Myotis volans - (H. Allen, 1866)
Long-legged Myotis
Other English Common Names: Long-legged Bat, long-legged bat
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Myotis volans (H. Allen, 1866) (TSN 179990)
French Common Names: chauve-souris à longues pattes
Spanish Common Names: Un Murciélago
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.102173
Element Code: AMACC01110
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Mammals - Bats
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Mammalia Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Myotis
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.
Concept Reference Code: B93WIL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Myotis volans
Taxonomic Comments: Taxonomic status of subspecies is unclear; Myotis volans volans (from Baja California) may be specifically distinct (it occurs in a different habitat and differs morphologically) from the three mainland subspecies. If this is true, the correct name for the three mainland species is M. longicrus. Mainland subspecies are M. v. amotus from Sierra Volcanica Transversal, Mexico, M. v. interior from the United States between the 100th and 120th meridians and uplands of northwestern Mexico, and M. v. longicrus from southeastern Alaska, British Columbia and Alberta southwest to western California.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 04Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 16Jun2014
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Widespread distribution in western North America; many roost sites; locally common; trend uncertain but apparently relatively stable or slowly declining; probably secure throughout much of range; localized threats include closure of abandoned mines without adequate surveys, disturbance by humans, and forest management practices that reduce the ongoing availability of snags suitable for roosting or that reduce foraging habitat quality or increase habitat fragmentation; winter distribution and threats poorly known.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Sep1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N4N5B,N4N5N,NNRM (01Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alaska (S2), Arizona (S3S4), California (S3), Colorado (S5), Idaho (S3), Montana (S4), Navajo Nation (S4S5), Nebraska (S1), Nevada (S3S4), New Mexico (S4S5), North Dakota (SU), Oregon (S3), South Dakota (S5), Texas (S4), Utah (S4), Washington (S3S4), Wyoming (S3B)
Canada Alberta (SU), British Columbia (S4S5), Northwest Territories (S1), Saskatchewan (SNR), Yukon Territory (SUB)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range includes western North America from southwestern Alaska, British Columbia, and Alberta south to Baja California and central Mexico (Jalisco, Veracruz, Nuevo Leon) (Warner and Czaplewski 1984, Simmons, in Wilson and Reeder 2005). This species occurs throughout the western United States from the Pacific coast to western North Dakota and extreme western Texas (Barbour and Davis 1969, Warner and Czaplewski 1984, Adams 2003, Reid 2006). Elevational range minimally extends from 60 to 3,770 meters, but most occurrences are between 1,800 and 3,000 meters (Warner and Czaplewski 1984, Reid 2006).

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: The number of distinct occurrences has not been determined using standardized criteria, but this species is represented by a large number of collection/observation sites and locations (http://www.gbif.org/species/2432411). Verts and Carraway (1998) mapped approximately 70 collection sites in Oregon, Hoffmeister (1986) mapped 34 sites in Arizona, and the species is known from several dozen recently documented sites in Montana (http://fieldguide.mt.gov/detail_AMACC01110.aspx).

Population Size: 100,000 - 1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but apparently quite large (likely greater than 100,000). In Arizona, this species forms large nursery colonies, often numbering in the hundreds (Arizona Game and Fish Department 1997). In Texas, recent data indicate that this species appears to be relatively common in areas where formerly it was thought to be rare (Bradley et al. 1999, Higginbotham et al. 2002).

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Overall, no major threats are known. Locally, this bat may be affected detrimentally by the closure of abandoned mines without adequate surveys, disturbance by humans, and forest management practices that reduce the ongoing availability of snags suitable for roosting or that reduce foraging habitat quality or increase habitat fragmentation (e.g., see Baker and Lacki 2006, Lacki et al. 2010). Increased incidence of fires resulting from human and other causes may reduce the availability of roosting habitat for some populations. Winter distribution and threats are poorly known.

This species is not known to incur high levels of mortality from turbines at wind energy facilities. Arnett and Baerwald (2013) estimated that fewer than 200 individuals were killed by turbines in the United States during the priod 2000-2011. As of mid-2014, this species was not known to be affected by white-nose syndrome.

