Megalagrion williamsoni - (Perkins, 1910)
Williamson's Hawaiian Damselfly
Other English Common Names: Williamson's Hawaiian damselfly
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Megalagrion williamsoni (Perkins, 1910) (TSN 722017)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.116718
Element Code: IIODO73250
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Insects - Dragonflies and Damselflies
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mandibulata Insecta Odonata Coenagrionidae Megalagrion
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Nishida, G.M., Ed. 1994a. Hawaiian Terrestrial Arthropoda Checklist. Second Edition. Hawaii Biological Survey, Contribution No. 94-04. Bishop Museum: Honolulu, Hawaii. 287 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B94NIS01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Megalagrion williamsoni
Taxonomic Comments: May be just a variant of Megalagrion adytum.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GHQ
Global Status Last Reviewed: 25Apr2000
Global Status Last Changed: 25Apr2000
Rounded Global Status: GH - Possibly Extinct
Reasons: Known from the Hawaiian island of Kauai where it was described from a single male in 1910. Intensive surveys on the island in the late 1970's and early 1990's did not find any specimens indicates it could very well be extinct (Polhemus and Asquith 1996). Thought by some to be merely a variant of M. ADYTUM.
Nation: United States
National Status: NH (25Apr2000)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Hawaii (SH)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: <100-250 square km (less than about 40-100 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Endemic to the Hawaiian island of Kauai.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (<100-250 square km (less than about 40-100 square miles)) Endemic to the Hawaiian island of Kauai.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single state or province

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States HI

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: The general biology of Hawaiian damselflies is typical of other narrow-winged damselflies. The males of most species are territorial, guarding areas of habitat where females will lay eggs (Moore 1983a). During copulation, and often while the female lays eggs, the male grasps the female behind the head with his terminal abdominal appendages to guard her against rival males, thus males and females are frequently seen flying in tandem. In species with fully aquatic immature stages, females lay eggs in submerged aquatic vegetation or in mats of moss or algae on submerged rocks, and hatching occurs in about ten days (Williams 1936; Polhemus 1994b). In most species of Hawaiian damselflies, the immature stages (naiads) are aquatic, breathing though three flattened, abdominal gills, and are predacious, feeding on small aquatic invertebrates or fish (Williams 1936). Naiads may take up to 4 months to mature (Williams 1936), after which they crawl out of the water onto rocks or vegetation, molt into winged adults, which typically remain very close to the aquatic habitat from which they emerged.
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND
Habitat Comments: Based on the location of the historic record, it is believed to be a terrestrial species from high elevations in the Alakai Swamp (Daigle 2000).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Seepage-Breeding Odonates

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on some evidence of historical or current presence of single or multiple specimens ideally with evidence of on-site breeding (teneral adults, mating pairs, territorial males, ovipositing females, larvae, or exuviae) at a given location with potential breeding habitat. Although oviposition may not necessarily yield progeny that survive to adulthood (Fincke, 1992) and movements resembling oviposition may not necessarily result in egg deposition (Okazawa and Ubukata, 1978; Martens, 1992; 1994), presence of on-site oviposition is here accepted as an indicator of a minimum element occurrence because the time and effort involved in determining success of emergence is beyond the scope of the general survey. As adults of some species might disperse moderate distances (see below), only sites with available larval habitat can be considered appropriate for a minimum occurrence. Single, non-breeding adults captured away from potential suitable breeding habitat should not be treated as element occurrences. Evidence is derived from reliable published observation or collection data; unpublished, though documented (i.e. government or agency reports, web sites, etc.) observation or collection data; or museum specimen information. A photograph may be accepted as documentation of an element occurrence for adults only (nymphs and subimagos are too difficult to identify in this manner) provided that the photograph shows diagnostic features that clearly delineate the species from other species with similar features. Sight records, though valuable, should not be accepted as the basis for new element occurrences. Instead, such records should be utilized to further study an area to verify the element occurrence in that area.
Separation Barriers: Within catchments there are likely no significant barriers to movement of sexually mature adults between microhabitats, with even extensive sections of inappropriate waterway or major obstructions to flow being readily traversed by adults within the flight season.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 2 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: None
Separation Justification: Corbet (1999) estimated the average distance traveled for a commuting flight (between reproductive and roosting or foraging sites) to be less than 200 m but sometimes greater than one km. Distance traveled is generally greatest for river-breeding odonates, but can vary considerably between taxa (Corbet, 1999). It is likely that seepage breeding odonates (e.g. Tanypteryx hageni) tend to remain close to their emergence site as such habitat tends to be very limited. For seepage breeding odonates, Moore (1983) found that Megalagrion pacificum, Megalagrion vagabundum, and the Maui form of Megalagrion hawaiiense are territorial on breeding areas. Dunkle (1981) found that marked males of the seepage breeding Tachopteryx thoreyi moved from 0 to 1.1 km away (recapture from 1 to 60 days later) with no day-to-day territorial fidelity. As such, individuals tend to stay very close to breeding areas, warranting the minimum two km separation distance.
Date: 18Oct2004
Author: Cordeiro, J.
Notes: Seepage breeding odonates include:
ZYGOPTERA (damselflies): Coenagrionidae: Megalagrion adytum, M. eudytum, M. hawaiiense, M. jugorum, M. mauka, M. molokaiense, M. oahuense, M. pacificum, M. vagabundum, M. williamsoni, Megapodagrionidae; Platystictidae; Protoneuridae: Protoneura viridis
ANISOPTERA (dragonflies): Cordulegastridae: Cordulegaster bilineata, C. diastatops, C. erronea, C. fasciata, C. obliqua, C. sayi; Corduliidae: Somatochlora calverti, S. hineana, S. provocans; Petaluridae: Tachopteryx, Tanypteryx

Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 25Apr2000
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Morrison, M.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 12Jun2000

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Daigle, J.J. 2000. The distribution of the Odonata of Hawaii. Bulletin of American Odonatology 6(1):1-5.

  • Hawaii Biological Survey Web Site. Bishop Museum. Online. Available: http://www.bishopmuseum.org/bishop/HBS/hbs1.html. Accessed 4/25/00.

  • Moore, N.W. 1983. Territorial behaviour in the genus Megalagrion McLachlan (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae). Odonatoligica 12(1):87-92.

  • Nishida, G.M., Ed. 1994a. Hawaiian Terrestrial Arthropoda Checklist. Second Edition. Hawaii Biological Survey, Contribution No. 94-04. Bishop Museum: Honolulu, Hawaii. 287 pp.

  • Paulson, D.R., and S.W. Dunkle. 2009. A checklist of North American Odonata including English name, etymology, type locality, and distribution. Originally published as Occasional Paper No. 56, Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound, June 1999; completely revised March 2009. Online. Available: http://www.odonatacentral.org/docs/NA_Odonata_Checklist_2009.pdf.

  • Polhemus, D. and A. Asquith. 1996. Hawaiian Damselflies: A Field Identification Guide. Hawaii Biological Survey Handbook, Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 122 pp.

  • Polhemus, D.A. 1994b. A revision of the Hawaiian damselflies in the genus Megalagrion (Odonata: Coenagrionidae). Unpublished report to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Pacific Islands Office.

  • Williams, F.X. 1936a. Biological studies in Hawaiian water-loving insects. Part II Order Odonata. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 9(2):273-349.

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