Myriophyllum sibiricum - Komarov
Common Water-milfoil
Other English Common Names: Short-spike Water-milfoil, Siberian Water-milfoil
Other Common Names: shortspike watermilfoil
Synonym(s): Myriophyllum exalbescens Fern.
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Myriophyllum sibiricum Komarov (TSN 503906)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.133745
Element Code: PDHAL040H0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Water-Milfoil Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Haloragales Haloragaceae Myriophyllum
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Myriophyllum sibiricum
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 13May2016
Global Status Last Changed: 06Mar1992
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: NNR
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (16Apr2014)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alaska (SNR), Arizona (SNR), California (SNR), Colorado (SNR), Connecticut (S1), Delaware (SU), Idaho (SNR), Illinois (SNR), Indiana (SNR), Iowa (SNR), Kansas (S2), Maine (SNR), Massachusetts (S1S2), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (SNR), Missouri (SNR), Montana (SNR), Nebraska (SNR), Nevada (SNR), New Hampshire (SNR), New Jersey (S1), New Mexico (SNR), New York (S5), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (S2), Oklahoma (SNR), Oregon (S3), Pennsylvania (S1), Rhode Island (SNR), South Dakota (SNR), Utah (SNR), Vermont (SNR), Washington (SNR), West Virginia (S2), Wisconsin (SNR), Wyoming (S3)
Canada Alberta (S5), British Columbia (S4), Labrador (SNR), Manitoba (S5), New Brunswick (S3), Newfoundland Island (S2), Northwest Territories (SNR), Nova Scotia (S3S4), Nunavut (SU), Ontario (S5), Prince Edward Island (S4), Quebec (S4S5), Saskatchewan (S5), Yukon Territory (S5)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: AK, AZ, CA, CO, CT, IA, ID, IL, IN, KA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OR, PA, SD, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: AK, AZ, CA, CO, CT, IA, ID, IL, IN, KA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OR, PA, SD, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DE, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, MA, ME, MI, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SD, UT, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, NU, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CT Litchfield (09005), Middlesex (09007), New Haven (09009)
NJ Sussex (34037)
OH Ashtabula (39007), Erie (39043), Geauga (39055), Holmes (39075)*, Licking (39089)*, Logan (39091), Lorain (39093)*, Ottawa (39123)*, Portage (39133), Sandusky (39143)*, Stark (39151)*, Williams (39171)
OR Harney (41025)*, Klamath (41035), Tillamook (41057)*, Wallowa (41063)*
PA Allegheny (42003), Beaver (42007)*, Crawford (42039), Cumberland (42041)*, Dauphin (42043)*, Erie (42049), Northampton (42095)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Quinnipiac (01100004)+, Housatonic (01100005)+
02 Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105)+, Lehigh (02040106)+*, Lower Susquehanna-Swatara (02050305)+*
04 St. Joseph (04100003)+, Cedar-Portage (04100010)+*, Sandusky (04100011)+, Black-Rocky (04110001)+*, Cuyahoga (04110002)+, Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101)+*, Lake Erie (04120200)+*
05 French (05010004)+, Lower Allegheny (05010009)+, Shenango (05030102)+, Mahoning (05030103)+, Beaver (05030104)+*, Mohican (05040002)+*, Licking (05040006)+*, Upper Great Miami (05080001)+
17 Brownlee Reservoir (17050201)+*, Imnaha (17060102)+*, Wilson-Trusk-Nestuccu (17100203)+*, Upper Rogue (17100307)+, Harney-Malheur Lakes (17120001)+*, Silvies (17120002)+*, Donner Und Blitzen (17120003)+*
18 Williamson (18010201)+, Sprague (18010202)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: An aquatic herb with a simple or branched stem; dissected, whorled leaves; and almost naked, terminal flowering spikes.
Technical Description: Rhizome: creeping. Stem: simple or branched, glabrous, purple (drying white). Leaves: all whorled in 3's and 4's, 1.2-3.0 cm long, finely dissected into 6-11 pairs of capillary divisions, the rachis up to 0.5 mm wide at the base. Spikes: almost naked, terminal. Bracts: whorled, shorter than the flowers, closely appressed, concave, oblong to ovate, entire; rarely with the lowermost slightly exceeding the flowers, and obscurely denticulate. Bracteoles: ovate, entire, 0.7-1.0 mm long. Flowers: sessile, verticillate, the lower pistillate, the upper staminate. Petals: oblong-ovate, concave, 2.5 mm long. Anthers: 8, oblong, 1.2-1.8 mm long. Fruits: subglobose, 2-3 mm long, the mericarps rounded on the back and summit, smooth or roughened.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Rare terrestrially, rarely branching near the surface, stem not thickened below the inflorescence, bracts shorter than the flowers or fruit, carpels in fruit smooth or finely tubercled.
Duration: PERENNIAL
Reproduction Comments: Turion formation occurs from October through June, Seeds probably require winter cold treatment for germination. n=21.
Ecology Comments: Shade intolerance of this species allows M. spicatum to outcompete it.
Riverine Habitat(s): Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Habitat Comments: Circumneutral to alkaline, often brackish or calcareous waters of lakes, ponds, quiet pools and streams.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 31Jan1992
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): ISAAC, J.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Borrowman, K.R., E.P.S. Sager and R.A. Thum. 2014. Distribution of biotypes and hybrids of Myriophyllum spicatum and associated Euhrychiopsis lecontei in lakes of Central Ontario, Canada. Lake and Reservoir Management 39(1): 94-104.


