Notropis heterolepis - Eigenmann and Eigenmann, 1893
Blacknose Shiner
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Notropis heterolepis Eigenmann and Eigenmann, 1893 (TSN 163446)
French Common Names: museau noir
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.101074
Element Code: AFCJB28530
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Minnows and Carps
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Notropis
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Notropis heterolepis
Taxonomic Comments: Populations in Middle Cumberland River system were described as a separate species, N. rupestris, by Page and Beckham (1987).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 18Aug2015
Global Status Last Changed: 16Jan2013
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Large range from southcentral Canada to Nova Scotia, south to Kansas (formerly), Missouri, Ohio, and New York; extirpated and declining acros most of the southern part of the range, but still common in areas of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, and very common in many provinces in Canada; threats include land alterations that result in turbidity, siltation, and loss of aquatic vegetation.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4 (05Sep1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (22Dec2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Illinois (S2), Indiana (S3), Iowa (S2), Kansas (SX), Maine (S3), Michigan (S4), Minnesota (SNR), Missouri (S2), Nebraska (S1), New Hampshire (SNA), New York (S2S3), North Dakota (S3), Ohio (S1), Pennsylvania (S1), South Dakota (S1), Vermont (S1), Wisconsin (S5)
Canada Manitoba (S5), New Brunswick (S4), Nova Scotia (S4), Ontario (S5), Quebec (S4S5), Saskatchewan (S4S5)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Atlantic, Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, and Mississippi River basins from Nova Scotia to Saskatchewan, south to Ohio, Illinois, south-central Missouri, and (formerly) Kansas; common in some parts of range (especially Ontario, Michigan, and Wisconsin), disappearing from southern part (Page and Burr 1991). A record from Kentucky likely is erroneous (Burr and Warren 1986).

Area of Occupancy: Unknown 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Historically known from hundreds of collection sites, with concentrations from Minnesota to Ontario and sparse occurrences in most of the rest of the range (Smith 1979, Lee et al. 1980, Trautman 1981, Becker 1983, Smith 1985, Cross and Collins 1995, Pflieger 1997). Occurs as isolated, highly localized populations (Pflieger 1997).

Population Size: 10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Common in lakes and slow streams in most of Wisconsin (but not in southern Wisconsin) (Becker 1983).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Unknown

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Decline in south is due to increased turbidity, siltation of stream bottoms, and resulting disappearance of aquatic vegetation (Becker 1983, Herkert 1992). Pflieger (1997) mentioned land disturbance (clearing, logging, overgrazing) and subsequent siltation and loss of vegetated backwaters as causes for the decline in the Ozarks of Missouri. He stated that ongoing loss of native grass cover in the prairie region of Missouri will affect long-term survival of the species in that state. Lakeshore development may be contributing to the decline (Eddy and Underhill 1974).

Short-term Trend: Unknown
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable or slowly declining.

Long-term Trend: Decline of 50-70%
Long-term Trend Comments: In Missouri, the species disappeared from several Ozark streams that were occupied prior to 1900 (Pflieger 1997). Formerly widespread in Iowa and eastern South Dakota but now quite restricted in distribution, and across the entire southern part of the range, from Pennsylvania to Kansas, the species has become scarce (see Becker 1983). Species has disappeared from several locations in southeastern Wisconsin where it occurred in the early 1900s (Becker 1983). Last observed in Kansas in the late 1800s (Cross and Collins 1995).