In Oregon, high levels of pesticide residues were found in M. volans for at least three years after aerial spraying of DDT to control larvae of the Douglas-fir tussock moth (Henny et al. 1982), but DDT is no longer used, and the population impacts of pesticide use and other contaminant residues remain poorly known.

Short-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the last 10 years or three generations is uncertain, but distribution and abundance probably have been relatively stable or slowly declining.

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Long-term Trend Comments: Long-term trend is uncertain, but area of occupancy, number of roosts, and population size likely have declined to a small or moderate degree. In New Mexico, capture data from 1971 to 2005 indicated a relatively stable population (Geluso and Geluso 2012).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Range includes western North America from southwestern Alaska, British Columbia, and Alberta south to Baja California and central Mexico (Jalisco, Veracruz, Nuevo Leon) (Warner and Czaplewski 1984, Simmons, in Wilson and Reeder 2005). This species occurs throughout the western United States from the Pacific coast to western North Dakota and extreme western Texas (Barbour and Davis 1969, Warner and Czaplewski 1984, Adams 2003, Reid 2006). Elevational range minimally extends from 60 to 3,770 meters, but most occurrences are between 1,800 and 3,000 meters (Warner and Czaplewski 1984, Reid 2006).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AZ, CA, CO, ID, MT, ND, NE, NM, NN, NV, OR, SD, TX, UT, WA, WY
Canada AB, BC, NT, SK, YT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: Sechrest, 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AK Prince of Wales-Outer Ketchikan (CA) (02201), Skagway-Hoonah-Angoon (CA) (02232)*, Wrangell-Petersburg (CA) (02280)
AZ Apache (04001), Cochise (04003), Coconino (04005), Gila (04007), Greenlee (04011), Mohave (04015), Navajo (04017), Yavapai (04025)
CA Alpine (06003), Del Norte (06015), El Dorado (06017), Fresno (06019), Humboldt (06023), Inyo (06027), Kern (06029), Lassen (06035), Los Angeles (06037), Madera (06039), Mariposa (06043), Mono (06051), Placer (06061), Plumas (06063), San Bernardino (06071), San Diego (06073), San Luis Obispo (06079), Shasta (06089), Sierra (06091), Siskiyou (06093), Sonoma (06097)*, Trinity (06105), Tulare (06107), Tuolumne (06109), Ventura (06111)
ID Adams (16003), Bear Lake (16007), Blaine (16013)*, Bonner (16017), Bonneville (16019), Boundary (16021), Caribou (16029), Custer (16037), Idaho (16049), Latah (16057), Lemhi (16059), Nez Perce (16069), Owyhee (16073), Shoshone (16079), Valley (16085)
ND Billings (38007)*
NE Dawes (31045), Sheridan (31161), Sioux (31165)
NM Catron (35003), Dona Ana (35013), Grant (35017), Hidalgo (35023), Sandoval (35043), Sierra (35051), Socorro (35053)
NV Carson City (32510), Churchill (32001), Clark (32003), Douglas (32005), Elko (32007), Esmeralda (32009), Eureka (32011), Humboldt (32013), Lander (32015)*, Lincoln (32017), Mineral (32021)*, Nye (32023), Pershing (32027), Washoe (32031), White Pine (32033)
OR Clatsop (41007), Douglas (41019), Grant (41023), Harney (41025)*, Jackson (41029)*, Josephine (41033), Klamath (41035)*, Lake (41037)*, Linn (41043), Malheur (41045)*, Marion (41047)*, Umatilla (41059), Union (41061), Wallowa (41063)
TX Presidio (48377)
WA Adams (53001), Asotin (53003), Chelan (53007), Clallam (53009), Columbia (53013), Douglas (53017), Ferry (53019), Garfield (53023), Grant (53025), Grays Harbor (53027), Jefferson (53031), Kittitas (53037), Klickitat (53039), Lewis (53041), Lincoln (53043), Mason (53045), Okanogan (53047), Pend Oreille (53051), Pierce (53053), San Juan (53055), Skagit (53057), Skamania (53059), Snohomish (53061), Stevens (53065), Thurston (53067), Whatcom (53073), Whitman (53075), Yakima (53077)