  • Aiken, S.G. 1981. A Conspectus of Myriophyllum (Haloragaceae) in North America. Brittonia 33 (1): 57-69. A81AIK01PAUS.

  • Aiken, S.G. 1981. A conspectus of Myriophyllum (Haloragaceae) in North America. Brittonia 33:57-69.

  • Aiken, S.G., P.R. Newroth, and I. Wile. 1979. The biology of Canadian weeds. 34. Myriophyllum spicatum L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 59: 2Ol-215.

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  • Britton, N. L. and A. Brown. 1913. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada. 3 vol. Dover Publications, Inc., N. Y. 2052 pp.

  • Crow, G.E. and C.B. Hellquist. 2000. Aquatic and Wetland Plants of Northeastern North America. A Revised and Enlarged Edition of Norman C. Fassett's A Manual of Aquatic Plants. Vol. 1, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, and Angiosperms: Dicotyledons. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wisconsin. 448 pp.

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  • Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. Corrected printing (1970). D. Van Nostrand Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1919. Two New Myriophyllums and a Species New to the United States. Rhodora 21:120-124.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1919. Two New Myriophyllums and a Species New to the United States. Rhodora 21:120-124. A19FER02PAUS.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1950 Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th ed. American Book Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1963. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. D. Van Nostrand Company, New York, NY. 810 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Godfrey, R.K. Wooten, J.W. 1970. Aquatic and Wetland Plants of Southeastern United States. University of Georgia Press, Athens, GA. USA. B70GOD01PAUS

  • Godfrey, R.K., and J.W. Wooten. 1981. Aquatic and wetland plants of southeastern United States: Dicotyledons. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens. 933 pp.

  • Jacono, C.C. and M.M. Richerson. 2003. Myriophyllum spicatum. United States Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, Center for Aquatic Resources Studies. Available at http://nas.er.usgs.gov/plants/docs/my_spica.html

  • Johnson, D.A., Jr., I. Bosch, and M.D. Valentino. 2001. Mapping and quantifying stands of Eurasian watermilfoil in Conesus Lake, New York. SUNY Gyneseo Journal of Science and Mathematics, 2(1): 1-6.

  • Johnson, R.L., and B. Blossey. 2002. Eurasian Watermilfoil. In R. Van Driesche, S. Lyon, B. Blossey, M. Hoddle, and R. Reardon (tech. coords.), Biological Control of Invasive Plants in the Eastern United States. Publication FHTET-2002-04. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. Available online at: http://www.invasive.org/eastern/biocontrol/6EurasianMilfoil.html.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Maine Center for Invasive Aquatic Plants. 2004. Virtual Herbarium Fact Sheets. http://www.mciap.org/herbarium/index.php. Maine Center for Invasive Aquatic Plants, Auburn, Maine (accessed March 2006).

  • Meades, S.J. & Hay, S.G; Brouillet, L. 2000. Annotated Checklist of Vascular Plants of Newfoundland and Labrador. Memorial University Botanical Gardens, St John's NF. 237pp.

  • Moody, M.L. and D.H. Les. 2002. Evidence of hybridity in invasive watermilfoil (Myriophyllum) populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 99(23): 14867-14871.

  • Moody, M.L., and D.H. Les. 2007. Geographic distribution and genotypic composition of invasive hybrid watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum ˇ M. sibiricum) populations in North America. Biological Invasions 9: 559?570.

  • Patton, B.C. Jr. 1954. The Status of Some American Species of Myriophyllum as Revealed by the Discovery of Intergrade Material Between M. exalbescens Fern. and M. spicatum L. in New Jersey. Rhodora 56: 213-225. A54PAT01PAUS.

  • Patton, B.C. Jr. 1954. The status of some American species of Myriophyllum as revealed by the discovery of intergrade material between M. exalbescens Fern. and M. spicatum L. in New Jersey. Rhodora 56: 213-225.

  • Roley, S.S. and R.M. Newman. 2006. Developmental performance of the milfoil weevil, Euhrychiopsis lecontei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in northern watermilfoil, Eurasian watermilfoil, and hybrid (northern x Eurasian) watermilfoil. Environmental Entomology, 35(1): 121-126.

  • Schweitzer, J.A., G.D. Martinsen, and T.G. Whitham. 2002. Cottonwood hybrids gain fitness traits of both parents: a mechanism for their long-term persistence? American Journal of Botany, 89: 981-990.

  • Tamayo, M. and C.E. Grue. 2004. Developmental performance of the milfoil weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on watermilfoils in Washington State. Population Ecology, 33(4): 872-880.

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  • Weishaupt, C.G. 1971. Vascular Plants of Ohio, Third edition. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co., Dubuque, Iowa.

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