Morone saxatilis - (Walbaum, 1792)
Striped Bass
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Morone saxatilis (Walbaum, 1792) (TSN 167680)
French Common Names: bar rayé
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.104731
Element Code: AFCQA01040
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Other Bony Fishes
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Perciformes Moronidae Morone
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Morone saxatilis
Taxonomic Comments: Formerly placed in the genus Roccus. Distinct populations occur within Chesapeake Bay and in other areas (Chapman 1990). Wirgin et al. (1989) found unique mtDNA genotypes in the Apalachicola River system, suggesting the continued existence there of a maternal lineage of Gulf ancestry. The family Percichthyidae was recognized by Robins et al. (1991) as possibly polyphyletic but was retained for convenience.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 20Sep1996
Global Status Last Changed: 20Sep1996
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N4B,N3N,N4M (31Oct2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S5), Arizona (SNA), Arkansas (SNA), California (SNA), Colorado (SNA), Connecticut (S3), Delaware (S5), District of Columbia (S4), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S5), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (SNA), Kansas (SNA), Kentucky (SNA), Louisiana (S4), Maine (S5), Maryland (S5), Massachusetts (S5), Mississippi (SH), Missouri (SNA), Navajo Nation (SNA), Nebraska (SNA), Nevada (SNA), New Hampshire (S4), New Jersey (S4), New Mexico (SNA), New York (S4), North Carolina (S4), North Dakota (SNA), Ohio (S5), Oklahoma (SNA), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (S4), Rhode Island (SNR), South Carolina (SNR), Tennessee (SNA), Texas (SNA), Utah (SNA), Virginia (S4), Washington (SNA), West Virginia (SNA)
Canada British Columbia (SNR), New Brunswick (S3), Nova Scotia (S2S3), Prince Edward Island (S2N), Quebec (SX)

Other Statuses

Implied Status under the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC):PS: E,SC
Comments on COSEWIC: In November 2012, COSEWIC designated the Southern Gulf of St. Lawrence population as Special Concern, the Bay of Fundy population as Endangered and the St. Lawrence Estuary population as Endangered.
IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: This species is native to Atlantic Slope drainages from the St. Lawrence River, Canada, south to the St. Johns River, Florida, and Gulf slope drainages from western Florida (Suwannee River) to Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, and apparently to coastal areas of eastern Texas; aside from some remnant populations, native Gulf Coast striped bass no longer occur in the historical range (replaced in some areas by introduced Atlantic Slope fishes). Striped bass has been introduced widely in inland areas of the United States and on the Pacific coast, where it has spread north to British Columbia and south to northern Baja California. It has also been introduced in Eurasia. Sources: Crance (1984), Hill et al. (1989).

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of subpopulations and locations.

Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but relatively large.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Decline in Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is attributed primarily to toxic substances and to entrainment of young in water diversion structures (Hassler 1988). Habitat destruction affected populations in Hudson River, Chesapeake Bay, and Albemarle Sound, resulting in drastic declines in mid-20th century (Hill et al. 1989). Excess harvest contributed the decline along the U.S. east coast in the late 1970s and early 1980s; hatchery production and restrictions on the harvest resulted in population increases in the Chesapeake Bay region by the early 1990s (Diamond 1990). Alterations in habitat quality have eliminated native bass populations from most of original range along Gulf of Mexico; but populations increasing due to stocking (Hill et al. 1989).

Short-term Trend Comments: Population in Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta has declined steadily since 1960s (Hassler 1988). Chesapeake Bay population has recovered from large declines that extended through the 1970s (Baker 1994). See GTHREATCOM.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: This species is native to Atlantic Slope drainages from the St. Lawrence River, Canada, south to the St. Johns River, Florida, and Gulf slope drainages from western Florida (Suwannee River) to Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, and apparently to coastal areas of eastern Texas; aside from some remnant populations, native Gulf Coast striped bass no longer occur in the historical range (replaced in some areas by introduced Atlantic Slope fishes). Striped bass has been introduced widely in inland areas of the United States and on the Pacific coast, where it has spread north to British Columbia and south to northern Baja California. It has also been introduced in Eurasia. Sources: Crance (1984), Hill et al. (1989).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, ARexotic, AZexotic, CAexotic, COexotic, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, ILexotic, INexotic, KSexotic, KYexotic, LA, MA, MD, ME, MOexotic, MS, NC, NDexotic, NEexotic, NH, NJ, NMexotic, NNexotic, NVexotic, NY, OH, OKexotic, ORexotic, PA, RI, SC, TNexotic, TXexotic, UTexotic, VA, WAexotic, WVexotic
Canada BC, NB, NS, PE, QCextirpated

