Macrhybopsis hyostoma - (Gilbert, 1884)
Shoal Chub
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Macrhybopsis hyostoma (Gilbert, 1884) (TSN 553280)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.106278
Element Code: AFCJB53080
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Minnows and Carps
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Macrhybopsis
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Eisenhour, D. J. 1997. Systematics, variation, and speciation of the Macrhybopsis aestivalis complex (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) west of the Mississippi River. Ph.D. dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale.
Concept Reference Code: U97EIS01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Macrhybopsis hyostoma
Taxonomic Comments: Macrhybopsis tetranema, M. hyostoma, M. marconis, and M. australis formerly were included in M. aestivalis but were recognized as distinct species by Eisenhour (1997, 1999). Genetic data support monophyly of M. australis and M. tetranema, but allozyme data suggest that both species appear to have undergone introgressive hybridization with the widespread M. hystoma (Underwood et al. 2003). Based on allozyme data, collections of M. aestivalis from the Rio Grande basin and M. marconis from the San Marcos River basin are markedly divergent from each other and from other members of the complex (Underwood et al. 2003). Phenotypic similarity of northeastern populations of M. tetranema and Arkansas basin M. hyostoma may reflect convergent adaptation to local conditions or past hybridization (Eisenhour 1999).

This species, as part of M. aestivalis, was removed from the genus Hybopsis and placed in the monotypic genus Extrarius by Mayden (1989); this change was adopted by Sublette et al. (1990) and Page and Burr (1991). Coburn and Cavender (1992) assigned this species, along with 3 other species of barbeled minnows, to the resurrected genus Macrhybopsis; this change was adopted in the 1991 AFS checklist (Robins et al. 1991). Closely related to M. gelida.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 20Sep2002
Global Status Last Changed: 15Feb2000
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (15Feb2000)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S2), Arkansas (S3), Illinois (S3), Indiana (S4), Iowa (SNR), Kansas (S3), Kentucky (S4), Louisiana (S3), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (SNR), Nebraska (S4), Ohio (S1), Oklahoma (S5), Tennessee (S5), Texas (SNR), West Virginia (S2), Wisconsin (S2)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Widespread in the Mississippi River basin and in streams of the western Gulf Slope of the United States (Eisenhour 1997, 1999).

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of subpopulations and locations.

Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but relatively large.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Extirpations in the Arkansas River basin likely were caused by construction of reservoirs, which may have disrupted previously existing source/sink relationships among populations (Luttrell et al. 1999).

Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable or slowly declining.

Long-term Trend:  
Long-term Trend Comments: Extirpated from about 55 percent of historical range in the Arkansas River basin (Luttrell et al. 1999).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Widespread in the Mississippi River basin and in streams of the western Gulf Slope of the United States (Eisenhour 1997, 1999).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MN, MO, MS, NE, OH, OK, TN, TX, WI, WV