WY Albany (56001), Big Horn (56003), Campbell (56005), Carbon (56007), Converse (56009), Crook (56011), Fremont (56013), Goshen (56015), Hot Springs (56017), Johnson (56019), Laramie (56021), Lincoln (56023), Natrona (56025), Niobrara (56027), Park (56029), Platte (56031), Sheridan (56033), Sublette (56035), Sweetwater (56037), Teton (56039), Uinta (56041), Washakie (56043), Weston (56045)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
10 Madison (10020007)+, Yellowstone Headwaters (10070001)+, Clarks Fork Yellowstone (10070006)+, Upper Wind (10080001)+, Little Wind (10080002)+, Popo Agie (10080003)+, Lower Wind (10080005)+, Badwater (10080006)+, Upper Bighorn (10080007)+, Nowood (10080008)+, Greybull (10080009)+, Big Horn Lake (10080010)+, Dry (10080011)+, North Fork Shoshone (10080012)+, South Fork Shoshone (10080013)+, Shoshone (10080014)+, Little Bighorn (10080016)+, Upper Tongue (10090101)+, Middle Fork Powder (10090201)+, South Fork Powder (10090203)+, Clear (10090206)+, Little Powder (10090208)+, Upper Little Missouri (10110201)+, Middle Little Missouri (10110203)+*, Antelope (10120101)+, Beaver (10120107)+, Upper Belle Fourche (10120201)+, Lower Belle Fourche (10120202)+, Redwater (10120203)+, Upper White (10140201)+, Upper North Platte (10180002)+, Pathfinder-Seminoe Reservoirs (10180003)+, Medicine Bow (10180004)+, Little Medicine Bow (10180005)+, Sweetwater (10180006)+, Middle North Platte-Casper (10180007)+, Glendo Reservoir (10180008)+, Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff (10180009)+, Upper Laramie (10180010)+, Lower Laramie (10180011)+, Cache La Poudre (10190007)+, Crow (10190009)+, Upper Lodgepole (10190015)+
13 Jemez (13020202)+, Elephant Butte Reservoir (13020211)+, Caballo (13030101)+, Jornada Draw (13030103)+, Tularosa Valley (13050003)+, Salt Basin (13050004)+
14 Upper Green (14040101)+, Upper Green-Slate (14040103)+, Big Sandy (14040104)+, Bitter (14040105)+, Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir (14040106)+, Blacks Fork (14040107)+, Muddy (14040108)+, Vermilion (14040109)+, Great Divide closed basin (14040200)+, Little Snake (14050003)+, Muddy (14050004)+
15 Lower Colorado-Marble Canyon (15010001)+, Grand Canyon (15010002)+, Kanab (15010003)+, Havasu Canyon (15010004)+, Hualapai Wash (15010007)+, Fort Pierce Wash (15010009)+, White (15010011)+, Muddy (15010012)+, Meadow Valley Wash (15010013)+*, Las Vegas Wash (15010015)+, Carrizo Wash (15020003)+, Chevelon Canyon (15020010)+, Canyon Diablo (15020015)+, Sacramento Wash (15030103)+, Big Sandy (15030201)+, Upper Gila (15040001)+, Animas Valley (15040003)+, San Francisco (15040004)+, Upper Gila-San Carlos Reservoir (15040005)+, San Simon (15040006)+, Willcox Playa (15050201)+, Upper Santa Cruz (15050301)+, Black (15060101)+, Upper Salt (15060103)+, Big Chino-Williamson Valley (15060201)+, Upper Verde (15060202)+
16 Upper Bear (16010101)+, Central Bear (16010102)+, Bear Lake (16010201)+, Hamlin-Snake Valleys (16020301)+, Southern Great Salt Lake Desert (16020306)+, Upper Humboldt (16040101)+, North Fork Humboldt (16040102)+, South Fork Humboldt (16040103)+, Middle Humboldt (16040105)+, Rock (16040106)+, Reese (16040107)+, Lower Humboldt (16040108)+, Little Humboldt (16040109)+, Upper Quinn (16040201)+*, Lower Quinn (16040202)+*, Smoke Creek Desert (16040203)+, Massacre Lake (16040204)+, Thousand-Virgin (16040205)+*, Lake Tahoe (16050101)+, Truckee (16050102)+*, Pyramid-Winnemucca Lakes (16050103)+*, East Walker (16050301)+*, Walker Lake (16050304)+*, Dixie Valley (16060001)+, Gabbs Valley (16060002)+, Southern Big Smoky Valley (16060003)+, Northern Big Smoky Valley (16060004)+*, Diamond-Monitor Valleys (16060005)+, Little Smoky-Newark Valleys (16060006)+*, Long-Ruby Valleys (16060007)+, Spring-Steptoe Valleys (16060008)+, Dry Lake Valley (16060009)+, Fish Lake-Soda Spring Valleys (16060010)+, Ralston-Stone Cabin Valleys (16060011)+, Hot Creek-Railroad Valleys (16060012)+*, Cactus-Sarcobatus Flats (16060013)+, Sand Spring-Tikaboo Valleys (16060014)+, Ivanpah-Pahrump Valleys (16060015)+
