Morone chrysops - (Rafinesque, 1820)
White Bass
Synonym(s): Roccus chrysops
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Morone chrysops (Rafinesque, 1820) (TSN 167682)
French Common Names: bar blanc
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.100951
Element Code: AFCQA01020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Other Bony Fishes
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Perciformes Moronidae Morone
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Morone chrysops
Taxonomic Comments: Formerly placed in the genus Roccus. Electrophoretic studies indicate that distinct subpopulations may exist within even a single lake (see Lee et al. 1980). Hybrids of white bass and striped bass (called wipers) have been stocked in some areas. The family Percichthyidae was recognized by Robins et al. (1991) as possibly polyphyletic but was retained for convenience.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 09Feb2016
Global Status Last Changed: 20Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N4N5 (09Feb2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (S5), Arizona (SNA), Arkansas (S4), California (SNA), Colorado (SNA), District of Columbia (SNA), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S5), Illinois (S5), Indiana (S4), Iowa (S4), Kansas (S5), Kentucky (S4S5), Louisiana (S4), Maryland (SNA), Michigan (S3S4), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (SNR), Montana (SNA), Nebraska (S4), Nevada (SNA), New Mexico (SNA), New York (S4), North Carolina (SNA), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (S5), Oklahoma (S5), Pennsylvania (S4), South Carolina (SNA), South Dakota (S5), Tennessee (S5), Texas (S5), Utah (SNA), Virginia (S3), West Virginia (S4), Wisconsin (S5)
Canada Manitoba (SNA), Ontario (S4), Quebec (S4)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000 to >2,500,000 square km (about 80,000 to >1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: This species is native to the St. Lawrence-Great Lakes, Hudson Bay (Red River), and Mississippi River basins from Quebec to Manitoba and south to Louisiana; Gulf Slope drainages from Mississippi River, Louisiana, to Rio Grande, Texas and New Mexico (Page and Burr 1991). It has been introduced widely within and outside its natural range.

Area of Occupancy: >12,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations).

Population Size: >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 1,000,000.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very many (>125)

Overall Threat Impact: Low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats are known.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Warren et al. (2000) categorized the trend as "currently stable" in the southeastern United States.

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%
Long-term Trend Comments: Abundance has increased in the lower Missouri River as a result of human-caused changes in the river (e.g., reservoir construction and consequent reductions in turbidity) (Pflieger and Grace 1987).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000 to >2,500,000 square km (about 80,000 to >1,000,000 square miles)) This species is native to the St. Lawrence-Great Lakes, Hudson Bay (Red River), and Mississippi River basins from Quebec to Manitoba and south to Louisiana; Gulf Slope drainages from Mississippi River, Louisiana, to Rio Grande, Texas and New Mexico (Page and Burr 1991). It has been introduced widely within and outside its natural range.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, AZexotic, CAexotic, COexotic, DCexotic, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MDexotic, MI, MN, MO, MS, MTexotic, NCexotic, ND, NE, NMexotic, NVexotic, NY, OH, OK, PA, SCexotic, SD, TN, TX, UTexotic, VA, WI, WV
Canada MBexotic, ON, QC

Range Map
No map available.