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
KS Clay (20027), Douglas (20045), Johnson (20091), Leavenworth (20103), Republic (20157), Wyandotte (20209)
OH Knox (39083), Meigs (39105)
WI Adams (55001), Buffalo (55011), Columbia (55021), Crawford (55023), Dane (55025), Grant (55043), Iowa (55049), La Crosse (55063), Pierce (55093), Polk (55095), Richland (55103), Sauk (55111), St. Croix (55109), Trempealeau (55121), Vernon (55123)
WV Mason (54053)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Yellow (03140103), Upper Choctawhatchee (03140201), Pea (03140202), Upper Conecuh (03140301), Patsaliga (03140302), Sepulga (03140303), Lower Conecuh (03140304), Conasauga (03150101), Etowah (03150104), Lower Coosa (03150107), Upper Tallapoosa (03150108), Middle Tallapoosa (03150109), Lower Tallapoosa (03150110), Upper Alabama (03150201), Cahaba (03150202), Middle Alabama (03150203), Lower Alabama (03150204), Upper Tombigbee (03160101), Town (03160102), Buttahatchee (03160103), Luxapallila (03160105), Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub (03160106), Lower Tambigbee (03160203), Mobile - Tensaw (03160204), Chunky-Okatibbee (03170001), Upper Chickasawhay (03170002), Upper Leaf (03170004), Lower Leaf (03170005), Pascagoula (03170006), Black (03170007), Upper Pearl (03180001), Middle Pearl-Strong (03180002), Middle Pearl-Silver (03180003), Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004), Bogue Chitto (03180005)
04 Wolf (04030202)
05 Upper Ohio-Wheeling (05030106), Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202)+, Walhonding (05040003)+, Muskingum (05040004)*, Upper Kanawha (05050006), Lower Kanawha (05050008), Upper Guyandotte (05070101), Lower Guyandotte (05070102), Tug (05070201), Upper Levisa (05070202), Lower Levisa (05070203), Big Sandy (05070204), Raccoon-Symmes (05090101), Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103), Little Sandy (05090104), Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201), Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203), Licking (05100101), North Fork Kentucky (05100201), Middle Fork Kentucky (05100202), South Fork Kentucky (05100203), Upper Green (05110001), Barren (05110002), Tippecanoe (05120106), Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108), Vermilion (05120109)*, Sugar (05120110), Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111), Lower Wabash (05120113), Lower White (05120202), Lower East Fork White (05120208), Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103), Obey (05130105)*, Upper Cumberland-Cordell Hull (05130106), Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Blue-Sinking (05140104), Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203)
06 Holston (06010104), Lower French Broad (06010107), Nolichucky (06010108), Watts Bar Lake (06010201), Lower Little Tennessee (06010204), Upper Clinch (06010205), Powell (06010206), Lower Elk (06030004), Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001), Lower Duck (06040003), Kentucky Lake (06040005), Lower Tennessee (06040006)
07 Middle Minnesota (07020007), Lower St. Croix (07030005)+, Rush-Vermillion (07040001)+, Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003)+, Trempealeau (07040005)+, La Crosse-Pine (07040006)+, Black (07040007)+, Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003)+, Turkey (07060004), Apple-Plum (07060005)+, Maquoketa (07060006)*, Castle Rock (07070003)+, Baraboo (07070004)+, Lower Wisconsin (07070005)+, Kickapoo (07070006)+, Copperas-Duck (07080101), Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103), Flint-Henderson (07080104), Middle Cedar (07080205), Lower Cedar (07080206), Middle Iowa (07080208), Lower Iowa (07080209), Middle Des Moines (07100004), Boone (07100005)*, North Raccoon (07100006)*, Lake Red Rock (07100008)*, Lower Des Moines (07100009)*, Bear-Wyaconda (07110001), The Sny (07110004), Salt (07110007), Peruque-Piasa (07110009)*, Upper Illinois (07120005), Vermilion (07130002), Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003)*, Lower Illinois (07130011)*, Cahokia-Joachim (07140101), Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105), Big Muddy (07140106), Lower Kaskaskia (07140204)*
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100), Lower Mississippi-Helena (08020100), New Madrid-St. Johns (08020201), Lower St. Francis (08020203), Little River Ditches (08020204), Lower White (08020303), Lower Mississippi-Greenville (08030100), Upper Ouachita (08040102), Bayou D'arbonne (08040206), Lower Ouachita (08040207), Boeuf (08050001), Bayou Macon (08050002), Lower Mississippi-Natchez (08060100), Lower Big Black (08060202), Bayou Pierre (08060203), Homochitto (08060205), Amite (08070202), Tickfaw (08070203), Tangipahoa (08070205), Upper Calcasieu (08080203)
10 Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101), Middle Platte-Buffalo (10200101), Wood (10200102), Middle Platte-Prairie (10200103), Lower Platte-Shell (10200201), Lower Platte (10200202), South Loup (10210004), Mud (10210005), Lower Elkhorn (10220003), Big Papillion-Mosquito (10230006)*, Keg-Weeping Water (10240001), West Nishnabotna (10240002)*, East Nishnabotna (10240003)*, Nishnabotna (10240004), Tarkio-Wolf (10240005), West Nodaway (10240009), Nodaway (10240010)*, Independence-Sugar (10240011)+, Upper Republican (10250004), Frenchman (10250005), Harlan County Reservoir (10250009), Middle Republican (10250016)+, Lower Republican (10250017)+, Upper Kansas (10270101), Middle Kansas (10270102), Delaware (10270103), Lower Kansas (10270104)+, Middle Big Blue (10270202), Lower Big Blue (10270205), Lower Little Blue (10270207), Upper Grand (10280101), Thompson (10280102), Lower Grand (10280103), Upper Chariton (10280201), Little Chariton (10280203)*, Harry S. Missouri (10290105)*, Lower Missouri-Crooked (10300101)+, Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102), Lower Missouri (10300200)
11 Lower Black (11010009), Middle Arkansas-Slate (11030013)*, Lower Walnut River (11030018)*, Lower Cimarron-Eagle Chief (11050001), Lower Cimarron-Skeleton (11050002), Lower Cimarron (11050003), Kaw Lake (11060001)*, Lower Salt Fork Arkansas (11060004), Black Bear-Red Rock (11060006), Lower Canadian (11090204), Polecat-Snake (11110101), Dirty-Greenleaf (11110102), Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104), Dardanelle Reservoir (11110202)*, Farmers-Mud (11130201), Lake Texoma (11130210), Upper Washita (11130302), Middle Washita (11130303), Lower Washita (11130304), Bois D'arc-Island (11140101), Kiamichi (11140105), Pecan-Waterhole (11140106), Mckinney-Posten Bayous (11140201), Middle Red-Coushatta (11140202), Lower Red-Lake Iatt (11140207), Cross Bayou (11140304)
12 Middle Sabine (12010002), Toledo Bend Reservoir (12010004), Middle Neches (12020002), Lower Angelina (12020005), East Galveston Bay (12040202), Middle Brazos-Millers (12060101), Middle Brazos-Palo Pinto (12060201), Middle Brazos-Lake Whitney (12060202), Lower Brazos-Little Brazos (12070101), Navasota (12070103), Lower Brazos (12070104)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Spawns in spring and summer when temperature above 21 C. Eggs hatch in about 1 day. Spawning is by 1-year-olds. Life span about 1.5 years.
Ecology Comments: Sedentary (Becker 1983). Abundance may vary greatly from year to year.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Riffle
Habitat Comments: Usually in large, low gradient, small to large rivers: over broad shallow riffles over sand or mud (Wisconsin, Illinois juveniles), in fast riffles over firm gravel (Illinois adults and juveniles); often in fast water over shifting sand. In waters with high turbidity and dissolved solids. Eggs are scattered in deeper part of stream current, develop as they drift (Becker 1983).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats mostly immature aquatic insects (Becker 1983).
Length: 8 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Small Cyprinids