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
MS Lowndes (28087)*, Monroe (28095)*
OK Carter (40019)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Upper St. John (01010001), Piscataquis (01020004)*, Lower Penobscot (01020005), Lower Kennebec (01030003), Lower Androscoggin (01040002), Maine Coastal (01050002), St. George-Sheepscot (01050003), Presumpscot (01060001), Saco (01060002), Piscataqua-Salmon Falls (01060003), Merrimack (01070002), Lower Connecticut (01080205), Charles (01090001), Cape Cod (01090002), Narragansett (01090004), Pawcatuck-Wood (01090005), Thames (01100003)
02 Middle Hudson (02020006), Hudson-Wappinger (02020008), Lower Hudson (02030101), Sandy Hook-Staten Island (02030104), Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead (02040104), Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105), Lehigh (02040106), Crosswicks-Neshaminy (02040201), Lower Delaware (02040202), Delaware Bay (02040204), Brandywine-Christina (02040205), Cohansey-Maurice (02040206), Broadkill-Smyrna (02040207), Mullica-Toms (02040301), Great Egg Harbor (02040302), Upper Susquehanna-Lackawanna (02050107), Upper Juniata (02050302), Lower Susquehanna-Swatara (02050305), Lower Susquehanna (02050306), Upper Chesapeake Bay (02060001), Chester-Sassafras (02060002), Gunpowder-Patapsco (02060003), Severn (02060004), Choptank (02060005), Patuxent (02060006), Blackwater-Wicomico (02060007), Nanticoke (02060008), Pocomoke (02060009), Chincoteague (02060010), Middle Potomac-Catoctin (02070008), Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan (02070010), Lower Potomac (02070011), Great Wicomico-Piankatank (02080102), Lower Rappahannock (02080104), Mattaponi (02080105), Pamunkey (02080106), Lynnhaven-Poquoson (02080108), Middle James-Buffalo (02080203), Middle James-Willis (02080205), Lower James (02080206), Appomattox (02080207), Hampton Roads (02080208)
03 Upper Roanoke (03010101), Middle Roanoke (03010102), Upper Dan (03010103), Lower Dan (03010104), Banister (03010105), Roanoke Rapids (03010106), Lower Roanoke (03010107), Nottoway (03010201), Blackwater (03010202), Ghowan (03010203), Meheriin (03010204), Albemarle (03010205), Upper Tar (03020101), Fishing (03020102), Lower Tar (03020103), Pamlico (03020104), Pamlico Sound (03020105), Bogue-Core Sounds (03020106), Upper Neuse (03020201), Middle Neuse (03020202), Contentnea (03020203), Lower Neuse (03020204), New (03030001), Lower Cape Fear (03030005), Black (03030006), Northeast Cape Fear (03030007), Lower Pee Dee (03040201), Lumber (03040203), Little Pee Dee (03040204), Waccamaw (03040206), Carolina Coastal-Sampit (03040207), Lower Broad (03050106), Congaree (03050110), Lake Marion (03050111), Santee (03050112), Cooper (03050201), South Carolina Coastal (03050202), North Fork Edisto (03050203), Edisto (03050205), Broad-St. Helena (03050208), Middle Savannah (03060106), Lower Savannah (03060109), Ogeechee Coastal (03060204), Altamaha (03070106), St. Marys (03070204), Upper St. Johns (03080101), Oklawaha (03080102)*, Lower St. Johns (03080103), Lower Suwannee (03110205), Apalachee Bay-St. Marks (03120001), Middle Chattahoochee-Walter F. George Reservoir (03130003), Lower Chattahoochee (03130004), Lower Flint (03130008), Spring (03130010), Apalachicola (03130011), Chipola (03130012), Yellow (03140103), Blackwater (03140104), Perdido (03140106), Upper Choctawhatchee (03140201), Lower Choctawhatchee (03140203), Lower Conecuh (03140304), Escambia (03140305), Upper Coosa (03150105), Middle Coosa (03150106), Lower Coosa (03150107), Middle Tallapoosa (03150109), Lower Tallapoosa (03150110), Upper Alabama (03150201), Cahaba (03150202), Middle Alabama (03150203), Lower Alabama (03150204), Upper Tombigbee (03160101)+*, Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub (03160106), Sipsey Fork (03160110), Upper Black Warrior (03160112), Lower Black Warrior (03160113), Middle Tombigbee-Chickasaw (03160201), Lower Tambigbee (03160203), Mobile - Tensaw (03160204), Mobile Bay (03160205), Lower Chickasawhay (03170003), Lower Leaf (03170005), Pascagoula (03170006), Escatawpa (03170008), Mississippi Coastal (03170009), Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004)
06 Wheeler Lake (06030002)
08 Yalobusha (08030205), Bayou D'arbonne (08040206), Lower Red (08040301), Tensas (08050003), Lower Mississippi-Natchez (08060100), Buffalo (08060206), Lower Mississippi-Baton Rouge (08070100)*, Liberty Bayou-Tchefuncta (08090201)*
11 Middle Washita (11130303)+, Lower Red-Lake Iatt (11140207)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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General Description: Striped basses are deep bodied and compressed from side to side. They have two dorsal fins, the first with several spines and the second with one spine and several rays. The anal fin has 3 spines. The mouth is large, and there are two sharp points on each gill cover. The silvery sides are marked with 6-9 dark gray stripes. Very small young lack the dark stripes but have dusky bars on the sides. Maximum length is about 79 inches (2 meters).
Reproduction Comments: Spawning occurs as early as mid-February in Florida, as late as June-July in the St. Lawrence River; see Hill et al. (1989) for more detail on specific areas, and Crance (1984) for spawning in relation to temperature in various areas. Eggs hatch in about 2-3 days. Males usually become sexually mature in 1-3 years, females in 4-6 years (Middle Atlantic region). Spawning occurs in large aggregations (Moyle 1976).

