Mimulus glabratus var. michiganensis - (Pennell) Fassett
Michigan Monkeyflower
Other Common Names: Michigan monkeyflower
Synonym(s): Mimulus michiganensis (Pennell) Posto & Prather
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Mimulus glabratus var. michiganensis (Pennell) Fassett (TSN 529193)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.140538
Element Code: PDSCR1B1A3
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Figwort Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Scrophulariales Scrophulariaceae Mimulus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Mimulus glabratus var. michiganensis
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5T1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 01Jan1996
Global Status Last Changed: 30Dec1988
Rounded Global Status: T1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Endemic to the Mackinac Straits and Grand Traverse region of northern Michigan. There are 14 known, documented extant occurrences in a 6-county area. Since the species is clonal, the total number of genetic individuals may be low.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Michigan (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (21Jun1990)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R3 - North Central

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Endemic to the Mackinac Straits and Grand Traverse regions of Michigan; six counties.

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: Thirteen known extant occurrences.

Population Size Comments: Prolific at several sites, but since the clumps represent clones the number of individuals is probably not great.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Residential and recreational development, habitat destruction, modification and degradation are the primary risks to existing occurrences. Vulnerable to isolated disturbance events due to low numbers of individuals at many sites and the taxon's limited reproductive capabilities. Natural lake level fluctuations pose threats by redirecting seepage springs and otherwise disturbing habitat. Cold water supply alterations could not have major effects on existing populations. Upstream water flow feeding sites may be impacted through diversion and extensive pumping of groundwater. Low genetic diversity may render populations susceptible to changes in habitat.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Needs cold, clear streams, although it can sometimes survive degraded habitat in depauperate condition.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Endemic to the Mackinac Straits and Grand Traverse regions of Michigan; six counties.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States MI

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
MI Benzie (26019), Charlevoix (26029), Cheboygan (26031), Emmet (26047), Leelanau (26089), Mackinac (26097)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
04 Betsie-Platte (04060104)+, Boardman-Charlevoix (04060105)+, Brevoort-Millecoquins (04060107)+, Lake Michigan (04060200)+, Cheboygan (04070004)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A semi-aquatic perennial herb that grows in clonal clumps of up to several hundred stems, each about 3.6 dm tall. Leaves are round and coarsely toothed. Tubular yellow flowers bloom from June through September.
Habitat Comments: Muck-covered sand in flowing water with summer temperatures no higher than 16.6 degrees Celsius. Full sun. The necessary combination of full sunlight and cold, clear, flowing water is found in aquatic habitats along froest edges and in small openings along streams and lakeshores.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: Monitoring needs include tracking the fate of occurrences through reproductive success. Pollinator abundance and life history events should also be monitored. Research needs include a study of the natural history of the taxon and its microhabitat requirements. The floral biology as it relates to the breeding system, and life history also should be researched adequately. The systematics of the taxon should be addressed in order to determine its taxonomic standing. Additional surveys of potential habitat should be made. Management requirements include the maintenance of habitats with sufficient buffer to protect against outside influences and hydrological impacts. ??
Restoration Potential: The recovery potential of this species is largely unknown. Sexual reproduction is thought to be low, rendering dispersal and gene flow between populations difficult. Vegetative reproduction, however, is apparently common in the species, lending optimism that transplantation could be relatively easy to accomplish. If population destruction has occurred to a large number of populations, transplantation may serve to restore population numbers. In other situations, artificial crossing attempts to produce seeds may be attempted to enhance genetic vigor.
Preserve Selection & Design Considerations: In order to adequately protect a given M. glabratus var. michiganensis population, protection must center on the habitat in which the species lives. The quality of the flowing waters of springs, streams and associated swamps must be protected through sufficient buffer lands. The integrity of the hydrology maintaining the habitat must be protected from outside influences such as road construction, development and other disturbance activities. Natural disturbances (eg., high lake levels), although potentially damaging to populations, should not be altered. At present, it is not known what effect these natural situations have on habitat development and sustenance. Sufficient protection of habitat for potential pollinators (although sexual reproduction is thought to be minimal) should also be considered in the protection of any site.
Management Requirements: Penskar (pers. comm.) stated that it is not known if anyone has determined the management needs for M. glabratus var. michiganensis. It is known, however, that excessive disturbance (particularly that of a hydrological nature) is detrimental to the taxon. Habitat needs for the potential pollinators of Michigan monkey-flower also need to be assessed.

Determination of the management requirements of Michigan monkey-flower is a pre-requisite to the setting of guidelines to initiate management. At present, very little is known regarding the management needs of the species.