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat. For some species (e.g., slender chub), an impoundment may constitute a barrier. For others (e.g., flame chub) a stream larger than 4th order may be a barrier.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. In some species, individuals may migrate variable distances between spawning areas and nonspawning habitats.

Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) for cyprinids are arbitrary but reflect the presumption that movements and appropriate separation distances generally should increase with fish size. Hence small, medium, and large cyprinids, respectively, have increasingly large separation distances. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 20Sep2002
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 15Feb2000
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. Univ. Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1052 pp.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 736 pages.

  • CROSS, F.B., AND J.T. COLLINS. 1975. FISHES IN KANSAS. UNIV. KANS. MUS.NAT.HIST., PUB.ED.SERIES NO.3.

  • CROSS, F.B.1967.HANDBOOK OF FISHES IN KANSAS. E. RAYMOND HALL.UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, LAWRENCE, KANSAS.

  • Coburn, M. M., and T. M. Cavender. 1992. Interrelationships of North American cyprinid fishes. Pages 328-373 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Eisenhour, D. J. 1997. Systematics, variation, and speciation of the Macrhybopsis aestivalis complex (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) west of the Mississippi River. Ph.D. dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale.

  • Eisenhour, D. J. 1999. Systematics of Macryhbopsis tetranema (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae). Copeia 1999:969-980.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • Mayden, R. L. 1989. Phylogenetic studies of North American minnows, with emphasis on the genus Cyprinella (Teleostei: Cypriniformes). University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Miscellaneous Publication (80):1-189.

  • Mettee, M.F., P. E. O'Neil, and J.M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Inc., Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pages.

  • Mirarchi, R. E., J. T. Garner, M. F. Mettee, and P.E. O'Neil, editors. 2004. Alabama wildlife. Volume 2. Imperiled aquatic mollusks and fishes. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 255 pages

  • Mirarchi, R.E., M.A. Bailey, J.T. Garner, T.M. Haggerty, T.L. Best, M.F. Mettee, and P. O'Neil, editors. 2004. Alabama Wildlife. Volume 4. Conservation and management recommendations for imperiled wildlife. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 221 pages.

  • Mirarchi, R.E., editor. 2004. Alabama Wildlife. Volume 1. A checklist of vertebrates and selected invertebrates: aquatic mollusks, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 209 pages.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Sixth edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 29. 386 pages.

  • PFLIEGER,W.L.1975. THE FISHES OF MISSOURI. SULLIVAN, MARK. MISSOURI DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

  • Sublette, J. E., M. D Hatch, and M. Sublette. 1990. The fishes of New Mexico. University New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 393 pp.

  • Underwood, D. M., A. A. Echelle, D. J. Eisenhour, M. D. Jones, A. F. Echelle, and W. L. Fisher. 2003. Genetic variation in western members of the Macrhybopsis aestivalis complex (Telesotei: Cyprinidae), with emphasis on those of the Red and Arkansas river basins. Copeia 2003:493-501.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cross, F. B., and J. T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. Second Edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. xvii + 315 pp.

  • Douglas, N. H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Luttrell, G. R., A. A. Echelle, W. L. Fisher, and D. J. Eisenhour. 1999. Declining status of two species of the Macrhybopsis aestivalis complex (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) in the Arkansas River basin and related effects of reservoirs as barriers to dispersal. Copeia 1999:981-989.

  • Menhinick, E. F. 1991. The freshwater fishes of North Carolina. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission. 227 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • State Natural Heritage Data Centers. 1996a. Aggregated element occurrence data from all U.S. state natural heritage programs, including the Tennessee Valley Authority, Navajo Nation and the District of Columbia. Science Division, The Nature Conservancy.

  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

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