Malaxis paludosa - (L.) Sw.
Bog Adder's-mouth Orchid
Synonym(s): Hammarbya paludosa (L.) Kuntze
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Malaxis paludosa (L.) Sw. (TSN 43644)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.144246
Element Code: PMORC1R070
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Orchid Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Orchidales Orchidaceae Malaxis
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Malaxis paludosa
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 22Jul2016
Global Status Last Changed: 22Jul2016
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Malaxis paludosa is rare in North America but more frequent in Europe. Because individual plants are small and inconspicuous, this plant may actually be more common than is currently believed. It is considered declining and threatened in Europe, however, primarily because of drainage and peat mining.
Nation: United States
National Status: NNR
Nation: Canada
National Status: N2N3 (13Dec2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alaska (S4), Minnesota (S1)
Canada Alberta (S2S3), British Columbia (S3S4), Manitoba (S1?), Northwest Territories (S2), Ontario (S1S2), Saskatchewan (S1), Yukon Territory (S2)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Malaxis paludosa is nearly circumboreal. It occurs in North America from Minnesota northwest to Alaska; in Asia; in Scandinavia; and in most northern European countries.

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Collected at fewer than 30 sites in North America, but occurs in 23 countries in Europe (World Conservation Monitoring Centre status report of 8 August 1994).

Population Size Comments: Very rare in North America but more common in Europe, especially in Scandinavia. Because M. paludosa reproduces vegetatively as well as sexually, it may be difficult to distinguish genetic individuals from one another. Very small population sizes suggest that this species is not as abundant as the number of Element Occurrences might indicate.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: The principal threats to Malaxis paludosa include logging, peat mining, and drainage of wetland habitats. This species is especially threatened in Europe.

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Thought to be declining in Europe by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1994).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Susceptible to changes in habitat.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Malaxis paludosa is nearly circumboreal. It occurs in North America from Minnesota northwest to Alaska; in Asia; in Scandinavia; and in most northern European countries.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, MN
Canada AB, BC, MB, NT, ON, SK, YT

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AK Anchorage (02020)*, Dillingham (CA) (02070), Juneau (02110)*, Ketchikan Gateway (02130), Matanuska-Susitna (02170)*, Prince of Wales-Outer Ketchikan (CA) (02201)
MN Becker (27005), Beltrami (27007), Cass (27021), Clearwater (27029), Hubbard (27057), Itasca (27061), Koochiching (27071), Otter Tail (27111)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
07 Mississippi Headwaters (07010101)+, Leech Lake (07010102)+, Crow Wing (07010106)+, Redeye (07010107)+*
09 Otter Tail (09020103)+*, Rainy Lake (09030003)+
19 Ketchikan (19010102)+, Prince of Wales (19010103)+, Mainland (19010201)+*, Lynn Canal (19010301)+*, Taku River (19010304)+*, Icy Strait-Chatham Strait (19010500)+*, Anchorage (19020401)+*, Cook Inlet (19020800)+*, Lower Nushagak River (19030303)+, Wood River (19030304)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Bog Adder's-mouth (North America), bog orchid (Europe); Orchidaceae. Small (2-10 cm), perennial orchid with up to 35 tiny, yellowish-green flowers along an erect stem.
Duration: PERENNIAL
Habitat Comments: Malaxis paludosa generally occurs in open, acidic, sphagnum bogs; very wet forests; and occasionally along stream edges on peaty mud and among grasses. In the southern part of its range, it often occurs in deep shade, possibly because it requires cool temperatures (Case pers. comm. 1995).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 07Jun1995
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: K. Crowley, MRO

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Allin, A.E. 1940. Two rare orchids in Thunder Bay District. Canadian Field-Naturalist 54:59.

  • Argus, G.W. and K.M. Pryer. 1990. Rare vascular plants in Canada: our national heritage. Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa.

  • Argus, G.W., K.M. Pryer, D.J. White and C.J. Keddy (eds.). 1982-1987. Atlas of the Rare Vascular Plants of Ontario.. Botany Division, National Museum of National Sciences, Ottawa.

  • Baldwin, W. 1961. Malaxis Paludosa in the Hudson Bay Lowlands. Canadian Field-Naturalist 75(2): 74-77.

  • Batten, R. 2018. Vascular plant GeoCAT range extent and index of AOO maps supporting status assessment 2017_18 for British Columbia Conservation Data Centre. March 2018. Victoria, BC. 450 pp.

  • British Columbia Conservation Data Centre. Botany Program. 2000. Database containing records of rare plant collections and observations in the province of British Columbia.

