Moxostoma duquesnei - (Lesueur, 1817)
Black Redhorse
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
French Common Names: chevalier noir
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.100378
Element Code: AFCJC10070
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Suckers
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Catostomidae Moxostoma
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Moxostoma duquesnei
Taxonomic Comments: Mobile Bay drainage population is racially distinct from all other populations (see Lee et al. 1980).

Harris and Mayden (2001) used molecular data to examine phylogenetic relationships of major clades of Catostomidae. In all trees, Scartomyzon was paraphyletic and embedded in Moxostoma, and Catostomus was never recovered as monophyletic (Xyrauchen was embedded within Catostomus). They concluded that the phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic composition of taxa presently included in Moxostoma and Scartomyzon are in need of further study, as are the relationships and composition of the genera Catostomus, Chasmistes, Deltistes, and Xyrauchen, and the phylogenetic affinites of Erimyzon and Minytrema.

See also Smith (1992) for a study of the phylogeny and biogeography of the Catostomidae.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 19May2015
Global Status Last Changed: 19Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N2 (21Dec2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S5), Arkansas (S4), Georgia (S4), Illinois (S2S3), Indiana (S4), Iowa (S2), Kansas (S1), Kentucky (S4S5), Michigan (S2), Minnesota (S3), Mississippi (S1), Missouri (SNR), New York (S2), North Carolina (S4), Ohio (S5), Oklahoma (S4), Pennsylvania (S5), Tennessee (S5), Virginia (S3), West Virginia (S4), Wisconsin (S1)
Canada Ontario (S2)

Other Statuses

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Threatened (01May2015)
Comments on COSEWIC: Reason for designation: This species of fish has a limited extent of occurrence and area of occupancy. It is found only in a few rivers in southwestern Ontario, and is under continuing threats to habitat quality due to the cumulative impacts of pollution from urban wastewater and agriculture and alterations to flow regimes.

Status history: Designated Threatened in April 1988. Status re?examined and confirmed in May 2005 and May 2015.

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Upper and middle Mobile drainage, Alabama, Georgia, and southeastern Tennessee (absent from Tombigbee River system); uplands and outliers of southern Ohio River basin and Ozarks, west to eastern Oklahoma, south to northern Alabama and northern Georgia, east to western Virginia, western North Carolina; northern Ohio River basin and north into middle part of upper Mississippi River basin to southeastern Minnesota, southern Wisconsin (Fago and Hauber 1993), Pennsylvania, and West Virginia; southern Great Lakes basin, north to western New York, southern Ontario, Michigan, and southern Wisconsin. Avoids lowlands of central Mississippi River basin. See Parker (1989) for information on status in Canada.

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of subpopulations and locations.

Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but relatively large.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Localized threats may exist, but on a range-wide scale no major threats are known.

Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable or slowly declining.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Upper and middle Mobile drainage, Alabama, Georgia, and southeastern Tennessee (absent from Tombigbee River system); uplands and outliers of southern Ohio River basin and Ozarks, west to eastern Oklahoma, south to northern Alabama and northern Georgia, east to western Virginia, western North Carolina; northern Ohio River basin and north into middle part of upper Mississippi River basin to southeastern Minnesota, southern Wisconsin (Fago and Hauber 1993), Pennsylvania, and West Virginia; southern Great Lakes basin, north to western New York, southern Ontario, Michigan, and southern Wisconsin. Avoids lowlands of central Mississippi River basin. See Parker (1989) for information on status in Canada.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NY, OH, OK, PA, TN, VA, WI, WV
Canada ON