See Hassler (1988) for a review of life history in Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California. See also Crance (1984).

Ecology Comments: Gregarious. Year-class success appears to be determined during fist 2 months of life, may be correlated with environmental conditions during larval stages (Hill et al. 1989). Growth and development rates vary widely, depending on conditions. Parasitic infection rarely cause mortalities in wild populations unless fishes are under stress (Hill et al. 1989). Summer die-offs are common in reservoirs (Sublette et al. 1990).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Certain stocks along the Atlantic coast north of Cape Hatteras may make extensive migrations along the coast, moving north in spring and south in fall (extent of migration varies among individuals and populations). Individuals may ascend rivers as far as 200 miles (320 km) during spawning migrations (usually only 25 miles [40 km] or less). Populations along the South Atlantic coast of the U.S. apparently do not make extensive coastal migrations that are typical of stocks in the Middle and North Atlantic regions. See Hill et al. (1989).
Marine Habitat(s): Near shore
Estuarine Habitat(s): Bay/sound, River mouth/tidal river
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water
Habitat Comments: This is a marine and estuarine coastal species that moves far upstream in channels of medium to large rivers during spawning migrations. In coastal areas, it occurs typically within 6 km of shore. Adults in inshore areas occur over a wide range of substrates. The species has been widely introduced in lakes and impoundments. Some populations complete the life cycle in freshwater. In colder months, striped bass tend to seek the warmest water available at depths greater than 1.5 meters.

Striped bass use rivers, tidally influenced fresh waters, and estuaries for spawning and nursery areas. Preferred spawning areas often are shallow (1-20 feet, 0.3-6.1 meters) and turbid and range from the tidal zone to a few hundred kilometers upstream (usually within 38 miles or 60 km of coast). Spawners often seek areas with strong turbulent flow and substrates of rock and/or fine gravel. At Powell Reservoir, Utah, spawning occurred over a rocky shoal in or near the mixing zone of river water and reservoir water.

