Morone americana - (Gmelin, 1789)
White Perch
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Morone americana (Gmelin, 1789) (TSN 167678)
French Common Names: baret
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.100436
Element Code: AFCQA01010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Other Bony Fishes
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Perciformes Moronidae Morone
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Morone americana
Taxonomic Comments: Formerly placed in the genus Roccus. The family Percichthyidae was recognized by Robins et al. (1991) as possibly polyphyletic but was retained for convenience.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 09Feb2016
Global Status Last Changed: 20Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (09Feb2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Colorado (SNA), Connecticut (S5), Delaware (S5), District of Columbia (S5), Georgia (SNA), Indiana (SNA), Maine (S5), Maryland (S5), Massachusetts (S5), Michigan (SNA), Nebraska (SNA), New Hampshire (S5), New Jersey (S5), New York (S4), North Carolina (S5), Pennsylvania (S5), Rhode Island (S5), Vermont (SNA), Virginia (S4), Wisconsin (SNA)
Canada New Brunswick (S5), Nova Scotia (S5), Ontario (SNA), Prince Edward Island (S5), Quebec (S4)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range encompasses Atlantic Slope drainages from St. Lawrence-Lake Ontario drainage, Quebec, south to Peedee River, South Carolina; Lake Ontario populations may have colonized through the Erie Canal; few records from the Lake Erie drainage. Peak abundance of this species is in the Hudson River and Chesapeake Bay (Lee et al. 1980). Inland populations are more common in northern areas.

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations) (e.g., see map in Lee et al. 1980).

Population Size: 100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 100,000.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Many (41-125)

Overall Threat Impact: Low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats are known.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Warren et al. (2000) categorized the trend as "currently stable" in the southeastern United States.

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Range encompasses Atlantic Slope drainages from St. Lawrence-Lake Ontario drainage, Quebec, south to Peedee River, South Carolina; Lake Ontario populations may have colonized through the Erie Canal; few records from the Lake Erie drainage. Peak abundance of this species is in the Hudson River and Chesapeake Bay (Lee et al. 1980). Inland populations are more common in northern areas.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States COexotic, CT, DC, DE, GAexotic, INexotic, MA, MD, ME, MIexotic, NC, NEexotic, NH, NJ, NY, PAnative and exotic, RI, VA, VTexotic, WIexotic
Canada NB, NS, ONexotic, PE, QC

Range Map
No map available.

