Moxostoma carinatum - (Cope, 1870)
River Redhorse
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Moxostoma carinatum (Cope, 1870) (TSN 163936)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.106031
Element Code: AFCJC10040
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Suckers
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Catostomidae Moxostoma
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Moxostoma carinatum
Taxonomic Comments: Formerly placed in monotypic genus Placopharynx (Lee et al. 1980).

Harris and Mayden (2001) used molecular data to examine phylogenetic relationships of major clades of Catostomidae. In all trees, Scartomyzon was paraphyletic and embedded in Moxostoma, and Catostomus was never recovered as monophyletic (Xyrauchen was embedded within Catostomus). They concluded that the phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic composition of taxa presently included in Moxostoma and Scartomyzon are in need of further study, as are the relationships and composition of the genera Catostomus, Chasmistes, Deltistes, and Xyrauchen, and the phylogenetic affinites of Erimyzon and Minytrema.

See also Smith (1992) for a study of the phylogeny and biogeography of the Catostomidae.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 26Apr1996
Global Status Last Changed: 26Apr1996
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Discontinuous distribution in the eastern half of the U.S. and a small part of southern Canada; uncommon to rare; has declined greatly from historic times; large river habitat makes protection difficult; vulnerable to major pollution events (such as toxic spills).
Nation: United States
National Status: N4 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N2N3 (10Feb2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S4), Arkansas (S4), Florida (S1S2), Georgia (S3), Illinois (S2), Indiana (S3), Iowa (SNR), Kansas (S1S2), Kentucky (S4), Louisiana (S1), Michigan (S2), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (S3), Missouri (SNR), New York (S1), North Carolina (S2), Ohio (S3), Oklahoma (S1S2), Pennsylvania (S4), South Carolina (S1), Tennessee (S4), Virginia (S2S3), West Virginia (S3), Wisconsin (S2)
Canada Ontario (S2), Quebec (S2S3)

Other Statuses

Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA) Schedule 1/Annexe 1 Status: SC (13Dec2007)
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Special Concern (26Nov2015)
Comments on COSEWIC: This freshwater fish species occurs in Ontario and Quebec and although it has been collected at new locations in both provinces, sometimes in large numbers, this is thought to reflect the use of more effective sampling techniques such as boat electrofishing. It has likely disappeared historically from the Ausable, Châteauguay and Yamaska rivers, since the use of boat electrofishing has failed to collect it recently. Threats to the species include habitat degradation (pollution, siltation), stream regulation that affects water flow (dams) and habitat fragmentation (dams). The Canadian range is highly fragmented and rescue effect is improbable because of the precarious conservation status in adjoining US States.

Designated Special Concern in April 1983. Status re-examined and confirmed in April 1987, April 2006, and November 2015.

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Discontinuously distributed; eastern Gulf Slope from the Pearl River, Louisiana and Mississippi, to the Escambia River, Florida; widespread in the central Mississippi basin, Oklahoma to Alabama and North Carolina, north to Minnesota and Pennsylvania; several Great Lakes basin records; also Ottawa and St. Lawrence drainages to southern Quebec. Locally common, but now extirpated in much of the northern and western parts of the range.

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Fourteen states provided element occurrences or other confirmed records totaling over 250 occurrences.

Population Size: 2500 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: No good census figures; usually uncommon or rare, occasionally common in certain areas; declined greatly from past abundance. Given estimate of 250+ occurrences, average population size of 40 individuals would bring abundance to 10,000.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Habitat alteration, such as channelization, impoundments, turbidity, siltation, and other forms of pollution are the major threats. These act as limiting factors because the redhorse seems to be inflexible in its habitat requirements and is intolerant of pollution and heavy siltation. Siltation may be the reason the redhorse has such a disjunct distribution (Scott and Crossman 1973). One major reason for the river redhorse's intolerance of turbidity and siltation is that the major food items of this fish require clean gravel-sand stream bottoms and are very susceptible to reduction or extirpation through excessive siltation (Gilbert 1978). Food resources also are sensitive to toxicants. Food resource reductions in turn reduce redhorse populations (Becker 1983). Shooting or gigging of spawners may contribute to local declines (Burkhead and Jenkins 1991). In Oklahoma, the main threats are multiple impoundments in the Illinois River and chicken-farm runoff that enters the river from Arkansas (Vaughn 1993, pers. comm.). In Quebec, this species is declining due to the removal of adults and habitat deterioration (Parker and McKee 1984).