Eggs are semibuoyant, drift and sink slowly; in riverine populations, current of about 30 cm/sec reportedly is required to keep eggs afloat and prevent death due to settling on bottom (though this may vary with differences in egg buoyancy in different regions). Juveniles apparently prefer clean sandy bottom but have been found over gravel, rock, and (rarely) soft mud; may or may not move to areas of higher salinity in first summer/fall (varies with locality).

See Hill et al. (1989) and Crance (1984) for habitat suitability index model and details on various environmental requirements and tolerances (e.g., temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, toxicants).

Adult Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Food Comments: Larvae feed on zooplankton (e.g. Copepoda, Cladocera), young primarily consume zooplankton & other invertebrates (e.g. Copedoda, Cladocera, Amphipoda, mysids); adults are predatory on fishes and larger crustaceans (Hassler 1988). When available, threadfin shad or gizzard shad often the major food for adults. Within the above categories, striped bass are basically opportunistic feeders.
Length: 200 centimeters
Economic Attributes
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Economic Comments: Formerly large commercial catches have declined in many areas along the Atlantic coast; major commercial fishery continues in Albemarle Sound (Hill et al. 1989). Commercial landings along the U.S. east coast were 8-14 million pounds/year from 1960 to 1970, up to 14.7 million pounds in 1973, down to 3.5 million pounds by 1979 (Diamond 1990). Most major South Atlantic coastal rivers support a recreational fishery (Hill et al. 1989). Propagation and management of striped bass in inland waters followed discovery of reproducing land-locked population in Santee-Cooper Reservoir in South Carolina. The wiper, a striped bass-white bass hybrid, is extensively cultured in U.S. Important sport fish in Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California (see Hassler 1988), and in certain areas along Atlantic coast.
Management Summary
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Management Requirements: See Harrell et al. (1990) for information on culture and propagation methods.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Fishes with Anadromous Populations

Use Class: Freshwater
Subtype(s): Rearing & Migration Area, Spawning & Rearing Area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat. For anadromous populations, occurrences are based on collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more spawning adults, redds, other evidence of spawning, or larvae or juveniles in appropriate spawning/rearing habitat.
Mapping Guidance: Conceptually, the occurrence includes the entire freshwater area used by the population, including spawning, rearing, and migration areas. For anadromous populations, an occurrence should extend from the most upstream spawning areas downstream to the ocean. However, it is desirable (and practical) to subdivide this sometimes very large occurrence, sometimes overlapping with many other spaghetti-like occurrences extending down from the upstream spawning areas to the ocean, into separate source features or sub-occurrences, labeled with a feature label that reflects the life history stage in that area. Moreover, it may make practical sense to treat the areas downstream of spawning and/or rearing areas as a mixed element animal assemblage: Freshwater Salmon Migration Corridor. This negates the need to separately map each occurrence down to the ocean from its upstream spawning location. Information about areas with different life-history uses can be generated by using best professional judgment by district or regional fish biologists and may or may not incorporate specific locational information from spawning surveys or other surveys.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat that is very unlikely to be submerged even during periods of exceptionally high water (e.g., 100-year flood or 1% flood).
Alternate Separation Procedure: For anadromous populations and migratory populations that have distinct and separate spawning and nonspawning areas, the area used by each population whose spawning area is separated by a gap of at least 10 stream-km from other spawning areas within a stream system is potentially mappable as a distinct occurrence that extends down to the ocean (but see mapping guidance), regardless of whether the spawning areas are in the same or different tributaries.

For other (e.g., nonanadromous) populations in streams, separation distance is 10 stream-km for both suitable and unsuitable habitat. However, if it is known that the same population occupies sites separated by more than 10 km (e.g., this may be common for migratory, nonanadromous populations), those sites should be included within the same occurrence. In lakes, occurrences include all suitable habitat that is presumed to be occupied (based on expert judgment), even if documented collection/observation points are more than 10 km apart. Separate sub-occurrences or source features may usefully document locations of critical spawning areas within a lake.