17 Lower Kootenai (17010104)+, Moyie (17010105)+, Lower Clark Fork (17010213)+, Pend Oreille Lake (17010214)+, Priest (17010215)+, Pend Oreille (17010216)+, Upper Coeur D'alene (17010301)+, South Fork Coeur D'alene (17010302)+, St. Joe (17010304)+, Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake (17020001)+, Kettle (17020002)+, Colville (17020003)+, Sanpoil (17020004)+, Okanogan (17020006)+, Similkameen (17020007)+, Methow (17020008)+, Lake Chelan (17020009)+, Upper Columbia-Entiat (17020010)+, Moses Coulee (17020012)+, Upper Crab (17020013)+, Banks Lake (17020014)+, Lower Crab (17020015)+, Upper Yakima (17030001)+, Naches (17030002)+, Snake headwaters (17040101)+, Gros Ventre (17040102)+, Greys-Hobock (17040103)+, Palisades (17040104)+, Salt (17040105)+, Lower Henrys (17040203)+, Teton (17040204)+, Big Lost (17040218)+, Big Wood (17040219)+*, Bruneau (17050102)+, Upper Owyhee (17050104)+, South Fork Owyhee (17050105)+, Middle Owyhee (17050107)+, Brownlee Reservoir (17050201)+, Upper Grande Ronde (17060104)+, Wallowa (17060105)+, Lower Grande Ronde (17060106)+, Lower Snake-Tucannon (17060107)+, Palouse (17060108)+, Rock (17060109)+, Pahsimeroi (17060202)+, Middle Salmon-Panther (17060203)+, Lemhi (17060204)+, Lower Middle Fork Salmon (17060206)+, Lower Salmon (17060209)+, Clearwater (17060306)+, Middle Columbia-Lake Wallula (17070101)+, Walla Walla (17070102)+, Umatilla (17070103)+, Middle Columbia-Hood (17070105)+, Klickitat (17070106)+, North Fork John Day (17070202)+, Upper Cowlitz (17080004)+, Lower Columbia (17080006)+, North Santiam (17090005)+*, South Santiam (17090006)+, Hoh-Quillayute (17100101)+, Queets-Quinault (17100102)+, Upper Chehalis (17100103)+, Lower Chehalis (17100104)+, North Umpqua (17100301)+, South Umpqua (17100302)+, Umpqua (17100303)+, Coos (17100304)+, Coquille (17100305)+, Upper Rogue (17100307)+*, Middle Rogue (17100308)+*, Applegate (17100309)+*, Illinois (17100311)+, San Juan Islands (17110003)+, Upper Skagit (17110005)+, Sauk (17110006)+, Stillaguamish (17110008)+, Puyallup (17110014)+, Nisqually (17110015)+, Skokomish (17110017)+, Hood Canal (17110018)+, Puget Sound (17110019)+, Lake Abert (17120006)+*, Warner Lakes (17120007)+, Guano (17120008)+*, Alvord Lake (17120009)+*
18 Smith (18010101)+, Mad-Redwood (18010102)+, Lower Eel (18010105)+, Williamson (18010201)+*, Sprague (18010202)+*, Lost (18010204)+, Upper Klamath (18010206)+*, South Fork Trinity (18010212)+, Goose Lake (18020001)+*, Lower Pit (18020003)+, North Fork Feather (18020121)+, East Branch North Fork Feather (18020122)+, Middle Fork Feather (18020123)+, Battle Creek (18020153)+, Upper Kern (18030001)+, Middle Kern-Upper Tehachapi- (18030003)+, Upper King (18030010)+, Upper San Joaquin (18040006)+, Upper Merced (18040008)+, Upper Tuolumne (18040009)+, Upper Cosumnes (18040013)+, San Pablo Bay (18050002)+*, Central Coastal (18060006)+, Santa Clara (18070102)+, San Diego (18070304)+, Cottonwood-Tijuana (18070305)+, Madeline Plains (18080002)+, Honey-Eagle Lakes (18080003)+, Crowley Lake (18090102)+, Owens Lake (18090103)+, Eureka-Saline Valleys (18090201)+, Upper Amargosa (18090202)+, Antelope-Fremont Valleys (18090206)+, Southern Mojave (18100100)+, Carrizo Creek (18100202)+
19 Prince of Wales (19010103)+, Kuiu-Kupreanof-Mitkof-Etolin-Zarembo-Wrangell Isla (19010202)+, Admiralty Island (19010204)+*, Icy Strait-Chatham Strait (19010500)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A small bat (long-legged myotis).
Reproduction Comments: In New Mexico, copulation was noted to begin in late August, with sperm stored overwinter until ovulation in March-May; parturition occurs in May-August (Black 1974). Births occur probably in June or early July in Texas (Schmidly 1991, Ammerman et al. 2012). Litter size: 1. Life span of 21 years has been recorded in the wild (Warner and Czaplewski 1984). Nursery colonies may include up to several hundred individuals.
Ecology Comments: In many areas this Myotis may be the most abundant species; it is the common Myotis in the western U.S.
Habitat Type: Terrestrial
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: Adults and young leave the maternity colonies in fall but nothing is known of their subsequent movements (Barbour and Davis 1969). The species is present in Texas from late March-October and apparently migrates elsehwere for winter (Ammerman et al. 2012).