Short-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Short-term Trend Comments: Numbers have diminished in the United States since 1925 (Scott and Crossman 1973). After severe declines in Pennsylvania, during the 1970s and 1980s populations have increased (Barton 1993, pers. comm.). Populations in Ohio are now believed to be stable after declines in the 1940s (Rice 1993, pers. comm.). In Kansas the river redhorse formerly was common; in the last 20 years only one record has been documented (Busby 1993, pers. comm.). Populations are declining in Canada (Parker and McKee 1984).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: A range-wide survey of historical locations with remaining suitable habitat and other potential habitat is needed to better determine the status of this species, and possibly, to detect unknown populations.

Protection Needs: Protect habitat from development that causes siltation and toxic pollution. Encourage better enforcement of pollution/effluent controls within watersheds.

Distribution
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Global Range: Discontinuously distributed; eastern Gulf Slope from the Pearl River, Louisiana and Mississippi, to the Escambia River, Florida; widespread in the central Mississippi basin, Oklahoma to Alabama and North Carolina, north to Minnesota and Pennsylvania; several Great Lakes basin records; also Ottawa and St. Lawrence drainages to southern Quebec. Locally common, but now extirpated in much of the northern and western parts of the range.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, VA, WI, WV
Canada ON, QC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
FL Escambia (12033), Santa Rosa (12113)
GA Catoosa (13047), Fannin (13111)*, Floyd (13115), Gordon (13129), Murray (13213), Pickens (13227), Towns (13281), Union (13291), Whitfield (13313)
IL Alexander (17003), Cass (17017)*, Cook (17031), Franklin (17055)*, Greene (17061), Grundy (17063), Iroquois (17075), Jackson (17077)*, Kane (17089), Kankakee (17091), Kendall (17093), La Salle (17099), Livingston (17105), Marshall (17123), Pike (17149), Schuyler (17169)*, Tazewell (17179)*, Union (17181)*, Vermilion (17183), White (17193), Will (17197)
IN Bartholomew (18005), Cass (18017), Elkhart (18039), Lawrence (18093), Martin (18101), Tippecanoe (18157), White (18181)
KS Cherokee (20021), Douglas (20045), Jefferson (20087), Johnson (20091), Leavenworth (20103), Montgomery (20125)*, Wyandotte (20209)
LA Ouachita (22073), St. Tammany (22103), Washington (22117)
MI Berrien (26021)*, Branch (26023)*, Calhoun (26025)*, Hillsdale (26059)*, Ionia (26067), Iosco (26069)*, Kent (26081), Mecosta (26107)*, Missaukee (26113)*, Newaygo (26123)*, Ottawa (26139), St. Clair (26147)*, St. Joseph (26149)*, Wayne (26163)*
MS Clay (28025), Itawamba (28057), Lowndes (28087), Monroe (28095), Pearl River (28109), Perry (28111), Tishomingo (28141)
NY Cattaraugus (36009)
OH Adams (39001)*, Ashtabula (39007), Athens (39009), Belmont (39013), Clermont (39025), Coshocton (39031), Delaware (39041), Fayette (39047), Franklin (39049), Gallia (39053), Hamilton (39061), Jefferson (39081), Lake (39085), Lawrence (39087), Madison (39097), Meigs (39105), Montgomery (39113), Morgan (39115), Muskingum (39119), Pickaway (39129), Pike (39131)*, Ross (39141), Sandusky (39143), Scioto (39145), Seneca (39147), Union (39159), Warren (39165), Washington (39167), Wood (39173)
PA Allegheny (42003), Armstrong (42005), Beaver (42007), Crawford (42039), Mercer (42085), Westmoreland (42129)
VA Lee (51105), Russell (51167), Scott (51169), Smyth (51173), Washington (51191), Wise (51195)*
WI Buffalo (55011), Burnett (55013), Crawford (55023)*, Dane (55025), Dodge (55027), Douglas (55031), Dunn (55033), Eau Claire (55035), Grant (55043), Green (55045), Jackson (55053), Jefferson (55055), Kenosha (55059), La Crosse (55063), Monroe (55081), Pepin (55091), Pierce (55093), Polk (55095), Racine (55101), Rock (55105), Shawano (55115), St. Croix (55109), Trempealeau (55121), Vernon (55123), Washburn (55129), Waupaca (55135)
