Marshallia grandiflora - Beadle & F.E. Boynt.
Large-flowered Barbara's-buttons
Other English Common Names: Monongahela Barbara's-buttons
Other Common Names: Monongahela Barbara's buttons
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Marshallia grandiflora Beadle & F.E. Boynt. (TSN 38066)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.128656
Element Code: PDAST68030
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Aster Family
Image 10425

© Alfred R. Schotz

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Asterales Asteraceae Marshallia
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Marshallia grandiflora
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 03Mar2016
Global Status Last Changed: 04Mar2016
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Endemic to the Appalachians and the Cumberland Plateau. Many of the watershed-wide occurrences are composed of sites that are separated by 1.5 km or so of unsuitable habitat, and containing only a few individuals. Most of the watersheds have only 20 to several hundred individuals in total, although the largest populations (in West Virginia) have thousands of individuals per watershed. None of these are protected, however, and they are moderately threatened by flood control projects. Elsewhere, most sites are threatened by potential changes to the normal flooding regime and, to a lesser extent, by recreational impacts. All the historically known sites in North Carolina have been eliminated.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Kentucky (S1), North Carolina (SH), Pennsylvania (S1), Tennessee (S2), West Virginia (S2)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Historical range: "Occurring along rocky river and lake shores, creek banks, bluffs and flood plains in moist to wet sandy soil and in medi-acid soil of Coastal Plain-like "bogs", uplands from southwestern Pennsylvania southward through West Virginia into southeastern Kentucky, east-central Tennessee and southwestern North Carolina, (Map 1), (Channell, 1957). Present Range includes Pennsylvania (Fayette, Somerset, Allegheny County), West Virginia (Barbour, Nicholas, Preston, Randolph, Upshur, Greenbrier, Fayette, Webster, Summers, Marion, Monongalia counties), Kentucky (McCreary), Tennessee (Morgan, Roane, Scott counties). Maryland (Garrett County), North Carolina (Henderson, Polk County).

Area of Occupancy: 26-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: Fifty-four extant element occurrences in KY, PA, TN, and WV.

Population Size Comments: Many micro-sites have few individuals (<12-20), while most macro-sites, have several hundred individuals and several populations with thousands of individuals.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Some (13-40)

Overall Threat Impact: High - medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: The greatest threats to this species are any potential changes to the normal flooding regime, and a lack of adequate protected occurrences. Periodic flooding and its accompanied scouring and deposition of sand, rock and gravel keep the rock-sand-cobble alluvium bars, islands and banks open to colonization by M. grandiflora yet free of invading woody species and aggressive weed species. Any changes to the flooding/deposition would threaten this rare species' habitat. Unknown causes of decline are also reported (Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project 2002).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Populations along Upper Gauley area (West Virginia) seem stable, as do populations in Tennessee, Kentucky, and Pennsylvania. Other populations have not been examined for some time, but Shaver's Fork area, with its presumed large population, seem stable.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: The degree of ecological fragility of these populations is somewhat uncertain. More research and monitoring is needed to determine how much and what kinds of disturbance these populations require or can withstand. It is presumed that a few people once a month walking on these plants along the shore wouldn't likely damage them, but a 4-wheeler driving over them even once would very likely destroy that population. In short, we should be cautious about opening these shores to too much recreational use until the situation is better understood.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Historical range: "Occurring along rocky river and lake shores, creek banks, bluffs and flood plains in moist to wet sandy soil and in medi-acid soil of Coastal Plain-like "bogs", uplands from southwestern Pennsylvania southward through West Virginia into southeastern Kentucky, east-central Tennessee and southwestern North Carolina, (Map 1), (Channell, 1957). Present Range includes Pennsylvania (Fayette, Somerset, Allegheny County), West Virginia (Barbour, Nicholas, Preston, Randolph, Upshur, Greenbrier, Fayette, Webster, Summers, Marion, Monongalia counties), Kentucky (McCreary), Tennessee (Morgan, Roane, Scott counties). Maryland (Garrett County), North Carolina (Henderson, Polk County).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States KY, NC, PA, TN, WV