In Idaho, summer home ranges averaged several hundred hectares (Johnson et al. 2007). In Oregon-Washington, summer roosts averaged 2 kilometers from capture sites, and individuals moved an average of 1.4 kilomters between successive roosts (Baker and Lacki 2006).

Palustrine Habitat(s): Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Cliff, Desert, Forest - Conifer, Forest - Mixed, Grassland/herbaceous, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Mixed
Subterranean Habitat(s): Subterrestrial
Special Habitat Factors: Standing snag/hollow tree
Habitat Comments: These bats occur primarily in mountainous areas wooded with coniferous trees, but also may be found in riparian and desert (Baja California) habitats. They may change habitats seasonally. Hibernacula are in caves and mines, but winter habits are poorly known. Warm-season daytime roosts are in tree hollows or under loose bark, in crevices among rocks or in cliffs, or in buildings, but apparently not in caves or mines (these may be used at night) (Barbour and Davis 1969, Chung-MacCoubrey 1996, Vonhof and Barclay 1996, Rabe et al. 1998, Baker and Lacki 2006); roost-site changes are frequent (Ormesbee 1996, Baker and Lacki 2006). In Washington-Oregon, large snags were important roosts, but bats sometimes roosted in rock crevices (Baker and Lacki 2006). In Washington, Oregon, and Idaho, snags used as roosts by M. volans usually last only a few years before falling (Lacki et al. 2006). In the Pacific Northwest, M. volans selected snags for roosting based on stand- and landscape-scale characteristics, with significant factors varying among different regions (Lacki et al. 2010).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: These bats feed primarily on moths but also consume a wide variety of other invertebrates, such as beetles, flies, leafhoppers, and others (Black 1974, Warner and Czaplewski 1984, Warner 1985, Johnson et al. 2007). They may follow prey for relatively long distances around, through, or over the forest canopy, in forest clearings, and over water. In New Mexico, they forage primarily in open areas (Black 1974).
Adult Phenology: Hibernates/aestivates, Nocturnal
Immature Phenology: Hibernates/aestivates, Nocturnal
Phenology Comments: Winter habits are poorly known, but individuals hibernate at least in portions of the northern part of the range. These bats may be active throughout most of the night. Peak activity occurs during the first 3-4 hours after sunset (Warner and Czaplewski 1984).
Colonial Breeder: Y
Length: 10 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Biological Research Needs: Better information is needed on rangewide distribution of roosts, maternity colonies, and hibernacula; also abundance, trends, migration patterns, threats, and effect of threats.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Small and Medium Bats