U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Middle Savannah (03060106), Middle Chattahoochee-Lake Harding (03130002), Middle Chattahoochee-Walter F. George Reservoir (03130003), Lower Chattahoochee (03130004), Upper Choctawhatchee (03140201), Upper Conecuh (03140301), Lower Conecuh (03140304)
04 St. Louis (04010201), Dead-Kelsey (04020105), Lake Superior (04020300), Door-Kewaunee (04030102), Menominee (04030108), Cedar-Ford (04030109), Fishdam-Sturgeon (04030112), Upper Fox (04030201), Wolf (04030202), Lake Winnebago (04030203), Lower Fox (04030204), Pike-Root (04040002)*, St. Joseph (04050001), Lake Michigan (04060200)*, Lake St. Clair (04090002), Clinton (04090003), Detroit (04090004), Ottawa-Stony (04100001), St. Marys (04100004), Lower Maumee (04100009), Cedar-Portage (04100010), Sandusky (04100011), Huron-Vermilion (04100012), Black-Rocky (04110001), Cuyahoga (04110002)*, Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003), Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101), Buffalo-Eighteenmile (04120103), Niagara (04120104), Lake Erie (04120200), Oak Orchard-Twelvemile (04130001), Upper Genesee (04130002), Irondequoit-Ninemile (04140101)*, Seneca (04140201), Oneida (04140202), Oswego (04140203), Upper St. Lawrence (04150301)
05 Upper Ohio (05030101), Mahoning (05030103)*, Upper Ohio-Wheeling (05030106), Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201), Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202), Little Kanawha (05030203), Tuscarawas (05040001)*, Mohican (05040002)*, Muskingum (05040004), Licking (05040006)*, Upper Kanawha (05050006), Lower Kanawha (05050008), Upper Scioto (05060001), Lower Scioto (05060002), Upper Levisa (05070202), Lower Levisa (05070203), Big Sandy (05070204), Upper Great Miami (05080001)*, Whitewater (05080003)*, Raccoon-Symmes (05090101), Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103), Little Sandy (05090104), Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201), Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203), Licking (05100101), South Fork Licking (05100102), North Fork Kentucky (05100201), Middle Fork Kentucky (05100202), Upper Kentucky (05100204), Lower Kentucky (05100205), Upper Green (05110001), Barren (05110002), Middle Green (05110003), Rough (05110004), Lower Green (05110005), Pond (05110006), Upper Wabash (05120101)*, Tippecanoe (05120106), Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108), Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111), Embarras (05120112), Lower Wabash (05120113), Upper Cumberland (05130101), Rockcastle (05130102), Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103), South Fork Cumberland (05130104), Upper Cumberland-Cordell Hull (05130106), Caney (05130108), Lower Cumberland-Old Hickory Lake (05130201), Stones (05130203), Lower Cumberland (05130205), Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Salt (05140102), Rolling Fork (05140103), Blue-Sinking (05140104), Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201), Highland-Pigeon (05140202), Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203), Tradewater (05140205), Lower Ohio (05140206)
06 North Fork Holston (06010101), South Fork Holston (06010102), Watauga (06010103), Holston (06010104), Upper French Broad (06010105), Pigeon (06010106), Lower French Broad (06010107), Watts Bar Lake (06010201), Lower Little Tennessee (06010204), Upper Clinch (06010205), Powell (06010206), Lower Clinch (06010207), Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001), Hiwassee (06020002), Ocoee (06020003), Guntersville Lake (06030001), Wheeler Lake (06030002), Upper Elk (06030003), Lower Elk (06030004), Pickwick Lake (06030005), Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001), Lower Duck (06040003), Kentucky Lake (06040005), Lower Tennessee (06040006)
07 Upper Minnesota (07020001), Middle Minnesota (07020007), Upper St. Croix (07030001)*, Lower St. Croix (07030005), Rush-Vermillion (07040001), Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003), Trempealeau (07040005), La Crosse-Pine (07040006), Black (07040007), Lower Chippewa (07050005), Red Cedar (07050007), Coon-Yellow (07060001), Upper Iowa (07060002)*, Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003), Turkey (07060004)*, Apple-Plum (07060005), Maquoketa (07060006), Castle Rock (07070003), Lower Wisconsin (07070005), Kickapoo (07070006), Copperas-Duck (07080101), Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102)*, Flint-Henderson (07080104), North Skunk (07080106), Skunk (07080107)*, Upper Cedar (07080201)*, Winnebago (07080203)*, Lower Cedar (07080206), Middle Iowa (07080208), Lower Iowa (07080209), Crawfish (07090002), Pecatonica (07090003), Lower Rock (07090005), North Raccoon (07100006), Lake Red Rock (07100008), Lower Des Moines (07100009), Bear-Wyaconda (07110001), North Fabius (07110002), South Fabius (07110003), The Sny (07110004), North Fork Salt (07110005), South Fork Salt (07110006), Salt (07110007), Cuivre (07110008), Peruque-Piasa (07110009), Kankakee (07120001), Chicago (07120003), Upper Illinois (07120005), Upper Fox (07120006), Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001), Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003), Mackinaw (07130004), Spoon (07130005), Lower Sangamon (07130008), Salt (07130009), Lower Illinois (07130011), Macoupin (07130012)*, Cahokia-Joachim (07140101), Meramec (07140102), Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105), Big Muddy (07140106), Cache (07140108), Upper Kaskaskia (07140201), Middle Kaskaskia (07140202)*, Lower Kaskaskia (07140204)*
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100), Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201), Obion (08010202), Lower Hatchie (08010208), Lower Mississippi-Helena (08020100), New Madrid-St. Johns (08020201), Lower St. Francis (08020203), Little River Ditches (08020204), L'anguille (08020205), Lower White-Bayou Des Arc (08020301), Cache (08020302), Lower White (08020303), Lower Arkansas (08020401), Bayou Meto (08020402), Lower Mississippi-Greenville (08030100), Yocona (08030203), Yalobusha (08030205), Upper Yazoo (08030206), Deer-Steele (08030209), Ouachita Headwaters (08040101), Upper Ouachita (08040102), Little Missouri (08040103), Lower Ouachita-Smackover (08040201), Lower Ouachita-Bayou De Loutre (08040202), Upper Saline (08040203), Lower Saline (08040204), Bayou D'arbonne (08040206), Lower Ouachita (08040207), Little (08040304), Boeuf (08050001), Bayou Macon (08050002), Lower Mississippi-Natchez (08060100), Lower Big Black (08060202), Bayou Pierre (08060203), Coles Creek (08060204), Lower Mississippi-Baton Rouge (08070100)*, Bayou Sara-Thompson (08070201), Lower Mississippi-New Orleans (08090100), Eastern Louisiana Coastal (08090203)