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IA Allamakee (19005), Benton (19011), Black Hawk (19013), Buchanan (19019), Chickasaw (19037)*, Clayton (19043), Fayette (19065), Floyd (19067), Hardin (19083), Howard (19089), Linn (19113), Mitchell (19131), Winneshiek (19191)
KS Cherokee (20021)
MN Dodge (27039), Fillmore (27045), Goodhue (27049), Houston (27055), Mower (27099), Olmsted (27109), Winona (27169)
MS Clay (28025)*, Itawamba (28057)*, Lowndes (28087), Monroe (28095), Tishomingo (28141)
NY Allegany (36003), Cattaraugus (36009), Chautauqua (36013), Erie (36029), Livingston (36051)*, Monroe (36055)*, Niagara (36063), Wyoming (36121)*
VA Lee (51105)
WI Buffalo (55011), Dane (55025)*, La Crosse (55063), Marathon (55073), Walworth (55127)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Tugaloo (03060102), Conasauga (03150101), Coosawattee (03150102), Oostanaula (03150103), Etowah (03150104), Upper Coosa (03150105), Middle Coosa (03150106), Lower Coosa (03150107), Upper Tallapoosa (03150108), Middle Tallapoosa (03150109), Lower Tallapoosa (03150110), Upper Alabama (03150201), Cahaba (03150202), Middle Alabama (03150203), Lower Alabama (03150204), Upper Tombigbee (03160101)+*, Buttahatchee (03160103)+, Luxapallila (03160105)+, Mulberry (03160109), Sipsey Fork (03160110), Locust (03160111), Upper Black Warrior (03160112), Lower Black Warrior (03160113)
04 Kalamazoo (04050003), Lower Grand (04050006), Tittabawassee (04080201), Pine (04080202), Shiawassee (04080203), Cass (04080205), Lake St. Clair (04090002), Clinton (04090003), Huron (04090005), Raisin (04100002), St. Joseph (04100003), Lower Maumee (04100009)*, Sandusky (04100011)*, Huron-Vermilion (04100012), Black-Rocky (04110001)*, Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003), Grand (04110004), Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101)+, Cattaraugus (04120102)+, Buffalo-Eighteenmile (04120103)+, Niagara (04120104)+, Lake Erie (04120200), Upper Genesee (04130002)+, Lower Genesee (04130003)+*
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001)+, Conewango (05010002)+, Middle Allegheny-Tionesta (05010003), French (05010004)+, Middle Allegheny-Redbank (05010006), Kiskiminetas (05010008), Lower Monongahela (05020005), Upper Ohio (05030101), Shenango (05030102), Upper Ohio-Wheeling (05030106), Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201), Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202), Little Kanawha (05030203), Hocking (05030204), Tuscarawas (05040001)*, Mohican (05040002), Walhonding (05040003), Muskingum (05040004), Licking (05040006), Upper Kanawha (05050006), Elk (05050007), Lower Kanawha (05050008), Coal (05050009), Upper Scioto (05060001), Lower Scioto (05060002), Paint (05060003), Tug (05070201), Upper Levisa (05070202), Lower Levisa (05070203), Big Sandy (05070204), Upper Great Miami (05080001), Lower Great Miami (05080002), Whitewater (05080003), Raccoon-Symmes (05090101)*, Twelvepole (05090102), Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103), Little Sandy (05090104), Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201), Little Miami (05090202), Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203), Licking (05100101), North Fork Kentucky (05100201), Middle Fork Kentucky (05100202), South Fork Kentucky (05100203), Upper Kentucky (05100204), Lower Kentucky (05100205), Upper Green (05110001), Barren (05110002), Middle Green (05110003), Rough (05110004), Lower Green (05110005), Salamonie (05120102), Tippecanoe (05120106), Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108), Vermilion (05120109), Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111), Upper White (05120201), Eel (05120203), Driftwood (05120204), Flatrock-Haw (05120205), Upper East Fork White (05120206), Muscatatuck (05120207), Upper Cumberland (05130101), Rockcastle (05130102), Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103), South Fork Cumberland (05130104), Obey (05130105), Upper Cumberland-Cordell Hull (05130106), Collins (05130107), Caney (05130108), Lower Cumberland-Old Hickory Lake (05130201), Lower Cumberland-Sycamore (05130202), Stones (05130203), Harpeth (05130204), Lower Cumberland (05130205), Red (05130206), Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Salt (05140102), Rolling Fork (05140103), Blue-Sinking (05140104), Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201), Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203)
06 North Fork Holston (06010101), South Fork Holston (06010102), Watauga (06010103), Holston (06010104), Upper French Broad (06010105), Pigeon (06010106), Lower French Broad (06010107), Nolichucky (06010108), Watts Bar Lake (06010201), Upper Little Tennessee (06010202), Tuckasegee (06010203), Lower Little Tennessee (06010204), Upper Clinch (06010205), Powell (06010206)+, Lower Clinch (06010207), Emory (06010208), Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001), Hiwassee (06020002), Ocoee (06020003), Sequatchie (06020004), Guntersville Lake (06030001), Wheeler Lake (06030002), Upper Elk (06030003), Lower Elk (06030004), Pickwick Lake (06030005), Bear (06030006)+, Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001), Upper Duck (06040002), Lower Duck (06040003), Buffalo (06040004), Kentucky Lake (06040005)
07 Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003)+, Zumbro (07040004)+, La Crosse-Pine (07040006)+, Root (07040008)+, Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Upper Iowa (07060002)+, Turkey (07060004)+, Apple-Plum (07060005)*, Lake Dubay (07070002)+, Lower Wisconsin (07070005)+*, Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102)+, Upper Cedar (07080201)+, Middle Cedar (07080205)+, Upper Iowa (07080207)+, Crawfish (07090002)+, Lower Rock (07090005)*, Kishwaukee (07090006), Salt (07110007), Cuivre (07110008), Kankakee (07120001), Upper Illinois (07120005), Lower Fox (07120007), Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001)*, Vermilion (07130002), Mackinaw (07130004), Cahokia-Joachim (07140101), Meramec (07140102), Bourbeuse (07140103), Big (07140104), Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105), Whitewater (07140107)
08 Upper St. Francis (08020202), Ouachita Headwaters (08040101), Upper Ouachita (08040102), Little Missouri (08040103), Upper Saline (08040203)
10 Harry S. Missouri (10290105), Sac (10290106), Pomme De Terre (10290107), Lake of the Ozarks (10290109), Niangua (10290110), Lower Osage (10290111), Upper Gasconade (10290201), Big Piney (10290202), Lower Gasconade (10290203), Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102), Lamine (10300103), Lower Missouri (10300200)
11 Beaver Reservoir (11010001), James (11010002), Bull Shoals Lake (11010003), Middle White (11010004), Buffalo (11010005), North Fork White (11010006), Upper Black (11010007), Current (11010008), Lower Black (11010009), Spring (11010010), Eleven Point (11010011), Strawberry (11010012), Little Red (11010014), Lake O' the Cherokees (11070206), Spring (11070207)+, Elk (11070208), Lower Neosho (11070209), Illinois (11110103), Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104), Frog-Mulberry (11110201), Dardanelle Reservoir (11110202), Fourche La Fave (11110206), Cache (11130202), Blue (11140102), Kiamichi (11140105), Upper Little (11140107), Mountain Fork (11140108), Lower Little (11140109)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Spawns in spring. Sexually mature at age II-VI (Becker 1983).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: May migrate up to at least 10 km to spawning areas (Becker 1983).
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, High gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool, Riffle
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Typical of gravelly to rocky, occasionally sandy and silty, creeks and small to medium rivers; prefers pools. Rarely in impoundments. Spawns in gravel and fine rubble runs and riffles in water about 0.2-0.6 m deep (Lee et al. 1980, Becker 1983).
Adult Food Habits: Herbivore, Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats mainly microcrustaceans, aquatic insects, detritus, and algae sucked up from bottom (Lee et al. 1980, Scott and Crossman 1973).
Length: 40 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Medium suckers