  • Case, F.W., Jr. 1987. Orchids of the Western Great Lakes Region. Revised Edition. Bulletin 48, Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan. 251 pp.

  • Crowley, K. 1995. Element Global Ranking. The Nature Conservancy.

  • Douglas, G.W. 1991. Rare, endangered, and threatened native vascular plants of British Columbia. Draft report prepared for Research Branch, B.C. Ministry of Forests, Victoria, B.C., by Douglas Ecological Consultants Ltd., Duncan, B.C. 85 p.

  • Douglas, G.W., D. Meidinger, and J. Penny. 2002. Rare Native Vascular Plants of British Columbia, 2nd ed. B.C. Conserv. Data Centre, Terrestrial Inf. Branch, Victoria. 358pp.

  • Douglas, G.W., D. Meidinger, and J. Pojar, eds. 2001b. Illustrated Flora of British Columbia, Vol. 7, Monocotyledons (Orchidaceae through Zosteraceae). B.C. Minist. Sustainable Resour. Manage., and B.C. Minist. For. Victoria, BC. 379pp.

  • Douglas, G.W., G.B. Straley, and D. Meidinger, eds. 1998. Rare Native Vascular Plants of British Columbia. Conserv. Data Centre, Resour. Inventory Branch, B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, Victoria, and B.C. Minist. For., Victoria.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002a. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 26. Magnoliophyta: Liliidae: Liliales and Orchidales. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxvi + 723 pp.

  • General Status 2015, Environment Canada. 2015. Manitoba vascular plant species list and proposed ranks and rank factors proposed by contractor (Diana Sawatzky).

  • Herbarium, Department of Botany, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

  • Herbarium, Museum of Man and Nature, 190 Rupert Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba.

  • Kartesz, J. T. 1991. Synonym names from 1991 checklist, as extracted by Larry Morse, TNC, June 1991.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • King, Miles. 1988. European Status of British Endangered Species (Hammarbya paludosa (L) Kuntze).

  • Luer, C. A. 1975. The native orchids of the United States and Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 361 pp.

  • Manitoba Conservation Data Centre. 2018. Vascular Plant Species ranking forms from initial CDC ranking.

  • Marquis, R.J., and E.G. Voss. 1981. Distributions of Some Western North American Plants Disjunct in the Great Lakes Region. The Michigan Botanist 20: 53-82.

  • Morris, F. and E.A. Eames. 1929. Our Wild Orchids. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. 464 pp.

  • NatureServe. 2006. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 5.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. . Accessed 19 July 2006.

  • NatureServe. 2008. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. . Accessed 9 June 2008.

  • Ownbey, G. B., and T. Morley. 1991. Vascular plants of Minnesota: a checklist and atlas. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 320 pp.

  • Punter, E. 1994. Inventory and annotated checklist of the vascular plants of the Manitoba Model Forest. Project 93-2-6.

  • Reeves, T. and L. Reeves. 1985. Rediscovery of Malaxis paludosa (L.) Sw. (Orchidaceae) in Minnesota. Rhodora 87: 133-136.

  • Reeves, T., and L. Reeves. 1984. Life history and reproduction of Malaxis paludosa in Minnesota. American Orchid Society Bulletin 53(12):1280-1291.

  • Smith, W. R. 1993. Orchids of Minnesota. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 172 pp.

  • Voss, E. G., and A. A. Reznicek. 2012. Field Manual of Michigan Flora. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor. 990 pp.

  • White, D.J. and K.L. Johnson. 1980. The Rare Vascular Plants of Manitoba. National Museums of Canada Syllogeus no. 27.

  • Whiting, R.E. 1968. Recent observations of two rare orchids. Ontario Naturalist 6(2):4-7.

  • Whiting, R.E. and P.M. Catling. 1986. Orchids of Ontario: An Illustrated Guide. The CanaColl Foundation, Ottawa, Ontario. xii + 169 pp.

  • Wildlife Management Information System (WMIS). 2006+. Geo-referenced wildlife datasets (1900 to present) from all projects conducted by Environment and Natural Resources, Government of the Northwest Territories, Canada.  Available at http://www.enr.gov.nt.ca/programs/wildlife-research/wildlife-management-information-services

  • World Conservation Monitoring Centre. United Kingdom. Status report of 8 August 1994.

  • Zoladeski, C.A. 1988. New station for Malaxis paludosa, Bog Adder's-mouth Orchid, in Northwestern Ontario. Can. Field Natur. 102(3): 548-549.

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