Mugil cephalus - Linnaeus, 1758
Striped Mullet
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, 1758 (TSN 170335)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.103959
Element Code: AFCQL02010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Other Bony Fishes
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Mugiliformes Mugilidae Mugil
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Mugil cephalus
Taxonomic Comments: Allozyme data indicate that mullet from both the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of Florida represent a single gene pool (Campton and Mahmoudi 1991).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 25Sep1996
Global Status Last Changed: 25Sep1996
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S5), Arizona (S1), Arkansas (S2), California (SNR), District of Columbia (S1N), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S5), Hawaii (SNR), Indiana (SNA), Louisiana (S5), Massachusetts (S4), Mississippi (S5), New York (SNRN), North Carolina (S5), South Carolina (SNR), Texas (S5)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Tropical and subtropical coastal areas throughout world; also in temperate zone. North to Monterey Bay, California, and to Nova Scotia (most common from Chesapeake Bay south and south of Los Angeles). Native to perennial Hawaiian streams. Absent from Bahamas and most of West Indies and Caribbean.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Tropical and subtropical coastal areas throughout world; also in temperate zone. North to Monterey Bay, California, and to Nova Scotia (most common from Chesapeake Bay south and south of Los Angeles). Native to perennial Hawaiian streams. Absent from Bahamas and most of West Indies and Caribbean.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, AZ, CA, DC, FL, GA, HI, INexotic, LA, MA, MS, NC, NY, SC, TX

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AR Arkansas (05001), Clark (05019), Desha (05041), Independence (05063)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Middle Savannah (03060106), Middle Chattahoochee-Walter F. George Reservoir (03130003), Perdido (03140106), Perdido Bay (03140107), Upper Choctawhatchee (03140201), Pea (03140202), Lower Conecuh (03140304), Lower Coosa (03150107), Cahaba (03150202), Middle Alabama (03150203), Lower Alabama (03150204), Luxapallila (03160105), Lower Black Warrior (03160113), Middle Tombigbee-Chickasaw (03160201), Lower Tambigbee (03160203), Mobile - Tensaw (03160204), Mobile Bay (03160205)
05 Lower Ohio (05140206)
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100), Lower White (08020303)+, Lower Arkansas (08020401)+, Upper Ouachita (08040102)+
11 Middle White (11010004)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Spawns in fall or winter, depending on locality; sexually mature in 2-3 years (Manooch 1984, Moyle 1976).
Ecology Comments: Adults form large schools.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: Usually migrates, often in enormous schools, between spawning and nonspawning habitats (Manooch 1984).
Marine Habitat(s): Near shore, Pelagic
Estuarine Habitat(s): Bay/sound, River mouth/tidal river
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER
Habitat Comments: Marine and estuarine, often ascending coastal rivers for considerable distances. Juveniles and subadults occur in a variety of estuarine and freshwater habitats. Primarily in shallow estuaries. Cannot tolerate temperatures less than 16 C for extended periods. Spawns primarily in open sea, young gradually move back into estuaries. May spawn in river (Moyle 1976).
Adult Food Habits: Herbivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore
Food Comments: Primarily herbivorous; eats plant material, detritus and associated fauna, and plankton. Feeds on muddy bottoms in shallow water. Sometimes feeds at surface on worms and other invertebrates and on bits of algae.
Length: 35 centimeters
Economic Attributes
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Economic Comments: The most important commercial mullet in the eastern U.S. (Robins and Ray 1986).
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 26Aug1993
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • Bahr, L.M. and J.J. Hebrard. 1976. Barataria Basin: Biological Characterization. CWR, LSU. Sea Grant Publication No. LSU-T-76-005.

  • Campton, D. E., and B. Mahmoudi. 1991. Allozyme variation and population structure of striped mullet (MUGIL CEPHALUS) in Florida. Copeia 1991:485-492.

  • EDWARDS, ROBERT J. AND SALVADOR CONTRERAS-BALDERAS. 1991. HISTORICAL CHANGES IN THE ICHTHIOFAUNA OF THE LOWER RIO GRANDE (RIO BRAVO DEL NORTE), TEXAS AND MEXICO. SOUTHWEST. NAT. 36(2):201-212.

  • Greeley, J.R. 1939. Fishes and habitat conditions of the shore zone based upon July and August seining investigations. pp. 72-91 in a biological survey of the salt waters of Long Island. Suppl. to 28th annual report, 1938. Albany, NY.

  • Herke, W.H., B.D. Rogers, and J.A. Grimes. 1984. Sabine fisheries study. Louisiana Coop. Fish Wildl. Res. Unit, LSU Baton Rouge. 2 vols.

  • Herke, W.H., et al. 1986. Draft final report of the Cameron Creole watershed fisheries investigations. 2 vols. LSU, Cooperative Fish. Wildl. Res. Unit.

  • Hoese, H. D., and R.H. Moore. 1977. Fishes of the Gulf of Mexico. Texas A & M University Press, College Station. 327pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • MORIARTY, LOREN J. AND KIRK O. WINEMILLER. 1997. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIATION IN FISH ASSEMBLAGE STRUCTURE IN VILLAGE CREEK, HARDIN COUNTY, TEXAS. TEXAS J. SCI. 49(3)SUPPL.: 85-110.

  • Manooch, C. S., III. 1984. Fisherman's guide. Fishes of the southeastern United States. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh. 362 pp.

  • Moertle, R. J. 1976. A trawl and wing net study of the Icthtyofauna of the Caminada Bay estuarine system, La. M.S. thesis, LSU, Baton Rouge. 120pp.

  • Moyle, P. B. 1976a. Inland fishes of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, California. 405 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Page, LM, H.Espinoza-Perez, L.Findley, C.Gilbert, R. Lea, N. Mandrak, R.Mayden and J.Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico, 7th edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Perry, W. Guthrie, and Brandon J. Carter. Seasonal occurrence of fishes collected from beach seining, Southwest LA. 1979. La. Acad. of Sci. 42( ): 24-38.

  • Perry, W.G., 1978. Distribution of fish in the Rockefeller- Grand Lake tidal bayou complex, southwest La. La. Acad. Sci. 41:101-107.

  • ROSS, STEPHEN T. 1996. INLAND FISHES OF MISSISSIPPI. SELECTED SPECIES ACCOUNTS. COAUTHORED WITH W.M. BRENNEMAM, W.T. SLACK, M.T. O'CONNELL, AND T.L. PETERSON. ILLUSTRATED BY D.G. ROSS. DRAFT COPY.

  • Robins, C. R., and G. C. Ray. 1986. A Field Guide to Atlantic Coast Fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Massachusetts. 354 pp.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

  • Smith, C.L. 1985. The Inland Fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY. 522pp.

  • Walls, J.G. 1975. Fishes of the northern Gulf of Mexico. T.F.H. Publications, Inc., Ltd., N.J. 432pp.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Marcy, B. C., Jr., D. E. Fletcher, F. D. Martin, M. H. Paller, and M.J.M. Reichert. 2005. Fishes of the middle Savannah River basin. University of Georgia Press, Athens. xiv + 460 pp.

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