WV Boone (54005)*, Brooke (54009), Hancock (54029), Mingo (54059), Wayne (54099), Wirt (54105)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Lower Pee Dee (03040201), Lower Conecuh (03140304), Escambia (03140305)+, Conasauga (03150101)+, Coosawattee (03150102)+, Oostanaula (03150103)+, Etowah (03150104)+, Upper Coosa (03150105)+, Middle Coosa (03150106), Lower Coosa (03150107), Middle Tallapoosa (03150109), Lower Tallapoosa (03150110), Upper Alabama (03150201), Cahaba (03150202), Middle Alabama (03150203), Lower Alabama (03150204), Upper Tombigbee (03160101)+, Buttahatchee (03160103)+, Luxapallila (03160105)+, Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub (03160106)+, Sipsey (03160107), Noxubee (03160108), Sipsey Fork (03160110), Locust (03160111), Upper Black Warrior (03160112), Lower Black Warrior (03160113), Middle Tombigbee-Chickasaw (03160201), Sucarnoochee (03160202), Upper Leaf (03170004)*, Lower Leaf (03170005)+, Pascagoula (03170006), Middle Pearl-Strong (03180002)*, Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004)+, Bogue Chitto (03180005)+
04 Wolf (04030202)+, St. Joseph (04050001)+, Black-Macatawa (04050002)+, Upper Grand (04050004)+, Maple (04050005)+, Lower Grand (04050006)+, Thornapple (04050007)+, Pere Marquette-White (04060101)+, Muskegon (04060102)+, Au Sable (04070007)+*, Lake St. Clair (04090002)+*, Detroit (04090004)*, Tiffin (04100006), Cedar-Portage (04100010)+, Sandusky (04100011)+, Grand (04110004)+
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001)+, French (05010004)+, Middle Allegheny-Redbank (05010006)+, Lower Allegheny (05010009)+, Lower Monongahela (05020005), Upper Ohio (05030101)+, Shenango (05030102)+, Upper Ohio-Wheeling (05030106)+, Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201)+, Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202)+, Little Kanawha (05030203)+, Hocking (05030204)+, Walhonding (05040003)+, Muskingum (05040004)+, Upper Kanawha (05050006), Coal (05050009)+*, Upper Scioto (05060001)+, Lower Scioto (05060002)+, Tug (05070201)+, Upper Levisa (05070202), Lower Levisa (05070203), Big Sandy (05070204)+, Upper Great Miami (05080001)+, Whitewater (05080003), Raccoon-Symmes (05090101)+, Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103)+, Little Sandy (05090104), Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201)+, Little Miami (05090202)+, Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203)+, Licking (05100101), North Fork Kentucky (05100201), Middle Fork Kentucky (05100202), Upper Kentucky (05100204), Lower Kentucky (05100205), Upper Green (05110001), Barren (05110002), Rough (05110004), Eel (05120104)+, Middle Wabash-Deer (05120105)+, Tippecanoe (05120106)+, Vermilion (05120109)+, Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111), Lower Wabash (05120113)+, Flatrock-Haw (05120205)+, Lower East Fork White (05120208)+, Patoka (05120209)*, Rockcastle (05130102), Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103), South Fork Cumberland (05130104), Obey (05130105), Lower Cumberland-Sycamore (05130202), Stones (05130203), Lower Cumberland (05130205), Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Lower Ohio (05140206)
06 North Fork Holston (06010101)*, South Fork Holston (06010102)+, Watauga (06010103), Holston (06010104), Upper French Broad (06010105), Pigeon (06010106), Lower French Broad (06010107), Nolichucky (06010108), Watts Bar Lake (06010201), Upper Little Tennessee (06010202), Tuckasegee (06010203), Lower Little Tennessee (06010204), Upper Clinch (06010205)+, Powell (06010206)+, Lower Clinch (06010207), Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001)+, Hiwassee (06020002)+, Ocoee (06020003)+*, Sequatchie (06020004), Guntersville Lake (06030001), Wheeler Lake (06030002), Upper Elk (06030003), Lower Elk (06030004), Pickwick Lake (06030005), Bear (06030006)+, Upper Duck (06040002), Lower Duck (06040003), Buffalo (06040004), Kentucky Lake (06040005)
