Macbridea caroliniana - (Walt.) Blake
Carolina Birds-in-a-nest
Other Common Names: Carolina birds-in-a-nest
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Macbridea caroliniana (Walt.) Blake (TSN 32559)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.138246
Element Code: PDLAM0Y020
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Mint Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Lamiales Lamiaceae Macbridea
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Macbridea caroliniana
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 07Dec2015
Global Status Last Changed: 23Apr1992
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Infrequent and declining on the Coastal Plain from southeastern North Carolina to Georgia. Occurs in disturbed sites including roadsides and right-of-ways, where herbicide and non-native species are threats to the species. 
Nation: United States
National Status: N2N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (SNR), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S1), North Carolina (S2), South Carolina (S3)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Ranging from southeastern North Carolina to southern Georgia, with unconfirmed reports from Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi (LeBlond 2002).

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: 54 occurrences (36 current) were documented during the USFWS status survey conducted in 2001 (LeBlond & Sorrie 2002): 6 (3 current) in Georgia, 25 (15) in South Carolina, and 23 (18) in North Carolina. Although more swamp populations are likely to be found, the element remains rare within a common habitat type.

Two additional populations of this species were discovered between 2003-2004 on land owned by Mead Westvaco in South Carolina (DeGarady 2006).

Population Size Comments: Rare throughout its range (LeBlond 2002). In two recently discovered populations of this species, one population discovered had approximately 6,000 stems and the other population contained around 200 stems (DeGarady 2006).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very few to few (1-12)
Viability/Integrity Comments: Recent surveys find that very few sites have a good number of plants in flower.

Overall Threat Impact: High - medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Swamp habitat is extensive but vulnerable to logging, and impacts to water quality and quantity. Threats include conversion of habitat to intensive silvicultural use (tree farms), ditching and draining of habitat, suppression of natural fire regime without replacement by prescribed fire, and "site-prepping" of wetlands for tree planting. Herbicide treatments and competition with non-native species or herbicide tolerant species (ex. grasses) are threats in right-of-way and roadside sites. Feral hogs are also a threat (Robinson, pers. comm., 2015).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Natural populations appear stable over time, but roadside populations may be declining, especially in North Carolina. During 2001 status survey, only 5 of 17 historical populations were relocated, and only 2 new populations were found.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: No evidence element is more fragile than other rhizomatous herbs.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: Ranging from southeastern North Carolina to southern Georgia, with unconfirmed reports from Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi (LeBlond 2002).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, FL, GA, NC, SC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
GA Berrien (13019)*, Cook (13075)*, Jefferson (13163), Liberty (13179), Lowndes (13185), Marion (13197), Mcduffie (13189), Richmond (13245), Talbot (13263), Tift (13277), Wheeler (13309)
NC Bladen (37017), Brunswick (37019), Columbus (37047), Harnett (37085), Johnston (37101), Pender (37141), Robeson (37155)
SC Aiken (45003), Barnwell (45011), Calhoun (45017)*, Colleton (45029), Darlington (45031)*, Dillon (45033), Edgefield (45037), Florence (45041), Hampton (45049), Jasper (45053), Marion (45067), Richland (45079), Williamsburg (45089)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Upper Neuse (03020201)+, Black (03030006)+, Northeast Cape Fear (03030007)+, Lower Pee Dee (03040201)+, Lynches (03040202)+, Lumber (03040203)+, Little Pee Dee (03040204)+, Black (03040205)+, Waccamaw (03040206)+, Carolina Coastal-Sampit (03040207)+, Wateree (03050104)+, Congaree (03050110)+, South Fork Edisto (03050204)+, Four Hole Swamp (03050206)+, Salkehatchie (03050207)+, Broad-St. Helena (03050208)+, Middle Savannah (03060106)+, Brier (03060108)+, Canoochee (03060203)+, Little Ocmulgee (03070105)+, Alapaha (03110202)+*, withlacoochee (03110203)+, Middle Chattahoochee-Walter F. George Reservoir (03130003)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: A perennial herb with erect stems, 6-9 dm tall, and alternate leaves. Clusters of pink to lavender flowers in a terminal mixed inflorescence, the petals striped with purple and white, bloom at the top of the stems above whorls of overlapping bracts. The overall appearance leads to the common name "bird-in-a-nest." Flowering: mid-July - September (first-frost)


