Macrhybopsis meeki - (Jordan and Evermann, 1896)
Sicklefin Chub
Synonym(s): Hybopsis meeki
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Macrhybopsis meeki (Jordan and Evermann, 1896) (TSN 163868)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.101978
Element Code: AFCJB53030
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Minnows and Carps
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Macrhybopsis
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Macrhybopsis meeki
Taxonomic Comments: Unquestionably distinct (Starnes 1995). Removed from the genus Hybopsis and placed in the resurrected genus Macrhybopsis by Mayden (1989) and Coburn and Cavender (1992); this change was adopted in the 1991 AFS checklist (Robins et al. 1991).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 30Apr2012
Global Status Last Changed: 04May2001
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Range in the Mississippi and Missouri rivers and their major tributaries has decreased substantially, due to human-caused habitat alteration/fragmentation, but recent surveys using benthic trawls indicate that the species is more widespread and common than previously believed; viable populations still exist in these rivers; threats have diminished.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3 (05Dec1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Arkansas (SNR), Illinois (S1), Iowa (S1), Kansas (S1), Kentucky (S1), Mississippi (S1), Missouri (S5), Montana (S1), Nebraska (S1), North Dakota (S2), South Dakota (S1), Tennessee (S2)

Other Statuses

U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R6 - Rocky Mountain
IUCN Red List Category: NT - Near threatened
American Fisheries Society Status: Vulnerable (01Aug2008)

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 20,000-2,500,000 square km (about 8000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Historically this species was recorded in 13 states of the Mississippi and Missouri rivers and their larger tributaries, including approximately 85 miles (136 km) of the lower Yellowstone River, 1,950 miles (3,120 km) of the main stem Missouri River (mouth to North Dakota), and about 1,150 miles (1,840 km) of the Mississippi River below the mouth of the Missouri River (south to southern Mississippi) (USFWS 2001); also the lower Kansas River in eastern Kansas (Page and Burr 2011)

Area of Occupancy: 2,001-10,000 1-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Area of occupancy evidently exceeds 2,000 square kilometers (based on 1 km x 1 km grid cells0 but is not a great deal large than this.

Number of Occurrences: Unknown
Number of Occurrences Comments: Number of distinct occurrences has not been determined.

Population Size: Unknown
Population Size Comments: Total abundance is unknown. The species is fairly common in the middle Missouri River, rare elsewhere (Page and Burr 2011). Benthic trawls indicate that this species comprises a significant proportion of the fish population at three locations in the Missouri River drainage (up to 42 percent of the catch) (USFWS 2001).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Decline has resulted from human-induced changes in river conditions. Dams have flooded river habitat, altered temperature and flow regimes, reduced sediment transport and turbidity, fragmented populations, and reduced movement opportunities. Channelization has reduced habitat diversity and reduced overbank flooding. Pollution and water depletion from industry and agriculture may have altered water quality. Sand and gravel excavation have removed habitat and restricted fish movements in some areas. Further water depletion is likely to occur in the future due to energy development in the Upper Missouri River Basin, increased interbasin transfer of water, and increased municipal, industrial, and irrigation use. Dredging for channel maintenance and sand/gravel extraction will continue in new areas. May be negatively impacted by the numerous species of non-native fishes that have been introduced into the habitat (USFWS 1995). Ongoing and proposed conservation measures are likely to have a beneficial impact on sicklefin chub and sturgeon chub populations (see USFWS 2001 for details).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Recent surveys using benthic trawls suitable for small fishes indicate that the species is more widespread and common than previously believed (USFWS 2001); apparently stable in distribution and abundance in Missouri (see Figg and Bessken 1995), with viable populations in the Mississippi River (USFWS 2001).

Long-term Trend: Decline of 30-70%
Long-term Trend Comments: The species occupies approximately 54 percent (1,110 miles, 1,776 kilometers) of the historical range in the Missouri River drainage (USFWS 2001).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: See USFWS 1993:23-27.

Protection Needs: See USFWS 1993:23-27.