Use Class: Bachelor colony
Subtype(s): Diurnal Roost, Foraging Area, Nocturnal Roost
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: An area occupied either historically or at present by a persisting or recurring population of males during summer (approximately May through August). Includes mist net captures away from roost sites obtained during the summer months even if the actual roost site(s) are not known. Identification evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and detailed documentation of one or more individuals. In certain regions, recorded echolocation sequences of individuals may be considered reliable observations for certain species that can be confidently identified by their echolocation calls alone, although caution must be used in determining Location Use Class for such observations during the breeding season.
Mapping Guidance: EO includes both the colony site and the associated foraging areas. If separate, the colony site and foraging areas are bounded by separate polygons; that is, areas over which the bats simply commute to and from foraging areas and the colony are not included in the EO.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: The assigned separation distance is intended to generate occurrences that consist of spatially proximate roost sites and capture locations. However, include in the same occurrence (1) any roost sites between which significant of individuals are known to move, regardless of how far apart they are, and (2) known significant foraging areas of occurrences that are based on roost sites.

In two studies, male MYOTIS SODALIS foraged a maximum of 2.0 and 4.2 kilometers from their summer roosts (summarized in USFWS 1999).

Date: 29Mar2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson

Use Class: Breeding
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: An area occupied either historically or at present by a persisting or recurring breeding population during spring/summer (approximately May through August). Includes mist net captures away from colony sites obtained even if the associated roost site is not known. Identification evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and detailed documentation of one or more individuals. In certain regions, echolocation sequences of individuals may be considered reliable observations for certain species that can be confidently identified by their echolocation calls alone, although caution must be used in determining Location Use Class for such observations during the breeding season.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: It is impractical to attempt to delineate occurrences on the basis of discrete populations. Instead, the assigned separation distance is intended to generate occurrences that consist of spatially proximate roost sites and capture locations.
Date: 02Jul2014
Author: Hammerson, G.

Use Class: Hibernaculum
Subtype(s): Pre-hibernation roost site, Hibernaculum
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: A site occupied either historically or at present by a recurring population of hibernating individuals. Identification evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and detailed documentation of one or more individuals. EO also includes immediately surrounding areas used by bats immediately before hibernation, where these areas are known.
Mapping Guidance: Cave/mine passages should be projected to the surface for the purpose of mapping EO boundary.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: These bats sometimes move long distances between different hibernacula. For example, individuals of M. LUCIFUGUS and M. SEPTENTRIONALIS have been recorded flying up to 219 and 89 kilometers respectively between hibernacula during the winter months (Linzey 1998, Griffin 1940). However,
such movements are not a good basis for distinguishing occurrences (occurrences would become too expansive). The assigned separation distance is intended to generate occurrences that consist of spatially proximate hibernacula.

Separation distances suggested take into account the fact that, during the fall, some bats (e.g. M. SODALIS) swarm and mate at their hibernaculum, and males roost in trees nearby during the day and fly to the cave during the night. In two studies, M. SODALIS males roosted within a maximum of 5.6 kilometers of the hibernaculum (Kiser and Elliott 1996; Craig Stihler, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, pers. observ., October 1996, cited in USFWS 1999).