U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Lower Penobscot (01020005), Lower Kennebec (01030003), Lower Androscoggin (01040002), St. Croix (01050001), Maine Coastal (01050002), St. George-Sheepscot (01050003), Presumpscot (01060001), Saco (01060002), Piscataqua-Salmon Falls (01060003), Pemigewasset (01070001), Merrimack (01070002), Contoocook (01070003), Upper Connecticut-Mascoma (01080104), Middle Connecticut (01080201), Lower Connecticut (01080205), Farmington (01080207), Charles (01090001), Cape Cod (01090002), Narragansett (01090004), Pawcatuck-Wood (01090005), Quinebaug (01100001), Thames (01100003), Quinnipiac (01100004), Housatonic (01100005), Saugatuck (01100006)
02 Mohawk (02020004), Middle Hudson (02020006), Hudson-Wappinger (02020008), Lower Hudson (02030101), Hackensack-Passaic (02030103), Sandy Hook-Staten Island (02030104), Raritan (02030105), Northern Long Island (02030201), Southern Long Island (02030202), Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105), Crosswicks-Neshaminy (02040201), Lower Delaware (02040202), Delaware Bay (02040204), Brandywine-Christina (02040205), Cohansey-Maurice (02040206), Broadkill-Smyrna (02040207), Mullica-Toms (02040301), Great Egg Harbor (02040302), Lower Susquehanna (02050306), Chester-Sassafras (02060002), Gunpowder-Patapsco (02060003), Severn (02060004), Choptank (02060005), Patuxent (02060006), Blackwater-Wicomico (02060007), Nanticoke (02060008), Chincoteague (02060010), Middle Potomac-Catoctin (02070008), Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan (02070010), Lower Potomac (02070011), Great Wicomico-Piankatank (02080102), Lower Rappahannock (02080104), Mattaponi (02080105), Pamunkey (02080106), York (02080107), Lynnhaven-Poquoson (02080108), Lower James (02080206), Hampton Roads (02080208)
03 Upper Dan (03010103), Roanoke Rapids (03010106), Lower Roanoke (03010107), Nottoway (03010201), Blackwater (03010202), Ghowan (03010203), Meheriin (03010204), Albemarle (03010205), Upper Tar (03020101), Lower Tar (03020103), Pamlico (03020104), Pamlico Sound (03020105), Bogue-Core Sounds (03020106), Upper Neuse (03020201), Middle Neuse (03020202), Contentnea (03020203), Lower Neuse (03020204), New (03030001), Haw (03030002), Upper Cape Fear (03030004), Lower Cape Fear (03030005), Upper Yadkin (03040101), South Yadkin (03040102), Lower Yadkin (03040103), Upper Pee Dee (03040104), Lower Pee Dee (03040201), Waccamaw (03040206), Carolina Coastal-Sampit (03040207), Santee (03050112), Cooper (03050201), Middle Savannah (03060106)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Spawns mainly in spring. Eggs hatch in about 4 days at usual spawning temperature (15 C).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: Some populations anadromous.
Marine Habitat(s): Near shore
Estuarine Habitat(s): Bay/sound, River mouth/tidal river
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: This species occurs predominately in brackish water and generally close to shore in saltwater. It is common in quiet water, usually over mud, far up medium to large rivers in fresh water and in lakes and ponds having no sea connection. It has been observed to move offshore during day, onshore at night. Spawning occurs in shallow water, fresh or slightly brackish. Eggs sink to bottom and stick (Thomson et al. 1978).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Food Comments: Young eat microplankton; as they grow larger, aquatic insect larvae become important part of diet. Large individuals consume a high percentage of fishes (Scott and Crossman 1973).
Length: 48 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Group Name: Fishes with Anadromous Populations

Use Class: Freshwater
Subtype(s): Rearing & Migration Area, Spawning & Rearing Area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat. For anadromous populations, occurrences are based on collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more spawning adults, redds, other evidence of spawning, or larvae or juveniles in appropriate spawning/rearing habitat.
Mapping Guidance: Conceptually, the occurrence includes the entire freshwater area used by the population, including spawning, rearing, and migration areas. For anadromous populations, an occurrence should extend from the most upstream spawning areas downstream to the ocean. However, it is desirable (and practical) to subdivide this sometimes very large occurrence, sometimes overlapping with many other spaghetti-like occurrences extending down from the upstream spawning areas to the ocean, into separate source features or sub-occurrences, labeled with a feature label that reflects the life history stage in that area. Moreover, it may make practical sense to treat the areas downstream of spawning and/or rearing areas as a mixed element animal assemblage: Freshwater Salmon Migration Corridor. This negates the need to separately map each occurrence down to the ocean from its upstream spawning location. Information about areas with different life-history uses can be generated by using best professional judgment by district or regional fish biologists and may or may not incorporate specific locational information from spawning surveys or other surveys.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat that is very unlikely to be submerged even during periods of exceptionally high water (e.g., 100-year flood or 1% flood).
Alternate Separation Procedure: For anadromous populations and migratory populations that have distinct and separate spawning and nonspawning areas, the area used by each population whose spawning area is separated by a gap of at least 10 stream-km from other spawning areas within a stream system is potentially mappable as a distinct occurrence that extends down to the ocean (but see mapping guidance), regardless of whether the spawning areas are in the same or different tributaries.

For other (e.g., nonanadromous) populations in streams, separation distance is 10 stream-km for both suitable and unsuitable habitat. However, if it is known that the same population occupies sites separated by more than 10 km (e.g., this may be common for migratory, nonanadromous populations), those sites should be included within the same occurrence. In lakes, occurrences include all suitable habitat that is presumed to be occupied (based on expert judgment), even if documented collection/observation points are more than 10 km apart. Separate sub-occurrences or source features may usefully document locations of critical spawning areas within a lake.

