populations or metapopulations.

Colony fidelity low in some species (e.g. Roseate Spoonbill, Dumas 2000; Glossy Ibis, Davis and Kricher 2000).

Feeding areas associated with a breeding colony (i.e. different features of the same occurrence) may be a number of kilometers away from the colony: averaging 12 kilometers for Roseate Spoonbill (Dumas 2000); 7.3 kilometers for Glossy Ibis (Davis and Kricher 2000); 2.8 to more than 5 kilometers for Snowy Egrets (Smith 1995).

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 3 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: A low mean foraging range size for this group.
Date: 28Oct2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Roost, Foraging area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of flocks of non-breeding birds (including historical), including non-breeding birds within the breeding season and breeding individuals outside the breeding season; and potential recurring presence at a given location. Normally only areas where concentrations greater than 10 birds occur regularly for at least 20 days per year would be deemed occurrences. Be cautious about creating occurrences for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance arbitrary, set at 10 kilometers to define occurrences of manageable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.
Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 3 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Based on foraging ranges from breeding rookeries.
Date: 19Apr2002
Author: Cannings, S.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 16Nov1994
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 16Nov1994
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
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  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • American Ornithologists Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American Birds. 7th edition. American Ornithologists Union, Washington, D.C. 829 pages.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU) . 1989. Thirty-seventh Supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. Auk 106:532-538.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU), Committee on Classification and Nomenclature. 1983. Check-list of North American Birds. Sixth Edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1983. Check-list of North American Birds, 6th edition. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 877 pp.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1989. Thirty-seventh supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Checklist of North American birds. Auk 106:532-538.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.

  • American Ornithologists' Union. 1983. Check-list of North American Birds. 6th ed. American Ornithologists' Union, Baltimore, MD. 877pp.

  • Andrews, R. R. and R. R. Righter. 1992. Colorado Birds. Denver Museum of Natural History, Denver. 442 pp.

  • Andrle, Robert F. and Janet R. Carroll, editors. 1988. The atlas of breeding birds in New York State. Cornell University Press. 551 pp.

  • Baicich, P. J., and C. J. O. Harrison. 1997. A guide to the nests, eggs and nestlings of North American birds. Second edition. Academic Press, New York.

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  • BirdLife International. 2004b. Threatened birds of the world 2004. CD ROM. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK.

  • Bohlen, H.D. 1989. The birds of Illinois. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN. 221pp.

  • Braun, M. J., D. W. Finch, M. B. Robbins, and B. K. Schmidt. 2000. A field checklist of the birds of Guyana. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

  • Bull, J. and J. Farrand, Jr. 1977. The Audubon Society field guide to North American birds (eastern region). Alfred A. Knopf Publ. Co., New York, NY. 775pp.

  • Bull, John. 1964. Birds of the New York area. New York: Harper and Row Publications 540 pp.

  • Bull, John. 1974. Birds of New York State. Doubleday, Garden City, New York. 655 pp.

  • Byrd, M. A., and D. W. Johnston. 1991. Birds. Pages 477-537 in K. Terwilliger, coordinator. Virginia's endangered species: proceedings of a symposium. McDonald and Woodward Publ. Co., Blacksburg, Virginia.

  • Campbell, Jim, and Midge Lechner. 1995. Endangered, Threatened, and Special Concern Species. Observation Notes. 4 pp.

  • Castro, I. and A. Phillips. 1996. A guide to the birds of the Galapagos Islands. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, USA.

  • Colorado Bird Observatory. 1997. 1996 Reference Guide to the Monitoring and Conservation Status of Colorado's Breeding Birds. Colorado Bird Observatory, Colorado Division of Wildlife, Great Outdoors Colorado Trust Fund, and Partners, March 21, 1997.

  • Cruickshank, A.D. 1938. A new breeding bird for New York State. The Auk. 55:660-667.

  • DICKINSON, MARY B., ED. 1999. FIELD GUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF NORTH AMERICA, 3RD ED. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY, WASHINGTON, D.C. 480 PP.

  • Drennan, Susan R. 1986. 86th Christmas bird count. American Birds 40(4):575-1117.

  • Dumas, J. V. 2000. Roseate Spoonbill (AJAIA AJAJA). No. 490 IN A. Poole and F. Gill, editors, The birds of North America. The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA. 32pp.

  • Eagar, D.C. and Hatcher, R.M. (editors). 1980. Tennessee's Rare Wildlife - Volume 1: The Vertebrates.

  • Ehrlich, P. R., D. S. Dobkin, and D. Wheye. 1988. The Birder's Handbook: A Field Guide to the Natural History of North American Birds. Simon and Shuster, Inc., New York. xxx + 785 pp.

  • Ernsting, G. 1983. Heron nesting status, other than the great blue heron, in Kansas. Report to the Kansas Fish and Game Commission, Nongame Dept.

  • Fleury, B. E., and T. W. Sherry. 1995. Long-term population trends of colonial wading birds in the southern United States: the impact of crayfish aquaculture on Louisiana populations. Auk 112:613-632.

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