Although they do not generally fly from one hibernaculum to another, hibernating bats are known to wake and move around to some extent within their hibernating site. As long as the areas are connected (even though they may not be passable by humans) the bats could be expected to move from one part of the system to another (e.g. MYOTIS SODALIS, Clawson et al. 1980).

Date: 29Mar2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson

Use Class: Maternity colony
Subtype(s): Colony Site, Foraging Area, Nocturnal Roost
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: An area occupied either historically or at present by a persisting or recurring population of breeding females and their young during summer (approximately May through August). Includes mist net captures away from colony sites obtained during the summer months even if the associated roost site is not known. Identification evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and detailed documentation of one or more individuals. In certain regions, echolocation sequences of individuals may be considered reliable observations for certain species that can be confidently identified by their echolocation calls alone, although caution must be used in determining Location Use Class for such observations during the breeding season.
Mapping Guidance: The EO includes both the colony site and the associated foraging areas. If separate, the colony site and foraging areas are bounded by separate polygons; that is, areas over which the bats simply commute to and from foraging areas and the colony are not included in the EO.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: It is impractical to attempt to delineate occurrences on the basis of discrete populations. Instead, the assigned separation distance is intended to generate occurrences that consist of spatially proximate roost sites and capture locations.

Nursing female Myotis sodalis moved an average of 1.04 kilometers from roost to center of foraging area, giving a mean foraging diameter of 2.08 kilometers; however, post-lactating females moved more than twice as far, travelling an average of 2.6 kilometers (Garner and Gardner 1992). In Indiana, 11 foraging adult females that were tracked for 2-7 days moved up to 8.4 km from their roost; home range during this brief period averaged 3.35 square kilometers (Sparks et al. 2005). Myotis grisescens females move up to 6.6 kilometers (Tuttle 1976). Female M. septentrionalis had an average foraging home range of 61.1 hectares (Menzel et al. 1999), equivalent to a circle with a diameter of 880 meters.

Date: 08Mar2001
Author: Cannings, S.

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Diurnal Roost, Foraging Area, Nocturnal Roost
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: A site occupied either historically or at present by a recurring population of migrating or otherwise nonhibernating individuals during the nonbreeding season. Identification evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and detailed documentation of one or more individuals. In certain regions, recorded echolocation sequences of individuals may be considered reliable observations for certain species that can be confidently identified by their echolocation calls alone.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: The assigned separation distance is intended to generate occurrences that consist of spatially proximate roost sites and capture locations. However, include in the same occurrence (1) any roost sites between which individuals are known to move, regardless of how far apart they are, and (2) known significant foraging areas of occurrences that are based on roost sites.

In California, Fellers and Pierson (2002) studied a group of Corynorhinus townsendii inhabiting a maternity colony site after the nursery season had passed and found that the mean center of female foraging activity was 3.2 kilometers from the diurnal roost, whereas the mean center of male foraging activity was only 1.3 kilometers from the roost. No bats traveled more than 10.5 kilometers from the roost, and individuals showed considerable loyalty to the primary roost. Otherwise, little movement data are available.

Date: 19Apr2001
Author: Cannings, S.

Use Class: Roost
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: An area occupied either historically or at present by a persisting or recurring population during summer  (approximately May through August). Includes counts of individuals from roost sites obtained during the summer months during pup rearing and summer residence periods. Identification evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and detailed documentation of one or more individuals during roost counts.
Mapping Guidance: EO includes both the colony site and an approximation of the associated foraging areas. If separate, the colony site and foraging areas are bounded by separate polygons; that is, areas over which the bats simply commute to and from foraging areas and the colony are not included in the EO.
Separation Barriers: None
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: It is impractical to attempt to delineate occurrences on the basis of discrete populations. Instead, the assigned separation distance is intended to generate occurrences that consist of spatially proximate roost sites.
Date: 01Dec2017
Author: Staffen, R.
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 01Apr2015
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 02Apr2015
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

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