Environmental Specificity: Narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements common.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Atlantic, Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, and Mississippi River basins from Nova Scotia to Saskatchewan, south to Ohio, Illinois, south-central Missouri, and (formerly) Kansas; common in some parts of range (especially Ontario, Michigan, and Wisconsin), disappearing from southern part (Page and Burr 1991). A record from Kentucky likely is erroneous (Burr and Warren 1986).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States IA, IL, IN, KSextirpated, ME, MI, MN, MO, ND, NE, NHexotic, NY, OH, PA, SD, VT, WI
Canada MB, NB, NS, ON, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IA Benton (19011)*, Black Hawk (19013)*, Boone (19015)*, Bremer (19017)*, Buena Vista (19021)*, Butler (19023)*, Cedar (19031)*, Clay (19041), Clinton (19045)*, Dallas (19049)*, Delaware (19055)*, Dickinson (19059)*, Franklin (19069)*, Linn (19113)*, Monona (19133)*, Muscatine (19139)*, Osceola (19143)*, Palo Alto (19147), Plymouth (19149)*, Polk (19153)*, Story (19169)*, Webster (19187)*, Woodbury (19193)*, Wright (19197)*
IL Boone (17007)*, Bureau (17011), DuPage (17043), Grundy (17063), Henry (17073), Iroquois (17075)*, Kankakee (17091), La Salle (17099), Lake (17097), Mchenry (17111), Ogle (17141)*, Stark (17175), Stephenson (17177), Whiteside (17195)*, Will (17197)
IN Elkhart (18039), Kosciusko (18085)
MO Audrain (29007)*, Benton (29015), Callaway (29027), Camden (29029), Dade (29057)*, Hickory (29085), Laclede (29105)*, Madison (29123)*, Maries (29125)*, Montgomery (29139), Morgan (29141)*, Pettis (29159), Phelps (29161), Pulaski (29169), St. Clair (29185), Texas (29215), Wright (29229)
ND Ransom (38073)*, Richland (38077)*, Stutsman (38093)*
NE Antelope (31003)*, Brown (31017)*, Buffalo (31019)*, Cherry (31031), Dawes (31045), Holt (31089)*, Keya Paha (31103), Knox (31107)*, Lancaster (31109)*, Madison (31119)*, Rock (31149)*, Saline (31151)*, Seward (31159)*, Sheridan (31161), Stanton (31167)*
NY Chautauqua (36013), Chemung (36015), Clinton (36019), Erie (36029), Franklin (36033), Jefferson (36045), Lewis (36049), Niagara (36063), Oswego (36075), Schuyler (36097), St. Lawrence (36089), Sullivan (36105), Ulster (36111), Warren (36113), Wayne (36117), Yates (36123)
OH Franklin (39049), Medina (39103)*, Ottawa (39123)*, Ross (39141)*, Wood (39173)*
PA Crawford (42039)*, Erie (42049)
SD Bon Homme (46009)*, Hutchinson (46067)*, Roberts (46109), Todd (46121), Tripp (46123), Yankton (46135)*
VT Addison (50001), Chittenden (50007), Franklin (50011), Rutland (50021), Washington (50023), Windsor (50027)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Upper St. John (01010001), Allagash (01010002), Aroostook (01010004), Meduxnekeag (01010005), East Branch Penobscot (01020002), Lower Penobscot (01020005), Lower Kennebec (01030003), Upper Androscoggin (01040001), St. Croix (01050001), Maine Coastal (01050002), Black-Ottauquechee (01080106)+
02 Lake George (02010001), Winooski (02010003), Ausable (02010004)*, Lamoille (02010005), Great Chazy-Saranac (02010006), Missisquoi (02010007), Upper Hudson (02020001)+, Sacandaga (02020002)*, Mohawk (02020004), Rondout (02020007)+, Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead (02040104)+, Chenango (02050102)*, Owego-Wappasening (02050103), Tioga (02050104)*, Chemung (02050105)+
