Mussa angulosa - (Pallas, 1766)
Large Flower Coral
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Mussa angulosa (Pallas, 1766) (TSN 53474)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.114449
Element Code: IDANT03010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Corals and other Cnidarians - Corals
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Cnidaria Anthozoa Scleractinia Mussidae Mussa
Genus Size: A - Monotypic genus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Cairns, S.D., Calder, D.R., Brinckman-Voss, A., Castro, C.B., Pugh, P.R., Cutress, C.E., Jaap, W.C., Fautin, D.G., Larson, R.J., Harbison, G.R., Arai, M.N. and Opresko, D.M. 1991. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Cnidaria and Ctenophora. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 22, Bethesda, Maryland. 75 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91CAI01FCUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Mussa angulosa
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 13Sep1992
Global Status Last Changed: 13Sep1992
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Widespread distribution in the tropical western Atlantic but is generally confined to structurally comlex reef communities. Characterized by high tolerance to sedimentation with no reports of disease of bleaching.
Nation: United States
National Status: NNR

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Florida (S2S3)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Widespread distribution in the tropical western Atlantic, including the Gulf of Mexico, southern Florida, Bahamas, NW Caribbean, Puerto Rico, lesser Antilles and Bonaire.

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Information is needed on the number of occurrences in the tropical western Atlantic.

Population Size: 1000 - 2500 individuals
Population Size Comments: Generally limited to structurally complex reef communities such as patch reefs, fringing reefs, spur and groove reefs, intermediate reefs and deep reef slopes.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Incidence of disease or bleaching not reported and characterized by efficient sediment rejecting capabilities.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Information is needed on the status and trend of extant populations.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Little information on life history strategies from resources consulted.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Distribution information needed from Central America with data on colony densities from reef communities.

Protection Needs: Mooring buoys need to be installed in marine protected areas.

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Widespread distribution in the tropical western Atlantic, including the Gulf of Mexico, southern Florida, Bahamas, NW Caribbean, Puerto Rico, lesser Antilles and Bonaire.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.

Map unavailable!:
Distribution data for U.S. states and Canadian provinces is known to be incomplete or has not been reviewed for this taxon.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FL

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
FL Broward (12011), Monroe (12087), Palm Beach (12099)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Florida Bay-Florida Keys (03090203)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Stony coral
General Description: Colonial, ramose, zooxanthellate, constructional, hermatypic.
Reproduction Comments: No information on reproductive ecology from resources consulted.
Ecology Comments: A73LAN01FCUS: highly aggressive coral with a meandroid/phaceloid growth form. A88LOG02FCUS: grows in an inclined direction, considered to be important in sediment rejection. A84LAS02FCUS: susceptible to bleaching (loss of zooxanthellae) due to adverse environmental conditions.
Habitat Type: Marine
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: SEDENTARY
Marine Habitat(s): Near shore
Habitat Comments: Overall depth range from 1.5-59 m, but typically occurs between 10-30 m on deeper reef communities.

Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Biological Research Needs: Data needed on colony growth, reproduction and recruitment. Information needed on susceptibility to eutrophication.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Stony Coral

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Four components to a stony coral element occurrence: 1.) determine size and boundary of site to be surveyed, 2.) determine density of colonies via quadrats, 3.) determine size distribution of colonies with a note on maximum colony size, and 4.) provide habitat description.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 11Jul2011
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Almquist, D.T.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 13Sep1992
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): CHIAPPONE, M., E. PETERS

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Adams, R.A. 1968. The leeward reefs of St. Vincent, West Indies. Journal of Geology 76: 587-595.

  • Bak, R.P.M. 1975. Ecological aspects of the distribution of reef corals in the Netherlands Antilles. Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde 45: 181-190.

  • Bak, R.P.M., Brouns, J.J.W.M. and Heys, F.M.L. 1977. Regeneration aspects of spatial competition in the scleractinian corals Agaricia agaricites and Montastrea annularis. Proceedings of the 3rd International Coral Reef Symposium 1: 143-148.

  • Bright, T.J., Kraemer, G.P., Minnery, G.A. and Viada, S.T. 1984. Hermatypes of the Flower Garden Banks, Northwestern Gulf of Mexico: A comparison to other western Atlantic reefs. Bulletin of Marine Science 34(3): 461-476.

  • Cairns, S.D. 1982. Stony corals of Carrie Bow Cay, Belize. Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences 12: 271-302.

  • Cairns, S.D., Calder, D.R., Brinckman-Voss, A., Castro, C.B., Pugh, P.R., Cutress, C.E., Jaap, W.C., Fautin, D.G., Larson, R.J., Harbison, G.R., Arai, M.N. and Opresko, D.M. 1991. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Cnidaria and Ctenophora. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 22, Bethesda, Maryland. 75 pp.

  • Cairns, S.D., D.R. Calder, A. Brinckmann-Voss, C.B. Castro, D.G. Fautin, P.R. Pugh, C.E. Mills, W.C. Jaap, M.N. Arai, S.H.D. Haddock, and D.M. Opresko. 2002. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Cnidaria and Ctenophora. 2nd edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 28, Bethesda, Maryland. 115 pp.

  • Colin, P.L. 1978. Caribbean Reef Invertebrates and Plants. THF Publications, Hong Kong. 512 pp.