Maintenance of the habitat (mucky sand in flowing waters) and its hydrology is the primary need for this species. Sufficient buffer should be obtained around extant populations to adequately protect extant populations from outside influences and hydrological impacts.

Monitoring Requirements: A fundamental monitoring need is to track the fate and extent of the 12 known extant occurrences of the taxon (Penskar pers. comm.). Reproductive success (flower production, seed set, dispersal, germination and growth) should be monitored. Pollinator abundance should also be monitored. Tracking of habitat parameters may also be considered.

Individual counts should be made at all 12 occurrences of the taxon regardless of population size. Notes with respect to flowers per plant, seed production and age structure within the population should also be made. Plants should be observed during peak inflorescence in order to observe pollinators, determine the approximate pollinator population size and identify pollinator species.


Management Programs: At present, no management programs are in place for Michigan monkey-flower.
Monitoring Programs: At present, no monitoring programs are in place for Michigan monkey-flower.
Management Research Programs: Dr. R. James Hickey and Mike Penskar are cooperating on a project to determine the origin of M. glabratus var. michiganensis. Isozyme analyses will be conducted on samples of M. glabratus var. michiganensis and its potential originators, M. glabratus var. fremontii and M. guttatus. Research will be initiated in 1991. Contact: Mike Penskar, Botanist, Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Mason Bldg., 5th Floor, Box 30028, Lansing, MI 48909. Telephone (517) 373-1552; OR, Dr. R. James Hickey, Department of Botany, Miami University, Oxford, OH.
Management Research Needs: Additional research needs should include that pertaining to the natural history and microhabitat requirements of the species (Penskar pers. comm.). A study of the floral biology of Michigan monkey-flower is needed in order to adequately understand the breeding system of the taxon. Information pertaining to all aspects of life history within the species should be sought.

Research pertaining to the systematics of the taxon is also needed in order to adequately determine its taxonomic standing (Penskar pers. comm.). Chloroplast DNA research should aid in determining whether Michigan monkey-flower warrants specific standing, or be retained as a subspecies.

Searches and surveys in available habitat for additional colonies is also a research need (Penskar pers. comm.).

Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 24Oct1990
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Crispin, Sue; rev. by W.R. Ostlie (MRO) and S. Gottlieb, rev. Penskar/Maybury (1996)
Management Information Edition Date: 05Nov1990
Management Information Edition Author: WAYNE R. OSTLIE (1990)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Beadle, S.J. 1989. A study of ecological and physiological requirements affecting the distribution of Mimulus glabratus var. michiganensis, the Michigan monkey flower. Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Nongame Wildlife Fund Lansing. 54 pp.

  • Bliss, M. 1986. The morphology, fertility and chromosomes of Mimulus glabratus var. michiganensis and M. glabratus var. fremontii (Scrophulariaceae). Am. Midl. Nat. 116(1): 125-131.

  • Crispin, S.R. and M.R. Penskar. 1989. Rangewide status survey of Mimulus glabratus var. michiganensis (Pennell) Fassett, the Michigan monkey-flower. Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing. 13 pp.

  • Fassett, N.C. 1929. Notes from the herbarium of the University of Wisconsin. Rhodora 31:49-53.

  • Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. Corrected printing (1970). D. Van Nostrand Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A. 1952. The new Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 3 volumes. Hafner Press, New York. 1732 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Harrison, W. F. 1990. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants: Determination of endangered status for Mimulus glabratus var. michiganensis (Michigan monkey-flower). Federal Register 55(120): 25596-25599.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Minc, L.D. 1989. A morphometric comparison of Mimulus glabratus var. michiganensis, M. glabratus var. fremontii, and M. guttatus based on floral characters. Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing. 19 pp.

  • Pennell, F.W. 1935. The Scrophulariaceae of eastern temperate North America. Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Monograph 1. 650 pp.

  • Penskar, M. 1991. Michigan monkey-flower (Mimulus glabratus var. michiganensis) recovery plan. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Twin Cities, Minnesota.

  • Posto, A. L. and L. A. Prather. 2003. The evolutionary and taxonomic implications of RAPD data on the genetic relationships of Mimulus michiganensis (comb. Et stat. nov.: Scrophulariaceae). Systematic Botany 28:172-178.

  • Posto, A.L., and L.A. Prather. 2003. The evolutionary and taxonomic implications RAPD data on the genetic relationship of Mimulus michiganensis (comb. et stat.: Scrophulariaceae. Systematic Botany 28(1): 172-178.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1990. Listing action completed for spotted owl and five other species. Endangered Species Tech. Bull. 15(7): 1, 4-6.

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