04 Baptism-Brule (04010101), Beaver-Lester (04010102), St. Louis (04010201), Cloquet (04010202), Beartrap-Nemadji (04010301), Bad-Montreal (04010302), Black-Presque Isle (04020101), Ontonagon (04020102), Keweenaw Peninsula (04020103), Sturgeon (04020104), Dead-Kelsey (04020105), Betsy-Chocolay (04020201), Waiska (04020203), Lake Superior (04020300), Manitowoc-Sheboygan (04030101), Door-Kewaunee (04030102), Duck-Pensaukee (04030103), Oconto (04030104), Peshtigo (04030105), Brule (04030106), Menominee (04030108), Fishdam-Sturgeon (04030112), Upper Fox (04030201), Wolf (04030202), Little Calumet-Galien (04040001)*, Pike-Root (04040002)*, Milwaukee (04040003), St. Joseph (04050001)+, Black-Macatawa (04050002), Kalamazoo (04050003), Upper Grand (04050004), Maple (04050005), Lower Grand (04050006), Thornapple (04050007), Pere Marquette-White (04060101), Muskegon (04060102), Manistee (04060103), Betsie-Platte (04060104), Boardman-Charlevoix (04060105), Manistique (04060106), Brevoort-Millecoquins (04060107), Lake Michigan (04060200)*, Carp-Pine (04070002), Lone Lake-Ocqueoc (04070003), Cheboygan (04070004), Black (04070005), Thunder Bay (04070006), Au Sable (04070007), Au Gres-Rifle (04080101), Kawkawlin-Pine (04080102), Pigeon-Wiscoggin (04080103), Birch-Willow (04080104), Tittabawassee (04080201), Pine (04080202), Shiawassee (04080203), Flint (04080204), Cass (04080205), Saginaw (04080206), St. Clair (04090001), Clinton (04090003), Detroit (04090004), Huron (04090005), Ottawa-Stony (04100001), Raisin (04100002), Upper Maumee (04100005)*, Lower Maumee (04100009)+*, Cedar-Portage (04100010)+*, Sandusky (04100011)*, Black-Rocky (04110001)+, Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003)*, Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101), Cattaraugus (04120102), Buffalo-Eighteenmile (04120103)*, Niagara (04120104)+, Lake Erie (04120200), Oak Orchard-Twelvemile (04130001)*, Upper Genesee (04130002)*, Lower Genesee (04130003)*, Irondequoit-Ninemile (04140101)+, Salmon-Sandy (04140102)+, Seneca (04140201)+, Oneida (04140202)+, Oswego (04140203), Black (04150101)+, Chaumont-Perch (04150102)*, Upper St. Lawrence (04150301)+, Oswegatchie (04150302)+, Indian (04150303)+, Grass (04150304)+, Raquette (04150305)+, St. Regis (04150306)+, English-Salmon (04150307)+, Chateaugay-English (04150308)+, Mettawee River (04150401)+, Winooski River (04150403)+, Missiquoi River (04150407)+, Lake Champlain (04150408)+
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001)*, Conewango (05010002)+, French (05010004)+, Tuscarawas (05040001)*, Upper Scioto (05060001)+, Lower Scioto (05060002)+, Paint (05060003)*, Upper Great Miami (05080001)*, Little Miami (05090202)*, Eel (05120104), Tippecanoe (05120106), Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108)