Technical Description: "Perennial herb with underground stolons. Stems erect, leafy, quadrangular, 6-9 dm tall, glabrous or pubescent, resinous-glandular, often rooting from the lower nodes. Leaves 6-13 cm long, 1.5-4 cm wide, shallowly serrate to entire; cymule 1-3 flowered; bracts ovate to widely elliptic, 0.7-1.8 cm long, acute to obtuse, foliaceous, but not resembling the leaves. Calyx mostly hidden by the bracts, narrowly campanulate, 8-12 mm long, irregular, 3-lobed, the 2 wide lobes obliquely notched, the narrow one entire; corolla zygomorphic, 2-lipped, pink to lavendar, striped with a deeper shade, or white, 2-4 cm long, upper lip galeate, entire or notched, lower lip 3-lobed. Stamens 4, arched under the upper lip, exserted; stigma 2-lobed, equaling the stamens. Mericarps light brown, distinctly, irregularly ribbed, obovoid to oblanceolate, 3.5-4 mm long, 2-lobed at apex" (Radford et al 1968).
Diagnostic Characteristics: No characterizing features are described. Only species of this genus found in North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.
Duration: PERENNIAL
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen, FORESTED WETLAND
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Savanna
Habitat Comments: Occurs in a variety of habitats including wet longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) or pond pine (P. serotina) savannas and acidic (blackwater) swamp forests, seepages, and disturbed wet sites like right of ways and roadsides. The plant appears in short term light gaps and canopy openings (Robinson, pers. comm., 2015).
 

Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary
Help
Stewardship Overview: Continue to monitor known populations for status of threats, site condition, and abundance of plants, especially noting the number of plants in flower. Survey potential habitat for new populations. Review most critical threats and consider the feasibility of their removal and how their removal will impact the quality of habitat for the species, as well as other species of interest. Work with appropriate groups to reduce the use of herbicide to maintain vegetation on roadside sites and right of ways.
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
Excellent Viability: An A-ranked occurrence of Macbridea caroliniana should have more than 5000 stems and occur in an excellent quality blackwater river or stream floodplain, or ecotone between floodplain swamp and pineland.
Good Viability: A B-ranked occurrence of Macbridea caroliniana should have between 500 and 5000 stems and occur in an excellent to good quality blackwater river or stream floodplain, or ecotone between floodplain swamp and pineland. More plants in a fair quality community or fewer plants in an excellent quality community are ranked as B with appropriate comment.
.

Fair Viability: A C-ranked occurrence of Macbridea caroliniana should have betweeen 50 to 500 stems and occur in a good to fair quality blackwater river or stream floodplain, or ecotone between floodplain swamp and pineland.

Poor Viability: A D-ranked occurrence of Macbridea caroliniana should have fewer than 50 stems and occur in a poor quality blackwater river or stream floodplain, or ecotone between floodplain swamp and pineland.
.

Justification: The C/D rank threshold is established with the assumption that an occurrence with fewer than 50 stems has a poor probability of persistence.
Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
Date: 03Mar2005
Author: Amoroso
Notes: LeBlond created an occurrence size scale in 2002 after completeing a range-wide status survey on which this version of the occurrence rank specs are based.
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 18Nov2015
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: LeBlond (2002), rev. A. Treher (2015)
Management Information Edition Date: 07Dec2015
Management Information Edition Author: INGE SMITH, NCNHP, rev. Treher (2015)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 24Jul1992

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • DeGarady, D. 2006. Mead Westvaco and TNC cooperative research: The impacts of intensive forest management on Macbridea caroliniana. Progress Report. The Nature Conservancy -South Caroling Chapter. Nov. 3, 2006.

  • Godfrey, R.K., and J.W. Wooten. 1981. Aquatic and wetland plants of southeastern United States: Dicotyledons. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens. 933 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pp.

  • Weakley, A.S. 1996. Flora of the Carolinas and Virginia: working draft of 23 May 1996. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Southern Conservation Science Dept., Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Unpaginated.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of November 2016.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2017 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.