Separation Justification: The separation distance is arbitrary but was selected to ensure that occurrences are of manageable size but not too small. Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

"Restricted movement is the norm in populations of stream salmonids during nonmigratory periods," but there is considerable variation in movements within and among species (Rodriguez 2002). Redband trout in Montana had October-December home ranges of 5-377 m, consistent with small movements observed for radio-tagged brook trout and cutthroat trout during fall and winter (Muhlfeld et al. 2001). For nonanadromous populations, little is known about juvenile dispersal (e.g., how far fishes may move between between their embryonic developmental habitat and eventual spawning site).

In summer and fall, radio-tagged cutthroat trout in Strawberry Reservoir in Utah had single-month home ranges that were usually about 3-4 km in maximum length (Baldwin et al. 2002). In the Blackfoot River drainage, Montana, radio-tagged westslope cutthroat trout moved 3-72 km (mean 31 km) to access spawning tributaries (Schmetterling 2001). This indicates that migratory but nonanadromous populations may use extensive areas and that one should not invoke the 10-km separation distance without considering the full extent of the population.

Date: 25Nov2009
Author: Hammerson, G., and L. Master
Notes: This Specs Group comprises fish species that include anadromous populations (may also include nonanadromous populations), such as lampreys, sturgeons, herrings, shads, salmonids, and smelts.

Criteria for marine occurrences (Location Use Class: Marine) have not yet been established. These may not be needed for marine occurrences of species that likely will be dealt with as mixed element assemblages (e.g., Salmonid Marine Concentration Area).

Feature Descriptor Definitions:

Spawning Area: area used for spawning but not for rearing or migration.

Rearing Area: area used for larval/juvenile development but not for spawning or migration.

Migration Corridor: area used for migration but not for rearing or spawning.

Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 22Jun2007
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 05Aug1993
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Aquin, P. 1999. Évaluation de la situation des groupes taxonomiques des poissons du Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune. 9 pages.

  • BUSCH, W.-D. N. et S. J. LARY. 1996. Assessment of habitat impairments impacting the aquatic resources of Lake Ontario. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 53(suppl. 1). p.113-120.

  • Beaulieu, H. 1992. Liste des espèces de la faune vertébrée susceptibles d'être désignées menacées ou vulnérables. Ministère du Loisir, de la Chasse et de la Pêche. 107 p.

  • Bernatchez, L. et Giroux, M. 1991. Guide des poissons d'eau douce du Québec: leur distribution dans l'Est du Canada. Éditions Broquet Inc. 304 p.

  • CROWDER, A. A., J. P. SMOL, R. DALRYMPLE, R. GILBERT, A. MATHERS et J. PRICE. 1996. Rates of natural and anthropogenic change in shoreline habitats in the Kingston Bassin, Lake Ontario. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 53. p.121-135.

  • Cooper, E.L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania. Penn State Univ. Press, University Park, PA.

  • DAVID, J. J. et SCOTT F. DEBOE. 1996. Possible impact of gobies and introduced species on habitat restauration efforts. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 53(Suppl. 1). p.136-141.

  • Dauten, J. et al. 1998. Draft element occurrence data standard. The Nature Conservancy in cooperation with the Network of Natural Heritage program and conservation data centers. 188 p.

  • Desrosiers A., F. Caron et R. Ouellet. 1995. Liste de la faune vertébrée du Québec. Les publications du Québec. 122

  • Direction générale de la faune. 1978. Liste des poissons d'eau douce du Québec. Ministère du Tourisme, de la Chasse et de la Pêche. 4

  • Everhart, W. H. and W. R. Seaman. 1971. Fishes of Colorado. Colorado Game, Fish and Parks.

  • GOPALAN, G., D. A. CULVER, L. WU et B. K. TRAUBEN. 1998. Effects of recent ecosystem changes on the recruitment of young-of-the-year fish in western Lake Erie. Can. J. Aquat. Sci. 55. p. 2572-2579.

  • GRAHAM, D. M., W. G. SPRULES et S. J. NEPSZY. 1999. Growth and condition of juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and white perch (Morone americana) during zebra mussel establishment in western Lake Erie (1988-1991). State of Lake Erie (SOLE) ? Past, P

  • HALL, S. R. et L. G. RUDSTAM. 1999. Habitat use and recruitment: a comparison of long-term recruitment patterns among fish species in a shallow eutrophic lake, Oneida Lake, NY, U. S. A. Hydrobiologia 408-409. p. 101-113.

