Moxostoma macrolepidotum - (Lesueur, 1817)
Shorthead Redhorse
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Moxostoma macrolepidotum (Lesueur, 1817) (TSN 163928)
French Common Names: chevalier rouge
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.791411
Element Code: AFCJC10110
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Suckers
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Catostomidae Moxostoma
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B04NEL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Moxostoma macrolepidotum
Taxonomic Comments: Moxostoma breviceps and M. pisolabrum formerly were included as subspecies of M. macrolepidotum but were listed as distinct species by Nelson et al. (2004), following Harris et al. (2002) and advice of R. E. Jenkins.

Harris and Mayden (2001) used molecular data to examine phylogenetic relationships of major clades of Catostomidae. In all trees, Scartomyzon was paraphyletic and embedded in Moxostoma, and Catosotmus was never recovered as monophyletic (Xyrauchen was embedded within Catosotmus). They concluded that the phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic composition of taxa presently included in Moxostoma and Scartomyzon are in need of further study, as are the relationships and composition of the genera Catosotmus, Chasmistes, Deltistes, and Xyrauchen, and the phylogenetic affinites of Erimyzon and Minytrema.

See Smith (1992) for a study of the phylogeny and biogeography of the Catostomidae.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 18Aug2015
Global Status Last Changed: 19Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (18Aug2015)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Delaware (S1), District of Columbia (S4), Illinois (S4), Indiana (S4), Iowa (S5), Kansas (S5), Kentucky (S4S5), Maryland (S4), Michigan (S3S4), Minnesota (SNR), Missouri (SNR), Montana (S5), Nebraska (S5), New York (S4), North Carolina (S4), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (S4), Oklahoma (SNR), Pennsylvania (S5), South Carolina (SNR), South Dakota (S5), Texas (S2), Vermont (S2), Virginia (S4), West Virginia (S1), Wisconsin (S5), Wyoming (S5)
Canada Alberta (S4), Manitoba (S5), Ontario (S5), Quebec (S4), Saskatchewan (S4S5)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Mississippi and Missouri river basins, Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River basin, many drainages of southwestern Hudson Bay basin, and Atlantic slope from the Santee drainage north to Hudson drainage (Lee et al. 1980), from Quebec to Alberta, south to Wyoming, Oklahoma, northern Missouri, Illinois, northern Ohio, and New York, and along the east coast south to South Carolina. Ozark and Ohio River basin populations are now regarded as distinct species, M. pisolabrum and M. breviceps (Nelson et al. 2004).

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of subpopulations and locations.

Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but relatively large.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Localized threats may exist, but on a range-wide scale no major threats are known.

Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable or slowly declining.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Mississippi and Missouri river basins, Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River basin, many drainages of southwestern Hudson Bay basin, and Atlantic slope from the Santee drainage north to Hudson drainage (Lee et al. 1980), from Quebec to Alberta, south to Wyoming, Oklahoma, northern Missouri, Illinois, northern Ohio, and New York, and along the east coast south to South Carolina. Ozark and Ohio River basin populations are now regarded as distinct species, M. pisolabrum and M. breviceps (Nelson et al. 2004).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States DC, DE, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MD, MI, MN, MO, MT, NC, ND, NE, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, SD, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, MB, ON, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
DE Sussex (10005)
MS Tishomingo (28141)
VT Addison (50001)*, Chittenden (50007), Franklin (50011), Rutland (50021)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Lake George (02010001), Winooski (02010003), Ausable (02010004), Lamoille (02010005), Missisquoi (02010007), Mohawk (02020004), Schoharie (02020005), Upper Susquehanna (02050101), Chenango (02050102)*, Owego-Wappasening (02050103)*, Upper Susquehanna-Tunkhannock (02050106), Upper Susquehanna-Lackawanna (02050107), Lower Susquehanna-Swatara (02050305), Lower Susquehanna (02050306), Gunpowder-Patapsco (02060003), Patuxent (02060006), Nanticoke (02060008), South Branch Potomac (02070001), Cacapon-Town (02070003), Conococheague-Opequon (02070004), Shenandoah (02070007), Middle Potomac-Catoctin (02070008), Monocacy (02070009), Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan (02070010), Rapidan-Upper Rappahannock (02080103), Lower Rappahannock (02080104), Mattaponi (02080105), Pamunkey (02080106), Western Lower Delmarva (02080109)+, Upper James (02080201), Maury (02080202), Middle James-Buffalo (02080203), Middle James-Willis (02080205), Lower James (02080206), Appomattox (02080207)
03 Upper Roanoke (03010101), Middle Roanoke (03010102), Upper Dan (03010103), Lower Dan (03010104), Roanoke Rapids (03010106), Lower Roanoke (03010107), Nottoway (03010201), Ghowan (03010203), Meheriin (03010204), Upper Tar (03020101), Fishing (03020102), Lower Tar (03020103), Upper Neuse (03020201), Middle Neuse (03020202), Contentnea (03020203), Lower Cape Fear (03030005), Black (03030006), Upper Yadkin (03040101), Upper Pee Dee (03040104), Rocky, North Carolina, (03040105), Lower Pee Dee (03040201), Upper Catawba (03050101), Wateree (03050104), Lower Broad (03050106), Saluda (03050109), Congaree (03050110), Lake Marion (03050111)
04 St. Louis (04010201), Cloquet (04010202), Beartrap-Nemadji (04010301), Bad-Montreal (04010302), Sturgeon (04020104), Lake Superior (04020300), Manitowoc-Sheboygan (04030101), Door-Kewaunee (04030102), Duck-Pensaukee (04030103), Menominee (04030108), Escanaba (04030110), Tacoosh-Whitefish (04030111), Fishdam-Sturgeon (04030112), Upper Fox (04030201), Wolf (04030202), Lake Winnebago (04030203), Lower Fox (04030204), Milwaukee (04040003), Lower Grand (04050006), Pere Marquette-White (04060101), Muskegon (04060102), Manistee (04060103), Betsie-Platte (04060104), Manistique (04060106), Lake Michigan (04060200), Au Gres-Rifle (04080101), Kawkawlin-Pine (04080102), Pigeon-Wiscoggin (04080103), Pine (04080202), Saginaw (04080206), Detroit (04090004), Huron (04090005), Ottawa-Stony (04100001), Raisin (04100002), St. Joseph (04100003), Lower Maumee (04100009), Cedar-Portage (04100010), Sandusky (04100011), Huron-Vermilion (04100012)*, Black-Rocky (04110001), Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003), Grand (04110004), Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101), Buffalo-Eighteenmile (04120103), Niagara (04120104), Lake Erie (04120200), Oak Orchard-Twelvemile (04130001)*, Upper Genesee (04130002), Lower Genesee (04130003), Seneca (04140201), Oneida (04140202), Upper St. Lawrence (04150301)*, Indian (04150303)*, Raquette (04150305)*, St. Regis (04150306)*, English-Salmon (04150307), Mettawee River (04150401)+, Winooski River (04150403)+, Lamoille River (04150405)+, Missiquoi River (04150407)+, Lake Champlain (04150408)+
05 Vermilion (05120109), Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111), Embarras (05120112), Lower Wabash (05120113)*, Little Wabash (05120114)
06 Bear (06030006)+
07 Mississippi Headwaters (07010101), Prairie-Willow (07010103), Elk-Nokasippi (07010104), Pine (07010105), Platte-Spunk (07010201), Clearwater-Elk (07010203), South Fork Crow (07010205), Twin Cities (07010206), Upper Minnesota (07020001), Hawk-Yellow Medicine (07020004), Middle Minnesota (07020007), Lower Minnesota (07020012), Upper St. Croix (07030001), Namekagon (07030002), Lower St. Croix (07030005), Rush-Vermillion (07040001), Cannon (07040002), Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003), Zumbro (07040004), Trempealeau (07040005), La Crosse-Pine (07040006), Black (07040007), Upper Chippewa (07050001), Flambeau (07050002), South Fork Flambeau (07050003), Jump (07050004), Lower Chippewa (07050005), Eau Claire (07050006), Red Cedar (07050007), Coon-Yellow (07060001), Upper Iowa (07060002), Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003), Turkey (07060004), Apple-Plum (07060005), Maquoketa (07060006), Upper Wisconsin (07070001), Lake Dubay (07070002), Castle Rock (07070003), Baraboo (07070004), Lower Wisconsin (07070005), Kickapoo (07070006), Copperas-Duck (07080101), Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102), Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103), Flint-Henderson (07080104), South Skunk (07080105), North Skunk (07080106), Skunk (07080107), Upper Cedar (07080201), Shell Rock (07080202), Winnebago (07080203), West Fork Cedar (07080204), Middle Cedar (07080205), Lower Cedar (07080206), Upper Iowa (07080207), Middle Iowa (07080208), Lower Iowa (07080209), Upper Rock (07090001), Crawfish (07090002), Pecatonica (07090003), Sugar (07090004), Lower Rock (07090005), Kishwaukee (07090006), Green (07090007), Upper Des Moines (07100002)*, East Fork Des Moines (07100003)*, Middle Des Moines (07100004), Boone (07100005), North Raccoon (07100006), Lake Red Rock (07100008), Lower Des Moines (07100009), Bear-Wyaconda (07110001), North Fabius (07110002), South Fabius (07110003), The Sny (07110004), North Fork Salt (07110005), South Fork Salt (07110006), Salt (07110007), Cuivre (07110008), Peruque-Piasa (07110009), Kankakee (07120001), Iroquois (07120002), Des Plaines (07120004), Upper Illinois (07120005), Upper Fox (07120006), Lower Fox (07120007), Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001), Vermilion (07130002), Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003), Mackinaw (07130004), Spoon (07130005), Upper Sangamon (07130006), Lower Sangamon (07130008), Salt (07130009), La Moine (07130010)*, Lower Illinois (07130011), Cahokia-Joachim (07140101), Meramec (07140102), Bourbeuse (07140103), Big (07140104), Big Muddy (07140106), Upper Kaskaskia (07140201)*, Middle Kaskaskia (07140202)*, Shoal (07140203), Lower Kaskaskia (07140204)
08 Bayou Pierre (08060203)*
09 Upper Red (09020104), Elm-Marsh (09020107), Goose (09020109), Lower Sheyenne (09020204), Red Lakes (09020302), Red Lake (09020303), Pembina (09020313), Little Fork (09030005), Big Fork (09030006), Rapid (09030007), Lower Rainy (09030008), Lake of the Woods (09030009)
10 Upper Missouri-Dearborn (10030102), Marias (10030203), Teton (10030205), Bullwhacker-Dog (10040101), Fort Peck Reservoir (10040104), Upper Musselshell (10040201), Middle Musselshell (10040202), Lower Musselshell (10040205), Lower Milk (10050012), Beaver (10050014), Rock (10050015), Prarie Elk-Wolf (10060001), Redwater (10060002), Poplar (10060003), Charlie-Little Muddy (10060005), Upper Yellowstone (10070002), Upper Yellowstone-Lake Basin (10070004), Upper Yellowstone-Pompeys Pillar (10070007), Little Wind (10080002), Lower Wind (10080005), Upper Bighorn (10080007), Nowood (10080008), Greybull (10080009), Big Horn Lake (10080010), Shoshone (10080014), Lower Bighorn (10080015), Upper Tongue (10090101), Lower Tongue (10090102), Upper Powder (10090202), Crazy Woman (10090205), Clear (10090206), Middle Powder (10090207), Little Powder (10090208), Lower Powder (10090209), Mizpah (10090210), Lower Yellowstone-Sunday (10100001), Rosebud (10100003), Lower Yellowstone (10100004), O'fallon (10100005), Upper Little Missouri (10110201), Boxelder (10110202), Beaver (10110204), Middle Cheyenne-Spring (10120109), Upper Belle Fourche (10120201), Lower Belle Fourche (10120202), Upper Lake Oahe (10130102), Upper Heart (10130202), Upper Cannonball (10130204), Cedar (10130205), South Fork Grand (10130302), Grand (10130303), Lower Moreau (10130306), Fort Randall Reservoir (10140101), Little White (10140203), Middle Niobrara (10150004), Lower Niobrara (10150007), Upper James (10160003), Middle James (10160006), Lower James (10160011), Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101), Lower Big Sioux (10170203), Rock (10170204), Glendo Reservoir (10180008), Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff (10180009), Lower Laramie (10180011), Lower North Platte (10180014), Middle Platte-Buffalo (10200101), Lower Middle Loup (10210003), South Loup (10210004), Upper Elkhorn (10220001), Blackbird-Soldier (10230001), Little Sioux (10230003), Monona-Harrison Ditch (10230004)*, Maple (10230005), Big Papillion-Mosquito (10230006), Boyer (10230007)*, Keg-Weeping Water (10240001), West Nishnabotna (10240002)*, East Nishnabotna (10240003)*, Nishnabotna (10240004), Tarkio-Wolf (10240005), South Fork Big Nemaha (10240007), West Nodaway (10240009)*, Independence-Sugar (10240011), Lower Republican (10250017), Lower Smoky Hill (10260008), Solomon (10260015), Middle Kansas (10270102), Delaware (10270103), Lower Kansas (10270104), Lower Big Blue (10270205), Lower Little Blue (10270207), Upper Grand (10280101), Thompson (10280102), Lower Grand (10280103), Upper Chariton (10280201), Big Piney (10290202), Lower Gasconade (10290203), Lower Missouri-Crooked (10300101), Lower Missouri (10300200)
11 Middle Arkansas-Lake Mckinney (11030001)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
Help
Reproduction Comments: Spawns in spring. Males congregate in spawning areas. Sexually mature in 2-5 years, depending on locality (Becker 1983, Scott and Crossman 1973).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: May migrate from larger bodies of water into smaller rivers and streams to spawn (Scott and Crossman 1973).
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool, Riffle
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Rocky pools, runs, and riffles of small to large rivers, natural lakes, and impoundments. Spawns usually over gravel in runs and riffles; may move out of larger bodies of water into smaller rivers and streams to spawn (Lee et al. 1980, Scott and Crossman 1973).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats mainly mollusks, microcrustaceans, and immature insects, though considerable plant materials sometimes may be consumed (Lee et al. 1980, Becker 1983).
Length: 60 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Group Name: Medium suckers

