Manicina areolata - (Linnaeus, 1758)
Rose Coral
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Manicina areolata (Linnaeus, 1758) (TSN 53281)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.110640
Element Code: IDANT0G010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Corals and other Cnidarians - Corals
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Cnidaria Anthozoa Scleractinia Faviidae Manicina
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Cairns, S.D., Calder, D.R., Brinckman-Voss, A., Castro, C.B., Pugh, P.R., Cutress, C.E., Jaap, W.C., Fautin, D.G., Larson, R.J., Harbison, G.R., Arai, M.N. and Opresko, D.M. 1991. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Cnidaria and Ctenophora. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 22, Bethesda, Maryland. 75 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91CAI01FCUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Manicina areolata
Taxonomic Comments: Zlatarski and Estalella (1982) recognized only this species as valid (M. areolata).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 30Apr2014
Global Status Last Changed: 30Apr2014
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Widespread distribution in the tropical western Atlantic and occurs on most classes of marine communities. Is characterized by low sensitivity to environmental perturbation.
Nation: United States
National Status: NNR

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Florida (SNR)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Widespread distribution in the tropical western Atlantic, including the Gulf of Mexico, southern Florida, Bahamas, NW Caribbean, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and lesser Antilles.

Area of Occupancy: Unknown 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: There are approximately 50 records in Discoverlife.org, this species has a relatively large range, and it has been deemed "common to uncommon" in much of its range, so it is likely that there are undiscovered populations (Humann and DeLoach 2013).

Population Size: 10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Occurs on most classes of marine communities such as seagrass areas, low-relief hardbottom communities, reef rubble areas, patch reefs, fringing reefs, spur and groove reefs, transitional reefs and deeper intermediate reefs.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Unknown

Overall Threat Impact Comments: All coral reefs are being adversely affected by bleaching from rising ocean temperatures and water temperatures in 2005 were the warmest they'd been in 150 years (Eakin et al. 2010). Coral disease and sedimentation, as well as bleaching, are threats to this species that have likely caused declines (Aronson et al. 2008).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: A 2008 IUCN assessment estimated an approximate 10% loss in the short term over its entire range (Aronson et al. 2008).

Long-term Trend: Decline of <50% to increase of <25%
Long-term Trend Comments: All coral reefs are being adversely affected by bleaching from rising ocean temperatures and water temperatures in 2005 were the warmest they'd been in 150 years (Eakin et al. 2010). Coral disease and sedimentation, as well as bleaching, are threats to this species that have likely caused declines (Aronson et al. 2008).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Characterized by low growth and small colony size with moderate local recruitment.

Environmental Specificity: Narrow to moderate.
Environmental Specificity Comments: Humann and DeLoach state "The small elliptical colonies tend to inhabit areas of coral rubble, sand and turtle grass, and are often unattached. The hemispherical heads tend to inhabit reefs along with other stony corals, and are always attached." (2013).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Inventories are needed to ascertain current distribution throughout its range.

Protection Needs: Coral collection should be banned in marine protected areas.

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Widespread distribution in the tropical western Atlantic, including the Gulf of Mexico, southern Florida, Bahamas, NW Caribbean, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and lesser Antilles.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.

Map unavailable!:
Distribution data for U.S. states and Canadian provinces is known to be incomplete or has not been reviewed for this taxon.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FL

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Stony coral
General Description: Colonial, massive, zooxanthellate, constructional, hermatypic.
Reproduction Comments: A86SZM00FCUS, A83FAD00FCUS: hermaphroditic brooder, larvae settle after three weeks with planula release from March to April.
Ecology Comments: A90GHI01FCUS: susceptible to bleaching (loss of zooxanthellae) due to adverse environmental conditions. A92COL01FCUS: high salinity tolerance (48-55 ppt for 12 hours).
Habitat Type: Marine
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: SEDENTARY
Marine Habitat(s): Near shore
Habitat Comments: Overall depth range from 0-43 m, but typically occurs between 2-25 m on hardbottom communities and seagrass beds.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Biological Research Needs: Data needed on colony growth and recruitment patterns.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Stony Coral

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Four components to a stony coral element occurrence: 1.) determine size and boundary of site to be surveyed, 2.) determine density of colonies via quadrats, 3.) determine size distribution of colonies with a note on maximum colony size, and 4.) provide habitat description.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 30Apr2014
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Almquist, D. T. (2014); M. Chiappone (1992)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 13Sep1992
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): CHIAPPONE, M., E. PETERS

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Aronson, R., A. Bruckner, J. Moore, B. Precht, and E. Weil. 2008. [various coral species treatments] In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. www.iucnredlist.org .

  • Bak, R.P.M. 1975. Ecological aspects of the distribution of reef corals in the Netherlands Antilles. Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde 45: 181-190.

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  • Cairns, S.D., Calder, D.R., Brinckman-Voss, A., Castro, C.B., Pugh, P.R., Cutress, C.E., Jaap, W.C., Fautin, D.G., Larson, R.J., Harbison, G.R., Arai, M.N. and Opresko, D.M. 1991. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Cnidaria and Ctenophora. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 22, Bethesda, Maryland. 75 pp.

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  • Fadlallah, Y.H. 1983. Sexual reproduction, development and larval biology in scleractinian corals. A review. Coral Reefs 2: 129-150.

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  • Goodwin, M.H., Cole, M.J., Stewart, W.E. and Zimmermann, B.L. 1976. Species density and associations in Caribbean reef corals. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 24: 19-31.

  • Goreau, T.F. 1959. The ecology of Jamaican coral reefs. I. Species composition and zonation. Ecology 40: 67-90.

  • Goreau, T.F. and Wells, J.W. 1967. The shallow-water Scleractinia of Jamaica: Revised list of species and their vertical distribution range. Bulletin of Marine Science 17(2): 442-453.

  • Hopkins, T.S., Blizzard, D.R., Brawley, S.A., Earle, S.A., Grimm, D.E., Gilbert, D.K., Johnson, P.G., Livingston, E.H., Lutz, C.H., Shaw, J.K. and Shaw, B.B. 1977. A preliminary characterization of the biotic components of composite strip transects on the Florida Middle Grounds, northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Proceedings of the 3rd International Coral Reef Symposium 1: 31-37.

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