Separation Justification: The separation distance is arbitrary but was selected to ensure that occurrences are of manageable size but not too small. Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

"Restricted movement is the norm in populations of stream salmonids during nonmigratory periods," but there is considerable variation in movements within and among species (Rodriguez 2002). Redband trout in Montana had October-December home ranges of 5-377 m, consistent with small movements observed for radio-tagged brook trout and cutthroat trout during fall and winter (Muhlfeld et al. 2001). For nonanadromous populations, little is known about juvenile dispersal (e.g., how far fishes may move between between their embryonic developmental habitat and eventual spawning site).

In summer and fall, radio-tagged cutthroat trout in Strawberry Reservoir in Utah had single-month home ranges that were usually about 3-4 km in maximum length (Baldwin et al. 2002). In the Blackfoot River drainage, Montana, radio-tagged westslope cutthroat trout moved 3-72 km (mean 31 km) to access spawning tributaries (Schmetterling 2001). This indicates that migratory but nonanadromous populations may use extensive areas and that one should not invoke the 10-km separation distance without considering the full extent of the population.

Date: 25Nov2009
Author: Hammerson, G., and L. Master
Notes: This Specs Group comprises fish species that include anadromous populations (may also include nonanadromous populations), such as lampreys, sturgeons, herrings, shads, salmonids, and smelts.

Criteria for marine occurrences (Location Use Class: Marine) have not yet been established. These may not be needed for marine occurrences of species that likely will be dealt with as mixed element assemblages (e.g., Salmonid Marine Concentration Area).

Feature Descriptor Definitions:

Spawning Area: area used for spawning but not for rearing or migration.

Rearing Area: area used for larval/juvenile development but not for spawning or migration.

Migration Corridor: area used for migration but not for rearing or spawning.

Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 21Jan2010
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 21Jan2010
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Smith, C.L. 1985. The Inland Fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY. 522pp.

  • Sublette, J. E., M. D Hatch, and M. Sublette. 1990. The fishes of New Mexico. University New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 393 pp.

  • Thomson, K. S., W. H. Weed III, A. G. Taruski, and D. E. Simanek. 1978. Saltwater fishes of Connecticut. 2nd edition. State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut, Department of Environmental Conservation, Bulletin 105. viii + 186 pp.

  • WARD, ROCKY, IVONNE R. BLANDON, AND BRITT W. BUMGUARDNER. 1995. HYBRIDIZATION AMONG MEMBERS OF THE GENUS MORONE (PISCES: PERCICHTHYIDAE) IN GALVESTON BAY, TEXAS. TEXAS J. SCI. 47(2):155-158.

  • Werner, R.G. 1980. Freshwater fishes of New York State. N.Y.: Syracuse University Press. 186 pp.

  • Wirgin, I. I., R. Proenca, and J. Grossfield. 1989. Mitochondrial DNA diversity among populations of striped bass in the southeastern United States. Canadian Journal of Zoology 67:891-907.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Douglas, N. H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Houston, R., K. Chadbourne, S. Lary and B. Charry. 2007. Geographic Distribution of Diadromous Fish in Maine [CD-ROM v1.0]. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service and Maine Audubon Society, Falmouth, Maine.

  • Jenkins, R. E., and N. M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. xxiii + 1079 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Marcy, B. C., Jr., D. E. Fletcher, F. D. Martin, M. H. Paller, and M.J.M. Reichert. 2005. Fishes of the middle Savannah River basin. University of Georgia Press, Athens. xiv + 460 pp.

  • Menhinick, E. F. 1991. The freshwater fishes of North Carolina. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission. 227 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Odom, M.C., R.J. Neves, and J.J. Ney. 1986. An assessment of anadromous fish migrations in the Chowan River drainage, Virginia. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Information Transfer, Fort Collins, CO.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1983. Fishes of New York (maps and printout of a draft section on scarce fishes of New York). Unpublished draft.

  • Whitworth, W. R., P. L. Berrien, and W. T. Keller. 1976. Freshwater fishes of Connecticut. Bulletin of the Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey 101. vi + 134 pp.

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