07 Lower Minnesota (07020012)*, Upper St. Croix (07030001)+, Namekagon (07030002)+, Lower St. Croix (07030005)+, Rush-Vermillion (07040001)+, Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003)+, La Crosse-Pine (07040006)+, Black (07040007)+, Jump (07050004), Lower Chippewa (07050005)+, Eau Claire (07050006)+, Red Cedar (07050007)+, Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003)+, Apple-Plum (07060005), Lower Wisconsin (07070005)+, Upper Rock (07090001)+, Crawfish (07090002)+, Sugar (07090004)+, North Raccoon (07100006)*, Kankakee (07120001)+, Iroquois (07120002)+, Des Plaines (07120004)+, Upper Illinois (07120005)+, Upper Fox (07120006)+, Lower Fox (07120007)+, Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001)+, Vermilion (07130002)+, Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003)+*, Lower Illinois (07130011)+, Cahokia-Joachim (07140101), Meramec (07140102), Bourbeuse (07140103), Big (07140104), Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105)+, Big Muddy (07140106)+*, Whitewater (07140107)
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100), New Madrid-St. Johns (08020201), Upper St. Francis (08020202), Ouachita Headwaters (08040101), Upper Ouachita (08040102), Little Missouri (08040103), Upper Saline (08040203)*, Lower Ouachita (08040207)+
10 Floyd (10230002)*, Middle Kansas (10270102)+, Delaware (10270103)+, Lower Kansas (10270104)+, Marmaton (10290104)*, Sac (10290106), Pomme De Terre (10290107), Niangua (10290110), Lower Osage (10290111), Upper Gasconade (10290201), Big Piney (10290202), Lower Gasconade (10290203)
11 Beaver Reservoir (11010001), James (11010002), Bull Shoals Lake (11010003), Middle White (11010004), Buffalo (11010005), North Fork White (11010006), Upper Black (11010007), Current (11010008), Lower Black (11010009)*, Eleven Point (11010011), Little Red (11010014), Black Bear-Red Rock (11060006), Middle Verdigris (11070103)+, Elk (11070104), Neosho headwaters (11070201), Spring (11070207)+, Elk (11070208), Illinois (11110103), Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104), Poteau (11110105), Frog-Mulberry (11110201), Lake Conway-Point Remove (11110203)*, Fourche La Fave (11110206), Kiamichi (11140105), Upper Little (11140107), Mountain Fork (11140108), Lower Little (11140109)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A large fish, 1 to 3 feet long.
Reproduction Comments: Spawns in spring at water temperatures of 18-24 C. In central Alabama, arrives at spawning shoals in mid-April for a one-week breeding period. In Tennessee, spawns generaly from mid-April to early May (Stubbs, in Burkhead and Jenkins 1991). In Wisconsin, spawns apparently in mid-May (Becker 1983). Eggs hatch in 3-4 days (Becker 1983). An estimate of maturity at 3 years may be an underestimate (Burkhead and Jenkins 1991). Maximum longevity is 16 years.
Ecology Comments: Has moved 16-24 km upstream in period of 12-22 days (Becker 1983).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: May make upstream spawning migrations (Becker 1983).
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, High gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Generally confined to clearer large creeks and rivers; occasionally in natural lakes and reservoirs (Lee et al. 1980). Adults generally occupy moderate to swift water over clean gravel, boulders, and rubble, or in deep, fast-flowing portions of pools. Small individuals often are in pool shallows and backwaters (Burkhead and Jenkins 1991). Spawns in excavated nest in gravel and gravel-rubble in shoals or large runs (Becker 1983, Lee et al. 1980). Some medium-sized creeks or small rivers are ascended for spawning, but juveniles do not stay long in these smaller waterways (Burkhead and Jenkins 1991). Intolerant of pollution and heavy siltation.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats mainly mussels, snails, crustaceans, and immature aquatic insects obtained from the bottom.
Length: 60 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Biological Research Needs: Obtain better life-history information.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Small Suckers