07 Mississippi Headwaters (07010101), Prairie-Willow (07010103), Elk-Nokasippi (07010104), Crow Wing (07010106), Platte-Spunk (07010201), Clearwater-Elk (07010203), Twin Cities (07010206), Rum (07010207), Upper St. Croix (07030001), Namekagon (07030002), Lower St. Croix (07030005), La Crosse-Pine (07040006), Black (07040007), Root (07040008), Upper Chippewa (07050001), Flambeau (07050002), South Fork Flambeau (07050003), Jump (07050004), Lower Chippewa (07050005), Eau Claire (07050006), Red Cedar (07050007), Coon-Yellow (07060001), Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003), Maquoketa (07060006)+*, Upper Wisconsin (07070001), Lake Dubay (07070002), Castle Rock (07070003), Lower Wisconsin (07070005), Copperas-Duck (07080101)+*, Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103)+*, South Skunk (07080105)+*, Upper Cedar (07080201)+*, Shell Rock (07080202)+*, West Fork Cedar (07080204)+*, Middle Cedar (07080205)+*, Lower Cedar (07080206)+*, Upper Iowa (07080207)+*, Upper Rock (07090001), Crawfish (07090002), Pecatonica (07090003)+, Sugar (07090004)*, Lower Rock (07090005)+*, Kishwaukee (07090006)+*, Green (07090007)+, Upper Des Moines (07100002)+, East Fork Des Moines (07100003)*, Middle Des Moines (07100004)+*, North Raccoon (07100006)+*, Lake Red Rock (07100008)+*, Kankakee (07120001)+, Iroquois (07120002)+*, Des Plaines (07120004)+, Upper Illinois (07120005)+, Upper Fox (07120006)+, Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001)+, Spoon (07130005)+, Meramec (07140102)*, Whitewater (07140107)+*
09 Bois De Sioux (09020101)+, Otter Tail (09020103), Buffalo (09020106), Eastern Wild Rice (09020108), Lower Sheyenne (09020204)+, Rainy Headwaters (09030001), Vermilion (09030002)
10 Upper White (10140201)+, Ponca (10150001), Upper Niobrara (10150003)+, Middle Niobrara (10150004)+, Snake (10150005)+, Keya Paha (10150006)+, Lower Niobrara (10150007)+*, James Headwaters (10160001)+*, Pipestem (10160002)+*, Upper James (10160003)+, Lower James (10160011)+, Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101)+, Salt (10200203)+*, South Loup (10210004)+*, Mud (10210005)+*, Upper North Loup (10210006)+, Upper Elkhorn (10220001)+, North Fork Elkhorn (10220002)+*, Lower Elkhorn (10220003)+*, Blackbird-Soldier (10230001)+*, Floyd (10230002)+*, Little Sioux (10230003)+, Monona-Harrison Ditch (10230004)+*, Maple (10230005)+*, Boyer (10230007)+*, Smoky Hill Headwaters (10260001)*, Middle Big Blue (10270202)+*, West Fork Big Blue (10270203)+*, Turkey (10270204)+*, Harry S. Missouri (10290105)+, Sac (10290106)+, Pomme De Terre (10290107)+, Lake of the Ozarks (10290109)+, Niangua (10290110)+*, Lower Osage (10290111)+*, Upper Gasconade (10290201)+, Big Piney (10290202)+, Lower Gasconade (10290203)+, Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102)+, Lamine (10300103)+, Lower Missouri (10300200)+
11 Middle Arkansas-Slate (11030013)*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Spawns in spring and summer. Sexually mature in 1 year.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Habitat Comments: Typically in cool weedy creeks, small rivers, and lakes, usually over sand; tolerant of oxygen depletion in winterkill lakes. Spawns probably over sandy places (Becker 1983).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats mainly various small invertebrates, and some plant material; probably feeds mainly on bottom or in beds of aquatic vegetation (Becker 1983, Smith 1979).
Length: 10 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Small Cyprinids