  • Davis, G.E. 1982. A century of natural change in coral distribution at the Dry Tortugas: A comparison of reef maps from 1881 to 1976. Bulletin of Marine Science 32(2): 608-623.

  • Deyrup, M., and R. Franz. 1994. Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida, Volume IV: Invertebrates. University Press of Florida, Gainesville. 798 pp.

  • Dunne, R.P. and Brown, B.E. 1979. Some aspects of the ecology of reefs surrounding Anegada, British Virgin Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin 236: 1-83.

  • Dustan, P. 1985. Community structure of reef-building corals in the Florida Keys: Carysfort Reef, Key Largo and Long Key Reef, Dry Tortugas. Atoll Research Bulletin 288: 1-27.

  • Dustan, P. and Halas, J.C. 1987. Changes in the reef-coral community of Carysfort Reef, Key Largo, Florida: 1974 to 1982. Coral Reefs 6: 91-106.

  • Farrell, T.M., D'Elia, C.F., Lubbers, L. and Pastor, L.J. 1983. Hermatypic coral diversity and reef zonation at Cayos Arcas, Campeche, Gulf of Mexico. Atoll Research Bulletin 270: 1-7.

  • Fenner, D.P. 1988. Some leeward reefs and corals of Cozumel, Mexico. Bulletin of Marine Science 41(1): 133-144.

  • Goldberg, W.M. 1973a. The ecology of the coral-octocoral communities off the southeast Florida coast: Geomorphology, species composition and zonation. Bulletin of Marine Science 23(3): 465-487.

  • Goreau, T.F. 1959. The ecology of Jamaican coral reefs. I. Species composition and zonation. Ecology 40: 67-90.

  • Goreau, T.F. and Wells, J.W. 1967. The shallow-water Scleractinia of Jamaica: Revised list of species and their vertical distribution range. Bulletin of Marine Science 17(2): 442-453.

  • Hopkins, T.S., Blizzard, D.R., Brawley, S.A., Earle, S.A., Grimm, D.E., Gilbert, D.K., Johnson, P.G., Livingston, E.H., Lutz, C.H., Shaw, J.K. and Shaw, B.B. 1977. A preliminary characterization of the biotic components of composite strip transects on the Florida Middle Grounds, northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Proceedings of the 3rd International Coral Reef Symposium 1: 31-37.

  • Jaap, W.C., W.G. Lyons, P. Dustan and J.C. Halas. 1989. Stony coral (Scleractinia and Milleporina) community structure at Bird Key Reef, Ft. Jefferson National Monument, Dry Tortugas, Florida. Florida Marine Research Publications 46: 1-31

  • Jordan, E., Moreno, M. and Martin, E. 1981. Community structure of coral reefs in the Mexican Caribbean. Proceedings of the 4th International Coral Reef Symposium 2: 303-308.

  • Kuhlmann, D. 1974. The coral reefs of Cuba. Proceedings of the 2nd International Coral Reef Symposium 2: 69-83.

  • Lang, J.C. 1973. Interspecific aggression by scleractinian corals. 2. Why the race is not only to the swift. Bulletin of Marine Science 23(2): 260-279.

  • Lasker, H.R., Peters, E.C. and Coffroth, M.A. 1984. Bleaching of reef coelenterates in the San Blas Islands, Panama. Coral Reefs 3: 183-190.

  • Liddell, W.D. and Ohlhorst, S.L. 1981. Geomorphology and community composition of two adjacent reef areas, Discovery Bay, Jamaica. Journal of Marine Research 39(4): 791-804.

  • Liddell, W.D. and Ohlhorst, S.L. 1987. Patterns of reef community structure, North Jamaica. Bulletin of Marine Science 40(2): 311-329.

  • Logan, A. 1988b. Sediment-shifting capability in the recent solitary coral Scolymia cubensis (Milne Edwards and Haime) from Bermuda. Bulletin of Marine Science 43(2): 241-248.

  • Loya, Y. 1976. Effects of water turbidity and sedimentation on the community structure of Puerto Rican corals. Bulletin Marine Science 26(4): 450-466.

  • Marszalek, D.S. 1981. Impact of dredging on a subtropical reef community, southeast Florida, U.S.A. Proceedings of the 4th International Coral Reef Symposium 1: 147-153.

  • Rogers, C.S. 1979. The effect of shading on coral reef structure and function. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 41: 269-288.

  • Rogers, C.S., H.C. Fitz, III, M. Gilnack, J. Beets, and J. Hardin. 1984. Scleractinian coral recruitment patterns at Salt River Submarine Canyon, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Coral Reefs 3: 69-76.

  • Scatterday, J.W. 1974. Reefs and associated coral assemblages off Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles, and their bearing on Pleistocene and recent reef models. Proceedings of the 2nd International Coral Reef Symposium 2: 85-106.

  • Smith, F.G.W. 1971. Atlantic Reef Corals. University of Miami Press, Coral Gables, Florida. 164 pp.

  • Tunnell, J.W., Jr. 1988. Regional comparison of southwestern Gulf of Mexico to Caribbean Sea coral reefs. Proceedings of the 6th International Coral Reef Symposium 3: 303-308.

  • Wells, J.W. 1973a. New and old scleractinian corals from Jamaica. Bulletin of Marine Science 23(1):16-58.

  • Zlatarski, V.N. and Estalella, N.M. 1982. Les scleractiniaires de Cuba avec des donnees sur les organismes associes. Academic Bulgare des Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria. 472 pp.

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