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Mapping Guidance: Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 15 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate migrations and seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that spawning areas and nonspawning areas for a single population are not artificially segregated as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 15 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 15 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. In some species, individuals may migrate variable distances between spawning areas and nonspawning habitats.

Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) for catostomids are arbitrary but reflect the presumption that movements and appropriate separation distances generally should increase with fish size. Hence small, medium, and large catostomids, respectively, have increasingly large separation distances. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 15 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Notes: This Specs Group includes catostomids that typically are 20-40 cm in adult standard length.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 17Jan2006
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 08Oct1993
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Aquin, P. 1999. Évaluation de la situation des groupes taxonomiques des poissons du Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune. 9 pages.

  • Atton, F.M. and J.J. Merkowsky. 1983. Atlas of Saskatchewan Fish. Saskatchewan Department of Parks and Renewable Resources, Fisheries Branch Technical Report 83-2. 281pp.

  • Burr, B.M. and M.A. Morris. 1977. Spawning behavior of the shorthead redhorse, Moxostoma macrolepidotum, in Big Rock Creek, Illinois. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 106(1):80-82.

  • Desrosiers A., F. Caron et R. Ouellet. 1995. Liste de la faune vertébrée du Québec. Les publications du Québec. 122

  • Harris, P. M., R. L. Mayden, H. S. Espinosa Perez, and F. Garcia de Leon. 2002. Phylogenetic relationships of Moxostoma and Scartomyzon (Catostomidae) based on mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence data. Journal of Fish Biology 61:1433-1452.

  • Harris, P. M., and R. L. Mayden. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships of major clades of Catostomidae (Teleostei: Cypriniformes) as inferred from mitchondrial SSU and LSU rDNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 20:225-237.

  • Jenkins, R. E. 1970. Systematic studies of the catostomid fish tribe Moxostomatini. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. PhD Thesis. 779 pp.

  • Legendre V. 1952. Clef des poissons de pêche sportive et commerciale de la province de Québec. Les poissons d'eau douce. Tome 1. Office de biologie. 84 pages + illustrations.

  • Legendre V. 1954. Clef des poissons de pêche sportive et commerciale de la province de Québec. Les poissons d'eau douce. Tome 1. Deuxième édition. Société canadienne d'écologie. Université de Montréal. Ministère de la Chasse et de la Pêche.

  • Legendre, V. et J.F. Bergeron. 1977. Liste des poissons d' eau douce du Québec. MLCP, Service Aménage. Expl. Faune. Rap. dact. 6

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Saskatchewan Environment and Resource Management. 1996. The Fisheries Regulations being Chapter F-16.1 Reg 1 (effective 9 May 1995) as ammended by Saskatchewan Regulations 13/96.

  • Scott W.B. et E.J. Crossman. 1974. Poissons d'eau douce du Canada. Ministère de l'Environnement. Service des pêches et des sciences de la mer. Office des recherches sur les pêcherires du Canada. Bulletin 184. 1026 p.

  • Scott, W. B., and E. J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 184. 966 pp.

  • Smith, G. R. 1992. Phylogeny and biogeography of the Catostomidae, freshwater fishes of North America and Asia. Pages 778-826 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Baxter, G. T., and J. R. Simon. 1970. Wyoming fishes. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Cheyenne, Wyoming, 168 pp.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Coughlan, D. J., B. K. Baker, D. H. Barwick, A. B. Garner, and W. R. Doby. 2007. Catostomid fishes of the Wateree River, South Carolina. Southeastern Naturalist 6(20):305-320.

  • Cross, F. B., and J. T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. Second Edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. xvii + 315 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Holton, G. D., and H. E. Johnson. 1996. A field guide to Montana fishes. 2nd edition. Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Montana State Parks and wildlife Interpretive Association, Helena, Montana. 104 pp.

  • Jenkins, R. E., and N. M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. xxiii + 1079 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Menhinick, E. F. 1991. The freshwater fishes of North Carolina. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission. 227 pp.

  • Owen, J. B., D. S. Elsen and G. W. Russell. 1981. Distribution of fishes in North and South Dakota basins affected by the Garrison Diversion Unit. University of North Dakota Press, Grand Forks, North Dakota. 211 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1983. Fishes of New York (maps and printout of a draft section on scarce fishes of New York). Unpublished draft.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

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Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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