Margariscus nachtriebi - (Cox, 1896)
Northern Pearl Dace
Synonym(s): Semotilus margarita
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
French Common Names: mulet perlé du nord
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.869003
Element Code: AFCJB54020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Minnows and Carps
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Margariscus
Genus Size: A - Monotypic genus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Bailey, R. M., W. C. Latta, and G. R. Smith. 2004. An atlas of Michigan fishes with keys and illustrations for their identification. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology Miscellaneous Publications No. 192. iv + 215 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B04BAI01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Margariscus nachtriebi
Taxonomic Comments: Margariscus nachtriebi formerly was included in M. margarita. It was recognized as a distinct species by Bailey et al. (2004) and Page and Burr (2011).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 18Jan2013
Global Status Last Changed: 05Sep2001
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Widely distributed across much of Canada and northern U.S. in a variety of still and moving waters, including acidic waters.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (08Mar2013)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Iowa (S1), Maine (S4), Michigan (S4), Minnesota (SNR), Montana (S2), Nebraska (S2), New York (S4), North Dakota (S3), South Dakota (S2), Wisconsin (S5), Wyoming (S1)
Canada Alberta (SU), British Columbia (S3), Labrador (SNR), Manitoba (S5), New Brunswick (S5), Northwest Territories (SNR), Nova Scotia (S2), Ontario (S5), Quebec (S5), Saskatchewan (S5)

Other Statuses

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Candidate (Low) (26Jan2015)
IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Atlantic, Hudson Bay, Great Lakes, and Mississippi River basins in northern U.S. and southern Canada, from the Atlantic coast to southern Northwest Territories, eastern British Columbia, and Montana; south to New York, Wisconsin, and Iowa; isolated population in the upper Missouri river basin, South Dakota, Nebraska, and Wyoming (Page and Burr 2011).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Hundreds, if not thousands of occurrences. For example, Becker (1983) mapped more than 200 collection sites in Wisconsin.

Population Size: 10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Usually this species is common or abundant where it is found. For example, it is common in small streams in central and northern Wisconsin, except Lake Superior drainage (Becker 1983).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Unknown
Viability/Integrity Comments: Number of occurrences with good viability is unknown, but likely there are many, based on the vast distribution in an abundance of suitable habitat.

Overall Threat Impact: Unknown
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Localized threats may exist, but on a range-wide scale no major threats are known.

Long-term Trend: Decline of 30-50%

Environmental Specificity: Narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements common.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Atlantic, Hudson Bay, Great Lakes, and Mississippi River basins in northern U.S. and southern Canada, from the Atlantic coast to southern Northwest Territories, eastern British Columbia, and Montana; south to New York, Wisconsin, and Iowa; isolated population in the upper Missouri river basin, South Dakota, Nebraska, and Wyoming (Page and Burr 2011).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States IA, ME, MI, MN, MT, ND, NE, NY, SD, WI, WY
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NS, NT, ON, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IA Worth (19195)
MT Blaine (30005), Daniels (30019), Hill (30041), McCone (30055), Phillips (30071), Richland (30083), Roosevelt (30085), Sheridan (30091), Valley (30105)
ND McLean (38055)*, Rolette (38079)*, Steele (38091)*, Walsh (38099)*
NE Brown (31017), Cherry (31031), Custer (31041)*, Dawes (31045)*, Hooker (31091), Keya Paha (31103), Knox (31107), Logan (31113)*, Nance (31125), Rock (31149), Sheridan (31161), Sioux (31165), Wheeler (31183)
SD Bennett (46007), Gregory (46053), Todd (46121), Tripp (46123)
WY Niobrara (56027)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
07 Shell Rock (07080202)+, Winnebago (07080203)+
09 Willow (09010004)+*, Goose (09020109)+*, Park (09020310)+*
10 Upper Milk (10050002)+, Middle Milk (10050004)+, Big Sandy (10050005)+, Lodge (10050007)+, Battle (10050008)+, Peoples (10050009)+, Cottonwood (10050010)+, Whitewater (10050011)+, Lower Milk (10050012)+, Frenchman (10050013)+, Beaver (10050014)+, Rock (10050015)+, Porcupine (10050016)+, Prarie Elk-Wolf (10060001)+, Redwater (10060002)+, Poplar (10060003)+, West Fork Poplar (10060004)+, Charlie-Little Muddy (10060005)+, Big Muddy (10060006)+, Painted Woods-Square Butte (10130101)+*, Little White (10140203)+, Lower White (10140204)+, Ponca (10150001)+, Niobrara Headwaters (10150002)+, Upper Niobrara (10150003)+, Middle Niobrara (10150004)+, Snake (10150005)+, Keya Paha (10150006)+, Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101)+, Upper Middle Loup (10210001)+, South Loup (10210004)+*, Upper North Loup (10210006)+, Loup (10210009)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A small fish (minnow).
Reproduction Comments: Spawns in spring. Sexually mature at age II (Becker 1983).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, Low gradient, Moderate gradient, Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes "cCool, clear headwater streams in the south, bog drainage streams, ponds and small lakes in the north, and in stained, peaty waters of beaver ponds" (Scott and Crossman 1973). Usually these fishes occur over sand or gravel (Page and Burr 1991). Spawning occurs in clear water over sand or gravel in weak or moderate current (Scott and Crossman 1973).
Adult Food Habits: Herbivore, Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats copepods, cladocerans, chironomids, beetles, filamentous algae, and Chara (Scott and Crossman 1973).
Length: 16 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Medium Cyprinids