Distribution
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Global Range: (20,000-2,500,000 square km (about 8000-1,000,000 square miles)) Historically this species was recorded in 13 states of the Mississippi and Missouri rivers and their larger tributaries, including approximately 85 miles (136 km) of the lower Yellowstone River, 1,950 miles (3,120 km) of the main stem Missouri River (mouth to North Dakota), and about 1,150 miles (1,840 km) of the Mississippi River below the mouth of the Missouri River (south to southern Mississippi) (USFWS 2001); also the lower Kansas River in eastern Kansas (Page and Burr 2011)

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AR, IA, IL, KS, KY, MO, MS, MT, ND, NE, SD, TN

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IA Mills (19129)*, Pottawattamie (19155)*, Woodbury (19193)*
KS Atchison (20005)*, Doniphan (20043), Douglas (20045)*, Leavenworth (20103), Wyandotte (20209)
KY Ballard (21007)*, Carlisle (21039)*, Hickman (21105)
MO Andrew (29003), Boone (29019), Buchanan (29021), Callaway (29027), Cape Girardeau (29031), Carroll (29033), Chariton (29041), Clay (29047), Cole (29051), Cooper (29053), Franklin (29071), Gasconade (29073), Holt (29087), Howard (29089), Jackson (29095), Jefferson (29099)*, Lafayette (29107), Mississippi (29133), Moniteau (29135), Montgomery (29139), Osage (29151), Pemiscot (29155)*, Perry (29157), Platte (29165), Ray (29177)*, Saline (29195), Scott (29201), St. Charles (29183), St. Louis (29189), St. Louis (city) (29510), Warren (29219)
MS Warren (28149)*
MT Blaine (30005), Custer (30017), Dawson (30021), Fergus (30027), McCone (30055), Petroleum (30069), Phillips (30071), Prairie (30079), Richland (30083), Roosevelt (30085), Valley (30105), Wibaux (30109)
ND Dunn (38025)*, McKenzie (38053), Williams (38105)
NE Burt (31021), Butler (31023)*, Cass (31025), Cedar (31027), Colfax (31037)*, Dakota (31043), Dixon (31051), Dodge (31053)*, Douglas (31055), Knox (31107)*, Nemaha (31127), Otoe (31131), Richardson (31147), Sarpy (31153), Saunders (31155)*, Thurston (31173), Washington (31177)
SD Bon Homme (46009)*, Charles Mix (46023)*, Corson (46031)*, Gregory (46053)*, Hughes (46065)*, Stanley (46117)*, Union (46127)*, Walworth (46129)*
TN Lake (47095)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
05 Lower Ohio (05140206)+*
07 Peruque-Piasa (07110009)+, Cahokia-Joachim (07140101)+, Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105)+
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100)+, Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201)+*, New Madrid-St. Johns (08020201)*, Lower Mississippi-Greenville (08030100)*, Lower Mississippi-Natchez (08060100)+
10 Fort Peck Reservoir (10040104)+, Lower Milk (10050012)+, Prarie Elk-Wolf (10060001)+, Redwater (10060002)+, Charlie-Little Muddy (10060005)+, Big Muddy (10060006)+, Lower Yellowstone-Sunday (10100001)+, Lower Yellowstone (10100004)+, Lake Sakakawea (10110101)+, Lower Little Missouri (10110205)+*, Lower Cheyenne (10120112)*, Painted Woods-Square Butte (10130101)*, Upper Lake Oahe (10130102)+*, Lower Lake Oahe (10130105)*, Knife (10130201)*, Fort Randall Reservoir (10140101)+*, Lower White (10140204)*, Lower Niobrara (10150007)*, Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101)+, Lower Big Sioux (10170203)+*, Lower Platte-Shell (10200201)+*, Lower Platte (10200202)+, Blackbird-Soldier (10230001)+, Floyd (10230002)+*, Big Papillion-Mosquito (10230006)+, Keg-Weeping Water (10240001)+, Tarkio-Wolf (10240005)+, Independence-Sugar (10240011)+, Lower Kansas (10270104)+, Little Chariton (10280203)+, Lower Gasconade (10290203)+, Lower Missouri-Crooked (10300101)+, Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102)+, Lamine (10300103)+, Lower Missouri (10300200)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: A fish (minnow) up to 11 cm long.
Reproduction Comments: Spawns probably in spring.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, Low gradient, Moderate gradient
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes sand and gravel runs of large rivers (Page and Burr 2011); continuously and heavily turbid, warm, large rivers with stable gravel and sand substrate; in shallows in strong current over fine gravel or sand.
Food Comments: Presumably a benthic taste feeder.
Length: 9 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
Help
Biological Research Needs: See USFWS 1993:23-27.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Group Name: Small Cyprinids

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat. For some species (e.g., slender chub), an impoundment may constitute a barrier. For others (e.g., flame chub) a stream larger than 4th order may be a barrier.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. In some species, individuals may migrate variable distances between spawning areas and nonspawning habitats.

Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) for cyprinids are arbitrary but reflect the presumption that movements and appropriate separation distances generally should increase with fish size. Hence small, medium, and large cyprinids, respectively, have increasingly large separation distances. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 30Apr2012
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G., and F. Dirrigl, Jr.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 30Apr2012
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Coburn, M. M., and T. M. Cavender. 1992. Interrelationships of North American cyprinid fishes. Pages 328-373 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Figg, D. E., and C. M. Bessken. 1995[?]. Missouri Department of Conservation wildlife diversity report: July 1994 - June 1995. v + 104 pp. [perhaps date is 1996]

  • Gardner, W. M., and R. K. Berg. 1982. An analysis of the instream flow requirements for selected fishes in the Wild and Scenic portion of the Missouri River. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Great Falls.

  • Gelwicks, G. T., K. Graham, D. Galat, and G. D. Novinger. 1996. Final report: status survey for sicklefin chub, sturgeon chub, and flathead chub in the Missouri River, Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation, Columbia.

  • Jelks, H. L., S. J. Walsh, N. M. Burkhead, S. Contreras-Balderas, E. Díaz-Pardo, D. A. Hendrickson, J. Lyons, N. E. Mandrak, F. McCormick, J. S. Nelson, S. P. Platania, B. A. Porter, C. B. Renaud, J. Jacobo Schmitter-Soto, E. B. Taylor, and M.L. Warren, Jr. 2008. Conservation status of imperiled North American freshwater and diadromous fishes. Fisheries 33(8):372-407.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Mayden, R. L. 1989. Phylogenetic studies of North American minnows, with emphasis on the genus Cyprinella (Teleostei: Cypriniformes). University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Miscellaneous Publication (80):1-189.

  • National Biological Service. 1996. The sturgeon chub, sicklefin chub, flathead chub, w. silvery minnow, plains minnow, and blue sucker. Annotated bibliography through July 1996. Montana Cooperative Fishery Research Unit, National Biological Service, Biology Department, Montana State University.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. and T. B. Grace. 1987. Changes in the fish fauna of the lower Missouri River, 1940-1983. Pages 166-181 in W. J. Matthews and D. C Heins (editors). Community and Evolutionary Ecology of North American Stream Fishes. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Starnes, W. C. 1995. Taxonomic validation for fish species on the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Category 2 species list. 28 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 18 April 2001. 12-month finding for a petition to list the sicklefin chub (Macrhybopsis meeki) and the sturgeon chub (Macrhybopsis gelida) as endangered. Federal Register 66(75):19910-19914.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1993. Status report on sicklefin chub (Macrhybopsis meeki) a candidate endangered species. Ecological Services, Bismark, North Dakota.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1995. Notice of 90-day finding on the petition to list the sturgeon chub and sicklefin chub as endangered. Federal Register 60(11):3613-3615.

  • Werdon, S. J. 1993. Status report on sicklefin chub (Macrhybopsis meeki), a candidate endangered species. USFWS, Ecological Services, Bismark, ND, unpublished report. 41 pp.

  • Williams, J.E, J.E. Johnson, D.A. Hendrickson, S. Contreras-Balderas, J.D. Williams, M. Navarro-Mendoza, D.E. McAllister, and J.E. Deacon. 1989b. Fishes of North America endangered, threatened or of special concern: 1989. Fisheries 14(6):2-20.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • State Natural Heritage Data Centers. 1996a. Aggregated element occurrence data from all U.S. state natural heritage programs, including the Tennessee Valley Authority, Navajo Nation and the District of Columbia. Science Division, The Nature Conservancy.

  • State Natural Heritage Data Centers. 1996b. Aggregated element occurrence data from all U.S. state natural heritage programs, including the Tennessee Valley Authority, Navajo Nation and the District of Columbia: Export of freshwater fish and mussel records west of the Mississippi River in 1997. Science Division, The Nature Conservancy.

  • State Natural Heritage Data Centers. 1996c. Aggregated element occurrence data from all U.S. state natural heritage programs, including the Tennessee Valley Authority, Navajo Nation and the District of Columbia: Export of freshwater fish and mussel records from the Tennessee Valley Authority in 1997. Science Division, The Nature Conservancy.

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