  • HURLEY, D. A. 1992. Feeding and Tropic Interactions of White Perch (Morone Americana) in the Bay of Quinte, Lake Ontario. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., Vol. 49. p. 2249-2259.

  • Legendre V. 1954. Clef des poissons de pêche sportive et commerciale de la province de Québec. Les poissons d'eau douce. Tome 1. Deuxième édition. Société canadienne d'écologie. Université de Montréal. Ministère de la Chasse et de la Pêche.

  • Legendre, V. et J.F. Bergeron. 1977. Liste des poissons d' eau douce du Québec. MLCP, Service Aménage. Expl. Faune. Rap. dact. 6

  • MORING, J. R. et L. H. MINK. 2002. Anadromous Alosa preudoharengus, as prey for white perch, Morone americana. Hydrobiologia 479. p.125-130.

  • Mansueti, R.J. 1964. Eggs, larvae, and young of the white perch, Roccus americanus, with comments on its ecology in the estuary. Chesapeake Science 5(1/2): 3-45.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Page, LM, H.Espinoza-Perez, L.Findley, C.Gilbert, R. Lea, N. Mandrak, R.Mayden and J.Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico, 7th edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Richards, W.J. 1960. The life history and ecology of the white perch, Roccus americanus (Gmelin) in Cross Lake, New York. M. S. Thesis, Syracuse University.

  • Richards, W.J. 1960. The life history, habits and ecology of the white perch, Roccus americanus (Gmelin), in Cross Lake, New York. M.S. thesis, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Rodriguez, M. A. 2002. Restricted movement in stream fish: the paradigm is complete, not lost. Ecology 83(1):1-13.

  • STANLEY, J. G. et D. S. DANIE. 1983. Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (North Atlantic) White perch. National Coastal Ecosystems Team Division of Biological Services Fish and Wildlife Service U. S. Departmen

  • Scott W.B. et E.J. Crossman. 1974. Poissons d'eau douce du Canada. Ministère de l'Environnement. Service des pêches et des sciences de la mer. Office des recherches sur les pêcherires du Canada. Bulletin 184. 1026 p.

  • Scott, W. B., and E. J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 184. 966 pp.

  • Scott, W.B. and W.J. Christie. 1963. The invasion of the lower Great Lakes by the white perch, Roccus americanus (Gmelin). J. Fish. Research Board Can. 20(5):1189-1195.

  • Scott, W.B. et M.G. Scott. 1988. Atlantic fishes of Canada. University of Toronto Press. 731 p.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

  • Smith, C.L. 1985. The Inland Fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY. 522pp.

  • Thoits, C.F., III. 1958. A compendium of the life history and ecology of the white perch, Morone americana (Gmelin). Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Game Bulletin Number 24:1-16.

  • Thomson, K. S., W. H. Weed III, A. G. Taruski, and D. E. Simanek. 1978. Saltwater fishes of Connecticut. 2nd edition. State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut, Department of Environmental Conservation, Bulletin 105. viii + 186 pp.

  • Warren, M. L., Jr., B. M. Burr, S. J. Walsh, H. L. Bart, Jr., R. C. Cashner, D. A. Etnier, B. J. Freeman, B. R. Kuhajda, R. L. Mayden, H. W. Robison, S. T. Ross, and W. C. Starnes. 2000. Diversity, distribution, and conservation status of the native freshwater fishes of the southern United States. Fisheries 25(10):7-31.

  • Werner, R.G. 1980. Freshwater fishes of New York State. N.Y.: Syracuse University Press. 186 pp.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Jenkins, R. E., and N. M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. xxiii + 1079 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Marcy, B. C., Jr., D. E. Fletcher, F. D. Martin, M. H. Paller, and M.J.M. Reichert. 2005. Fishes of the middle Savannah River basin. University of Georgia Press, Athens. xiv + 460 pp.

  • Menhinick, E. F. 1991. The freshwater fishes of North Carolina. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission. 227 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1983. Fishes of New York (maps and printout of a draft section on scarce fishes of New York). Unpublished draft.

  • Smith, C. L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, New York, xi + 522 pp.

  • Whitworth, W. R., P. L. Berrien, and W. T. Keller. 1976. Freshwater fishes of Connecticut. Bulletin of the Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey 101. vi + 134 pp.

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