10 Upper Big Sioux (10170202), Lower Big Sioux (10170203), Blackbird-Soldier (10230001), Little Sioux (10230003), Big Papillion-Mosquito (10230006), Keg-Weeping Water (10240001), Tarkio-Wolf (10240005), Delaware (10270103), Lower Kansas (10270104), Thompson (10280102), Upper Chariton (10280201), Little Chariton (10280203), Upper Marais Des Cygnes (10290101), Lower Marais Des Cygnes (10290102), Pomme De Terre (10290107), Lake of the Ozarks (10290109), Lower Osage (10290111), Lower Gasconade (10290203), Lower Missouri-Crooked (10300101), Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102), Lower Missouri (10300200)
11 Middle White (11010004), Buffalo (11010005), Upper Black (11010007), Current (11010008), Lower Black (11010009), Spring (11010010), Strawberry (11010012), Upper White-Village (11010013), Little Red (11010014), Middle Arkansas-Slate (11030013), Upper Walnut River (11030017), Lower Walnut River (11030018), Upper Cimarron-Bluff (11040008), Lower Cimarron-Skeleton (11050002), Medicine Lodge (11060003), Chikaskia (11060005), Black Bear-Red Rock (11060006), Upper Verdigris (11070101), Middle Verdigris (11070103), Lower Verdigris (11070105), Caney (11070106), Neosho headwaters (11070201), Upper Cottonwood (11070202), Upper Neosho (11070204), Middle Neosho (11070205), Lake O' the Cherokees (11070206), Lower Neosho (11070209), Lower Canadian (11090204), Lower North Canadian (11100302), Deep Fork (11100303), Illinois (11110103), Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104), Poteau (11110105), Frog-Mulberry (11110201), Dardanelle Reservoir (11110202), Lake Conway-Point Remove (11110203), Petit Jean (11110204), Cadron (11110205), Fourche La Fave (11110206), Lower Arkansas-Maumelle (11110207), Blue-China (11130102), Farmers-Mud (11130201), Cache (11130202), West Cache (11130203), Northern Beaver (11130208), Little Wichita (11130209), Lake Texoma (11130210), Lower Washita (11130304), Bois D'arc-Island (11140101), Pecan-Waterhole (11140106), Lower Little (11140109), Mckinney-Posten Bayous (11140201), Middle Red-Coushatta (11140202), Lower Red-Lake Iatt (11140207), Lower Sulphur (11140302), Caddo Lake (11140306)
12 Middle Sabine (12010002), Lower Sabine (12010005), Upper Neches (12020001), Middle Neches (12020002), Lower Neches (12020003), Upper Angelina (12020004), Lower Angelina (12020005), Upper West Fork Trinity (12030101), Lower West Fork Trinity (12030102), Elm Fork Trinity (12030103), Denton (12030104), Upper Trinity (12030105), Richland (12030108), Chambers (12030109), Lower Trinity-Tehuacana (12030201), Lower Trinity-Kickapoo (12030202), Lower Trinity (12030203), West Fork San Jacinto (12040101), Spring (12040102), East Fork San Jacinto (12040103), Buffalo-San Jacinto (12040104), North Galveston Bay (12040203), Hubbard (12060105), Middle Brazos-Palo Pinto (12060201), Middle Brazos-Lake Whitney (12060202), Lower Brazos-Little Brazos (12070101), Navasota (12070103), Middle Colorado-Elm (12090101), Middle Colorado (12090106), Buchanan-Lyndon B (12090201), Austin-Travis Lakes (12090205), Lower Colorado-Cummins (12090301), Lower Colorado (12090302), Lower San Antonio (12100303), Cibolo (12100304), Central Matagorda Bay (12100401), Lower Nueces (12110111)
13 Rio Grande-Fort Quitman (13040100), Cibolo-Red Light (13040201), Lower Devils (13040302), Lower Pecos-Red Bluff Reservoir (13070001), Lower Pecos (13070008), International Falcon Reservoir (13080003), Los Olmos (13090001)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Spawns in spring; eggs hatch in 4.5 days at 14 C, 1 day at 26 C; normally first spawns at age I to III, depending on location and conditions; few survive to age IV; forms large schools near spawning areas (Moyle 1976, Becker 1983, Sublette et al. 1990).
Ecology Comments: Schools throughout year.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: May migrate over 200 km to upstream spawning areas, but usually not that far (Moyle 1976).
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes open waters of large lakes and reservoirs and pools of slow-moving small to large rivers. This species usually occurs in surface waters, roaming in schools. It tends to be offshore during the day, inshore at night. It generally avoids areas of continuous turbidity. Running water of tributary streams appear to be preferred for spawning, but this fish may spawn along lake shores with high wave action. Spawning substrate is usually rock or gravel bottoms in water 0.6-3 meters deep; eggs sink and stick; individuals generally return to specific spawning areas. Information primarily from Becker (1983) and Moyle (1976).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Food Comments: Visually oriented predator. Eats fishes, zooplankton, aquatic insects, oligochaetes, and crayfish; fishes often dominate diet of adults; diet may vary from place to place (Moyle 1976, Sublette et al. 1990).
Length: 42 centimeters
Economic Attributes
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Economic Comments: Sport fish, especially hybrids of white basS and striped bass in warm-water reservoirs.
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Alternate Separation Procedure: Use a separation distance of 10 km for both suitable and unsuitable habitat, but be careful not to separate a population's spawning and nonspawning habitats as different occurrences (i.e., do not use the 10-km separation distance without evaluating seasonal changes in habitat use).
Separation Justification: Separation distance is arbitrary. These fishes may migrate over 200 km to upstream spawning areas, but usually not that far (Moyle 1976).
Date: 25Jun2001
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 22Jun2007
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 22Jun2007
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Aquin, P. 1999. Évaluation de la situation des groupes taxonomiques des poissons du Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune. 9 pages.