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
KY McCreary (21147)
NC Henderson (37089)*
PA Allegheny (42003)*, Fayette (42051), Somerset (42111)
TN Cumberland (47035), Morgan (47129), Roane (47145)*, Scott (47151)
WV Barbour (54001), Fayette (54019), Greenbrier (54025), Marion (54049), Monongalia (54061), Nicholas (54067), Preston (54077), Randolph (54083), Summers (54089)*, Taylor (54091), Upshur (54097), Webster (54101)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
05 Tygart Valley (05020001)+, Cheat (05020004)+, Youghiogheny (05020006)+, Greenbrier (05050003)+, Gauley (05050005)+, South Fork Cumberland (05130104)+
06 Upper French Broad (06010105)+*, Emory (06010208)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial herb with a single stem that grows from 2 to 8.5 dm tall and bears a solitary, pale purple or white, rayless flower head. Characterized by entire leaves that reduce in size upwards. In bloom June-August.
General Description: Perennial herb.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Distiguished from other southeastern Marshallia by leaves which are reduced in size upwards, 5-12 internodes above the first one and more than 0.4 inch long; and acute pointed bracts underneath the flower head (Strausbaugh and Core 1978, Pyne and Shea 1994).
Duration: PERENNIAL
Riverine Habitat(s): High gradient
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen, FORESTED WETLAND, HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian, SCRUB-SHRUB WETLAND
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Bare rock/talus/scree
Habitat Comments: Along the flood-scoured banks of large, high-gradient rivers in the central Appalachians. The species is also reported from rocky lake shores, creek banks, bluffs and flood plains. It tends to occur in moist to wet sandy soil, in sandy/cobbley alluvium or in bedrock crevices along rivers. It was historically reported from medi-acid soil of bogs in North Carolina and the historic bog where it reportedly occurred has been destroyed. Deeply entrenched rivers of the Allegheny Plateau region support most of the populations. Marshallia usually grows in full sun, yet P.J. Harmon of WVHP, Paul Sommers of TNHP, and Charles Bier of PAHP report that the species occurs in various degrees of partial shade, but tends to flower most prolificly in open sunlight. Associated species in the West Virginia/Pennsylvania region include Rhododendron arborescens, Toxicodendron radicans, Rosa blanda, Platanus occidentalis, Salix spp., Trautvetteria caroliniensis, Liatris spicata, Houstonia caerulea, Houstonia serpyllifolia, Lyonia ligustrina, Physocarpus opulifolius, Aster linariifolius, Sangusorba canadensis, Sorghastrum nutans, Andropogon geradii, Zigadenus leimanthoides, Solidago spathulata ssp. randii var. racemosa, Platanthera clavellata, Oxypolis rigidior, and Allium cernuum. Along West Virginia's Gauley River, M. grandiflora occurs closely associated with plant species common to the tall grass prairie, such as Andropogon gerardii, Sorghastrum nutans, and Coreopsis tripteris. In Tennessee, Conradina verticellata is an associated plant species. Marshallia grandiflora is but one of several Eastern regional endemics and rarities known to be nearly or virtually restriced to flood-scoured riverbank habitats--others include Pedicularis furbishiae, Spiraea virginiana, and Astragalus robbinsii var. jesupi.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: Continue to monitor known populations for status of threats, site condition, and abundance of plants. Survey potential habitat for new populations. Seek long term protection for exceptional site. Review most critical threats and consider the feasibility of their removal and how their removal will impact the quality of habitat for the species, as well as other species of interest. Guard against major changes to the normal pattern of flood-scouring and deposition of sand-cobble alluvium bars and banks. Monitor potential impacts of recreational use of stream banks.
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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Excellent Viability: Large population of thousands of clumps of plants scattered along a river with the appropriate flooding regime to maintain the species' habitat. Such a site, would have very little disturbance, low to no siltation in the river or only spurts of short-lived silt-load, good flowering, a lack of significant competition from exotic plant species, and little or no deer browse.
Good Viability: A moderate population of 100-1000 clumps of plants scattered
along a river with the appropriate flooding regime to maintain the species' habitat. Such a site would have noticeable disturbance and/or significant siltation load in the river, and/or moderate flowering, and/or moderate invasions by exotic plant species and/or moderate deer browse.

Fair Viability: A small population of less than 100 clumps of plants scattered along a river with moderated flooding regime. Sucha site would have significant disturbance and/or significant siltation and/or poor to sub-moderate flowering, and/or significant invasions by exotic plant species and/or significant deer browse.
Poor Viability: A population of 1 to 5 individual clumps scattered over a stretch of river whose flooding regime has been altered significantly from the naturally occurring situation, thereby removing the normal scouring and deposition of sand and cobble sediments necessary to maintain the principal habitat along the river. Such a site would have a high occurrence of disturbance, a prolonged occurrence of extreme silt-load, little to no flowering reported, significant competition from exotic plant species in the habitat, and/or a high occurrence of deer browsing.
Justification: Based on a review of the known occurrences for this species and the associated habitat.
Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
Date: 24Jan2005
Author: White, D.
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 04Mar2016
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Harmon, P.(1991), rev. K. Maybury and S. Norris (1996), rev. A. Treher (2016)
Management Information Edition Date: 04Mar2016
Management Information Edition Author: Treher

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Channell, R.B. 1957. A revisional study of the genus Marshallia (Compositae). Contributions Gray Herbarium Harvard Univ. 181: 41-132.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1950 Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th ed. American Book Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A. 1952. The new Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 3 volumes. Hafner Press, New York. 1732 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Pyne, M., and A. Shea. 1994. Guide to rare plants - Tennessee Division of Forestry District 2. Tennessee Dept. Agriculture, Division of Forestry, Nashville.

  • Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project. 2002. A partnership between the U.S. Forest Service-Region 8, Natural Heritage Programs in the Southeast, NatureServe, and independent scientists to develop and review data on 1300+ regionally and locally rare species in the Southern Appalachian and Alabama region. Database (Access 97) provided to the U.S. Forest Service by NatureServe, Durham, North Carolina.

  • Strausbaugh, P.D., and E.L. Core. 1978. Flora of West Virginia. Seneca Books, Inc., Grantsville, WV. 1079 pp.

  • Watson, L.E. and J.R. Estes 1990. Biosystematic and phenetic analysis of Marshallia (Asteraceae). Systematic Botany 15(3): 403-414.

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