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Mapping Guidance: It is important to evaluate migrations and seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that spawning areas and nonspawning areas for a single population are not artificially segregated as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. In some species, individuals may migrate variable distances between spawning areas and nonspawning habitats.

Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) for catostomids are arbitrary but reflect the presumption that movements and appropriate separation distances generally should increase with fish size. Hence small, medium, and large catostomids, respectively, have increasingly large separation distances. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Notes: This Specs Group includes catostomids that typically are less than 20 cm in adult standard length.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 26Apr1996
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Jennings, R., J. Soule, and G. Hammerson
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 26Apr1996
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
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  • Becker, L.R. 1982. Fishes of the Allegheny River and its tributaries between Salamanca and Alleghany, Cattauraugus County, New York. Unpublished M.S. thesis. St. Bonaventure University.

  • Bernatchez, L. et Giroux, M. 1991. Guide des poissons d'eau douce du Québec: leur distribution dans l'Est du Canada. Éditions Broquet Inc. 304 p.

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  • COSEPAC 2006. Évaluation du rapport de situation du COSEPAC sur le Chevalier de rivière (MOXOSTOMA CARINATUM) au Canada - Mise à jour. Comité sur la situation des espèces en péril au Canada. Ottawa. Vii+ 36p.

  • COSSARO. 2016. Ontario Species at Risk Evaluation Report for River Redhorse (Moxostoma carinatum). June 2016 (final). 14pp.

  • CROSS, F.B., AND J.T. COLLINS. 1975. FISHES IN KANSAS. UNIV. KANS. MUS.NAT.HIST., PUB.ED.SERIES NO.3.

  • CROSS, F.B.1967.HANDBOOK OF FISHES IN KANSAS. E. RAYMOND HALL.UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, LAWRENCE, KANSAS.

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  • Cooper, E.L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania. Penn State Univ. Press, University Park, PA.

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  • Dextrase, A.J. 2005.COSSARO Candidate Species at Risk Evaluation Form for River Redhorse (Moxostoma carinatum). Species At Risk Unit, Biodiversity Section, Fish and Wildlife Branch. Prepared for Committee on the Status of Species at Risk in Ontario (COSSARO), Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough. 29 September, 8 pp.

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  • Harris, P. M., and R. L. Mayden. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships of major clades of Catostomidae (Teleostei: Cypriniformes) as inferred from mitchondrial SSU and LSU rDNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 20:225-237.

  • Herkert, J. R., editor. 1992. Endangered and threatened species of Illinois: status and distribution. Vol. 2: Animals. Illinois Endangered Species Protection Board. iv + 142 pp.