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat. For some species (e.g., slender chub), an impoundment may constitute a barrier. For others (e.g., flame chub) a stream larger than 4th order may be a barrier.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. In some species, individuals may migrate variable distances between spawning areas and nonspawning habitats.

Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) for cyprinids are arbitrary but reflect the presumption that movements and appropriate separation distances generally should increase with fish size. Hence small, medium, and large cyprinids, respectively, have increasingly large separation distances. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 05Sep2001
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.; rev. M. Anions 16Jan2013
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 19Nov1993
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Aquin, P. 1999. Évaluation de la situation des groupes taxonomiques des poissons du Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune. 9 pages.

  • Atton, F.M. and J.J. Merkowsky. 1983. Atlas of Saskatchewan Fish. Saskatchewan Department of Parks and Renewable Resources, Fisheries Branch Technical Report 83-2. 281pp.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. Univ. Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1052 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • CROSS, F.B.1967.HANDBOOK OF FISHES IN KANSAS. E. RAYMOND HALL.UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, LAWRENCE, KANSAS.

  • Duncan, J.R. 1997. Conservation Status Ranks of the Fishes of Manitoba. Manitoba Conservation Data Centre MS Report 97-02. Winnipeg, MB. 10 pp.

  • Eddy, S. and J. C. Underhill. 1974. Northern fishes, with special reference to the Upper Mississippi Valley, 3rd edition. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 414 pp

  • Emery, L. and D.C. Wallace. 1974. The age and growth of the blacknose shiner, Notropis heterolepis (Eigenmann and Eigenmann). American Midland Naturalist 91(1): 242-243.

  • Forbes, S.A. and R.E. Richardson. 1908. The fishes of Illinois. Ill. State Lab. Nat. Hist., Urbana, IL. 357pp.

  • General Status 2015, Environment Canada. 2015. Manitoba fish species and subnational ranks proposed by DFO.

  • George, C.J. 1980. The fishes of the Adirondack Park. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Albany, NY 94 pp.

  • Gerking, Shelby D. 1945. Distribution of Fishes of Indiana. In Investigations of Indiana Lakes and Streams. 3(1): 1-137. Indiana Department of Conservation, Division of Fish and Game, Indianapolis and Department of Zoology, Indiana University, Bloomington.

  • Herkert, J. R., editor. 1992. Endangered and threatened species of Illinois: status and distribution. Vol. 2: Animals. Illinois Endangered Species Protection Board. iv + 142 pp.

  • Hoover, E.E. (ED.) 1938. Biological Survey of the Merrimack Watershed. Survey Report No.3. New Hampshire Fish and Game Department., Concord. 238 pp.

  • Legendre, V. et J.F. Bergeron. 1977. Liste des poissons d' eau douce du Québec. MLCP, Service Aménage. Expl. Faune. Rap. dact. 6

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • O'Donnell, D.J. 1935. Annotated list of the fishes of Illinois. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 20:473-500.

  • PFLIEGER,W.L.1975. THE FISHES OF MISSOURI. SULLIVAN, MARK. MISSOURI DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and E. C. Beckham. 1987. Notropis rupestris, a new cyprinid from the middle Cumberland River system, Tennessee, with comments on variation in Notropis heterolepis. Copeia 1987:659-668.

  • Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes, North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA. 432pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1997a. The fishes of Missouri. Revised edition. Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City. vi + 372 pp.

  • Pflieger, W.L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Dept. Cons. 343pp.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Saskatchewan Environment and Resource Management. 1996. The Fisheries Regulations being Chapter F-16.1 Reg 1 (effective 9 May 1995) as ammended by Saskatchewan Regulations 13/96.

  • Scarola, J.F. 1973. Freshwater Fishes of New Hampshire. New Hampshire Fish and Game Department. 131 pp.

  • Scott, W. B., and E. J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 184. 966 pp.

  • Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman. 1979. Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa. 966 pp.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

  • Smith, C.L. 1985. The Inland Fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY. 522pp.

  • Smith, P.W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. Univ. Illinois Press, Urbana, IL. 314pp.

  • Species Advisory Group on Fishes. 1998. Heritage State Rank Changes Recommended by the Species Advisory Group on Fishes to the Vermont Endangered Species Committee on 26 October 1998.

  • Stewart, K.W., McCulloch, B. Hanke, G. and J.R. Duncan. 1995. Preliminary ranking of Manitoba fish. Unpublished notes from an informal ranking workshop held at the University of Manitoba Fish Laboratory. 7 February 1995.

  • Stewart, K.W., and D. A. Watkinson. 2004. The freshwater fishes of Manitoba. University of Manitoba Press. Winnipeg. 276 p.

  • Trautman, M.B. 1957. The fishes of Ohio. Ohio State Univ. Press, Columbus, OH. 683pp.

  • Werner, R.G. 1980. Freshwater fishes of New York State. N.Y.: Syracuse University Press. 186 pp.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Cross, F. B., and J. T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. Second Edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. xvii + 315 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1983. Fishes of New York (maps and printout of a draft section on scarce fishes of New York). Unpublished draft.

  • Smith, C. L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, New York, xi + 522 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • State Natural Heritage Data Centers. 1996a. Aggregated element occurrence data from all U.S. state natural heritage programs, including the Tennessee Valley Authority, Navajo Nation and the District of Columbia. Science Division, The Nature Conservancy.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

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Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2019.
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Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
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