  • Legendre, V. et J.F. Bergeron. 1977. Liste des poissons d' eau douce du Québec. MLCP, Service Aménage. Expl. Faune. Rap. dact. 6

  • Matthews, W. J., and D. C. Heins, editors. 1987. Community and evolutionary ecology of North American stream fishes. Univ. Oklahoma Press, Norman. viii + 310 pp.

  • Moyle, P. B. 1976a. Inland fishes of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, California. 405 pp.

  • Moyle, P. B. 2002. Inland fishes of California. Revised and expanded. University of California Press, Berkeley. xv + 502 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. and T. B. Grace. 1987. Changes in the fish fauna of the lower Missouri River, 1940-1983. Pages 166-181 in W. J. Matthews and D. C Heins (editors). Community and Evolutionary Ecology of North American Stream Fishes. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma.

  • Riggs, C.D. 1955. Reproduction of the white bass, Morone chrysops. Invest. Indiana Lakes Streams 4(3): 87-110.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Sigler, W.F. 1949. Life history of the white bass, Lepibema chrysops (Rafinesque), of Spirit Lake, Iowa. Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, Research Bulletin 366:203-244.

  • Sublette, J. E., M. D Hatch, and M. Sublette. 1990. The fishes of New Mexico. University New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 393 pp.

  • Warren, M. L., Jr., B. M. Burr, S. J. Walsh, H. L. Bart, Jr., R. C. Cashner, D. A. Etnier, B. J. Freeman, B. R. Kuhajda, R. L. Mayden, H. W. Robison, S. T. Ross, and W. C. Starnes. 2000. Diversity, distribution, and conservation status of the native freshwater fishes of the southern United States. Fisheries 25(10):7-31.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Cross, F. B., and J. T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. Second Edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. xvii + 315 pp.

  • Douglas, N. H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Jenkins, R. E., and N. M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. xxiii + 1079 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Marcy, B. C., Jr., D. E. Fletcher, F. D. Martin, M. H. Paller, and M.J.M. Reichert. 2005. Fishes of the middle Savannah River basin. University of Georgia Press, Athens. xiv + 460 pp.

  • Master, L. L. and A. L. Stock. 1998. Synoptic national assessment of comparative risks to biological diversity and landscape types: species distributions. Summary Report submitted to Environmental Protection Agency. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA. 36 pp.

  • Menhinick, E. F. 1991. The freshwater fishes of North Carolina. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission. 227 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1983. Fishes of New York (maps and printout of a draft section on scarce fishes of New York). Unpublished draft.

  • Smith, C. L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, New York, xi + 522 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

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Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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