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Mapping Guidance: Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 15 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate migrations and seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that spawning areas and nonspawning areas for a single population are not artificially segregated as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 15 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 15 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. In some species, individuals may migrate variable distances between spawning areas and nonspawning habitats.

Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) for catostomids are arbitrary but reflect the presumption that movements and appropriate separation distances generally should increase with fish size. Hence small, medium, and large catostomids, respectively, have increasingly large separation distances. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 15 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Notes: This Specs Group includes catostomids that typically are 20-40 cm in adult standard length.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 14Feb1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. Univ. Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1052 pp.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. The fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wisconsin. 1052 pp.

  • Bowman, M.L. 1970. Life history of the black redhorse, Moxostoma duquesnei (Leseur), in Missouri. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 99(3):546-559.

  • COSEWIC. 2015. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Black Redhorse Moxostoma duquesnei in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. xii + 50 pp.

  • COSSARO. 2016. Ontario Species at Risk Evaluation Report for Black Redhorse (Moxostoma duquesnei). January 2016 (final). 13pp.

  • CROSS, F.B., AND J.T. COLLINS. 1975. FISHES IN KANSAS. UNIV. KANS. MUS.NAT.HIST., PUB.ED.SERIES NO.3.

  • CROSS, F.B.1967.HANDBOOK OF FISHES IN KANSAS. E. RAYMOND HALL.UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, LAWRENCE, KANSAS.

  • Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). 2015. COSEWIC Assessment Results, May 2015. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada.

  • Cooper, E.L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania. Penn State Univ. Press, University Park, PA.

  • Dextrase, A.J. 2005. COSSARO Candidate Species at Risk Evaluation Form for Black Redhorse (Moxostoma duquesnei). Species At Risk Unit, Biodiversity Section, Fish and Wildlife Branch. Prepared for Committee on the Status of Species at Risk in Ontario (COSSARO), Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough. 13 April, 7 pp.