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  • Jordan, D.S. 1878. A catalogue of the fishes of Illinois. Bull. Ill. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 1:37-70.

  • Legendre V. 1952. Clef des poissons de pêche sportive et commerciale de la province de Québec. Les poissons d'eau douce. Tome 1. Office de biologie. 84 pages + illustrations.

  • Legendre V. 1954. Clef des poissons de pêche sportive et commerciale de la province de Québec. Les poissons d'eau douce. Tome 1. Deuxième édition. Société canadienne d'écologie. Université de Montréal. Ministère de la Chasse et de la Pêche.

  • Legendre, V. et J.F. Bergeron. 1977. Liste des poissons d' eau douce du Québec. MLCP, Service Aménage. Expl. Faune. Rap. dact. 6

  • McAllister, D. E. 1974. Poissons de la région de la capitale du Canada. Ministère de l'Environnement, Service des pêches et des sciences de la mer, Ottawa. 200 p.

  • Moisan, M. 1998. Rapport sur la situation du chevalier de rivière (Moxostoma carinatum) au Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune, Direction de la faune et des habitats. 73 p.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • O'Donnell, D.J. 1935. Annotated list of the fishes of Illinois. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 20:473-500.

  • PFLIEGER,W.L.1975. THE FISHES OF MISSOURI. SULLIVAN, MARK. MISSOURI DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes, North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA. 432pp.

  • Page, LM, H.Espinoza-Perez, L.Findley, C.Gilbert, R. Lea, N. Mandrak, R.Mayden and J.Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico, 7th edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Parker, B. 1988. Updated Status Report on the River Redhorse, Moxostoma carinatum, in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), Ottawa, Ontario. 17 pp.

  • Parker, B. J. 1988. Updated status of the River Redhorse, Moxostoma carinatum, in Canada. The Canadian Field-Naturalist, Vol. 102: 140-146 p.

  • Parker, B. and P. McKee. 1984. Status of the River Redhorse, Moxostoma carinatum, in Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist 98(1): 110-114.

  • Pflieger, W.L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Dept. Cons. 343pp.

  • ROSS, STEPHEN T. 1996. INLAND FISHES OF MISSISSIPPI. SELECTED SPECIES ACCOUNTS. COAUTHORED WITH W.M. BRENNEMAM, W.T. SLACK, M.T. O'CONNELL, AND T.L. PETERSON. ILLUSTRATED BY D.G. ROSS. DRAFT COPY.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Robison, H.W. et T.M. Buchanan. 1984. Fishes of Arkansas. University of Arkansas Press. Fayetteville. 536 p.

  • Scott W.B. et E.J. Crossman. 1974. Poissons d'eau douce du Canada. Ministère de l'Environnement. Service des pêches et des sciences de la mer. Office des recherches sur les pêcherires du Canada. Bulletin 184. 1026 p.

  • Scott, W. B., and E. J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 184. 966 pp.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

  • Smith, C.L. 1985. The Inland Fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY. 522pp.

  • Smith, G. R. 1992. Phylogeny and biogeography of the Catostomidae, freshwater fishes of North America and Asia. Pages 778-826 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Smith, P.W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. Univ. Illinois Press, Urbana, IL. 314pp.

  • Société de la faune et des parcs du Québec. 2003. Les espèces menacées [en ligne]. Disponible sur le site Internet. - Accès :«http://www.fapaq.gouv.qc.ca/fr/etu_rec/esp_mena_vuln/index.htm». La société, 2003 [Réf. 3 novembre 2003] .

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Cross, F. B., and J. T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. Second Edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. xvii + 315 pp.

  • Douglas, N. H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Jenkins, R. E., and N. M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. xxiii + 1079 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Menhinick, E. F. 1991. The freshwater fishes of North Carolina. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission. 227 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • NatureServe. No Date. Full species reconciliation of subspecies-by-watershed source data for freshwater fish, mussel and crayfish for use in the watershed distribution databases.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

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