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 15 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 15 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. In some species, individuals may migrate variable distances between spawning areas and nonspawning habitats.

Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) for cyprinids are arbitrary but reflect the presumption that movements and appropriate separation distances generally should increase with fish size. Hence small, medium, and large cyprinids, respectively, have increasingly large separation distances. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than many kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 15 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 18Jan2013
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Cannings, S. G., and G. Hammerson
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 18Jan2013
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Andersen, M.D. and B. Heidel. 2011. HUC-based species range maps. Prepared by Wyoming Natural Diversity Database for use in the pilot WISDOM application operational from inception to yet-to-be-determined date of update of tool.

  • Aquin, P. 1999. Évaluation de la situation des groupes taxonomiques des poissons du Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune. 9 pages.

  • Atton, F.M. and J.J. Merkowsky. 1983. Atlas of Saskatchewan Fish. Saskatchewan Department of Parks and Renewable Resources, Fisheries Branch Technical Report 83-2. 281pp.

  • Bailey, R. M., W. C. Latta, and G. R. Smith. 2004. An atlas of Michigan fishes with keys and illustrations for their identification. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology Miscellaneous Publications No. 192. iv + 215 pp.

  • Baxter, G.T. and M.D. Stone. 1995. Fishes of Wyoming. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 290 pp.

  • Coburn, M. M., and T. M. Cavender. 1992. Interrelationships of North American cyprinid fishes. Pages 328-373 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Fava, J.A., Jr. and C. Tsai. 1974. The life history of the pearl dace, Semotilus margarita, in Maryland. Chesapeake Science 15(3): 159-162.

  • Fisheries Branch. 1991. Fish Species Distributions in Saskatchewan. Report 91-7. Saskatchewan Parks and Renewable Resources, Fisheries Branch. Regina. 102pp.

  • Legendre, V. et J.F. Bergeron. 1977. Liste des poissons d' eau douce du Québec. MLCP, Service Aménage. Expl. Faune. Rap. dact. 6

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Rohde, F. C., R. G. Arndt, D. G. Lindquist and J. F. Parnell. 1994. Freshwater Fishes of the Carolinas, Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. 222 pp.

  • Saskatchewan Environment and Resource Management. 1996. The Fisheries Regulations being Chapter F-16.1 Reg 1 (effective 9 May 1995) as ammended by Saskatchewan Regulations 13/96.

  • Scott, W. B., and E. J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 184. 966 pp.

  • Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman. 1979. Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada. Bull. 84. 966pp.

  • Stasiak, R.H. 1978b. Food, age, and growth of the pearl dace, Semotilus margarita, in Nebraska. American Midland Naturalist 100(2): 463-466.

  • Warren, M. L., Jr., B. M. Burr, S. J. Walsh, H. L. Bart, Jr., R. C. Cashner, D. A. Etnier, B. J. Freeman, B. R. Kuhajda, R. L. Mayden, H. W. Robison, S. T. Ross, and W. C. Starnes. 2000. Diversity, distribution, and conservation status of the native freshwater fishes of the southern United States. Fisheries 25(10):7-31.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Cunningham, G. R. 2006. Pearl Dave (Margariscus margarita): a technical conservation assessment. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region. 20 September 2006. Online. Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/r2/projects/scp/assessments/pearldace.pdf. Accessed 1 September 2010.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Holton, G. D., and H. E. Johnson. 1996. A field guide to Montana fishes. 2nd edition. Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Montana State Parks and wildlife Interpretive Association, Helena, Montana. 104 pp.

  • Jenkins, R. E., and N. M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. xxiii + 1079 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1983. Fishes of New York (maps and printout of a draft section on scarce fishes of New York). Unpublished draft.

  • Smith, C. L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, New York, xi + 522 pp.

  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389.

  • Whitworth, W. R., P. L. Berrien, and W. T. Keller. 1976. Freshwater fishes of Connecticut. Bulletin of the Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey 101. vi + 134 pp.

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