  • Eaton, S.W., R.J. Nemecek and M.M. Kozubowski. 1982. Fishes of the Allegheny River above Kinzua Dam. New York Fish and Game J. 29(2):189-198.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • Fago, D.and A.B. Hauber. 1993. Black Redhorse, Moxostoma duquesnei, rediscovered in Wisconsin. Canadian Field-Naturalist 107(3):351-352.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Harris, P. M., and R. L. Mayden. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships of major clades of Catostomidae (Teleostei: Cypriniformes) as inferred from mitchondrial SSU and LSU rDNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 20:225-237.

  • Hatch, J. T., G. L. Phillips, and K. P. Schmidt, editors. In preparation. The fishes of Minnesota.

  • Iowa Department of Natural Resources.  2013.  Iowa's Endangered and Threatened Species List [web page].  Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines.  <http://www.iowadnr.gov/Environment/ThreatenedEndangered.aspx>.  Accessed 14 May 2013.

  • Jenkins, R. E. 1970. Systematic studies of the catostomid fish tribe Moxostomatini. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. PhD Thesis. 779 pp.

  • Kott,E., Jenkins, R. and G. Humphreys. 1979. Recent collections of the black redhorse from Ontario. Canadian Field-Naturalist 93: 63-66.

  • Lyons, J., P. C. Hanson, E. A. White.  2006.  A photo-based computer system for identifying Wisconsin fishes.  Fisheries  31(6):269-275.

  • NatureServe.  2013.  NatureServe Explorer:  an online encyclopedia of life [web application].  Version 7.1.  NatureServe, Arlington Virginia.  <http://www.natureserve.org/explorer>.  Accessed 14 May 2013.  

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • PFLIEGER,W.L.1975. THE FISHES OF MISSOURI. SULLIVAN, MARK. MISSOURI DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION.

  • PLATT, D.R. 1974. VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE SAND PRAIRIE NATURAL HISTORY RESERVATION, HARVEY COUNTY, KANSAS. TRANS. KANSAS ACAD. SCI. 76(1): 51-73.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Page, LM, H.Espinoza-Perez, L.Findley, C.Gilbert, R. Lea, N. Mandrak, R.Mayden and J.Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico, 7th edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Parker, B. J. 1989. Status of the black redhorse, Moxostoma duquesnei, in Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist 103:175-179.

  • Parker, B. and E. Kott. 1988. Status report on the Black Redhorse, Moxostoma duquesnei. COSEWIC report.

  • Phillips, G. L.  Black Redhorse, Moxostoma duquesnei (Lesueur).  In:  Fishes of Minnesota.  J. T. Hatch, G. L. Phillips, and K. P. Schmidt, editors.  In preparation.

  • ROSS, STEPHEN T. 1996. INLAND FISHES OF MISSISSIPPI. SELECTED SPECIES ACCOUNTS. COAUTHORED WITH W.M. BRENNEMAM, W.T. SLACK, M.T. O'CONNELL, AND T.L. PETERSON. ILLUSTRATED BY D.G. ROSS. DRAFT COPY.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Schmidt, K. P. 1993. Stream survey results for the gravel chub (Erimystax x-punctatus) and black redhorse (Moxostoma duquesnei), in southeastern Minnesota. Final report submitted to the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 9+ pp.

  • Schmidt, K. P. 2000. Stream survey results for the Gravel Chub (Erimystax x-punctatus), Slender Madtom (Noturus exilis), and Bluntnose Darter (Etheostoma chlorosomum) in southeastern Minnesota. Final report submitted to the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 14 pp + figures.

  • Scott, W. B., and E. J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 184. 966 pp.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

  • Smith, C.L. 1985. The Inland Fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY. 522pp.

  • Smith, G. R. 1992. Phylogeny and biogeography of the Catostomidae, freshwater fishes of North America and Asia. Pages 778-826 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Werner, R.G. 1980. Freshwater fishes of New York State. N.Y.: Syracuse University Press. 186 pp.

  • Wisconsin Department of Natural Resoures.  2013.  Wisconsin's endangered and threatened species list [web page].  Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison.  <http://dnr.wi.gov/topic/endangeredresources/etlist.html>.  Accessed 09 May 2013.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Cross, F. B., and J. T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. Second Edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. xvii + 315 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Jenkins, R. E., and N. M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. xxiii + 1079 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Menhinick, E. F. 1991. The freshwater fishes of North Carolina. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission. 227 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1983. Fishes of New York (maps and printout of a draft section on scarce fishes of New York). Unpublished draft.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

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