Lytrosis permagnaria - (Packard, 1876)
a geometrid moth
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.112258
Element Code: IILEU2E040
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Insects - Butterflies and Moths - Other Moths
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mandibulata Insecta Lepidoptera Geometridae Lytrosis
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Hodges, R.W. et al., eds. 1983. Check List of the Lepidoptera of America North of Mexico. E.W. Classey Limited and The Wedge Entomological Research Foundation, London. 284 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B83HOD01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Lytrosis permagnaria
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 31Mar2008
Global Status Last Changed: 15Feb2001
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Known from around 20 localities, some ancient but most since 1990. Core range was very poorly collected for moths until recently, especially Georgia and Alabama. Not nearly as rare as formerly thought at least in southeastern portions of range. Certain to be numerous undiscovered occurrences. Not associated with rare habitats eastward so far as known. Few localities per state, e.g.two in North Carolina and one each in Virginia and Missouri. Males come to lights from about 11:30Pm to1AM (Heitzman) so would turn up in normal collecting efforts but the flight season is generally less than two weeks so it could get overlooked in infrequently collected places.

Nation: United States
National Status: NNR

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Georgia (SNR), Indiana (S2), Kentucky (S1S2), Mississippi (SH), Missouri (SU), North Carolina (S2S3), Tennessee (SNR), Virginia (S2)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 20,000-2,500,000 square km (about 8000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Rockridge Co., Virginia (USFS samples, 1991) south to northwestern Georgia and northeast Alabama. J.B. Sullivan has taken specimens in North Carolina only in Haywood County, but James Adams reports there are about a dozen recent localities known from western North Carolina and the Smokies southward, not entirely in the mountains. The range also includes a few localites each in southern Kentucky, Tennesssee, Missouri (one pre-1876, one 1980) and northern Mississippi (Oxford Co., 1949).

Number of Occurrences: 21 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Recent EOs: VA (June, 1991), MO (1980), KY (1979), TN (1970), and n. GA. Historical EOs: Oxford, MS (1949) and MO (pre-1876). Previous is old info. Since about 1990 about a dozen localitis in The Smokies, eslewehre in western North Carolina, north Georgia and northeast Alabama.

Population Size Comments: No data.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Chemical Gypsy Moth spraying a future threat, since all Lytrosis larvae feed from early summer into fall and again in spring. However, impact from Bt cannot be guessed. Impact from severe defoliation could be severe also, if hatchlings in mid June or so had no food. Dimilin virtually certain to eradicate any EO by killing most to all late instar larvae at spray time and all young larvae appearing in June, i.e wiping out two complete generations.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Search other sites with appropriate foodplant/habitat.

Protection Needs: Protect Pine Mtn site from spraying (site also has several S1-S3 species) unless future data show Bt would be a good option..

Distribution
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Global Range: (20,000-2,500,000 square km (about 8000-1,000,000 square miles)) Rockridge Co., Virginia (USFS samples, 1991) south to northwestern Georgia and northeast Alabama. J.B. Sullivan has taken specimens in North Carolina only in Haywood County, but James Adams reports there are about a dozen recent localities known from western North Carolina and the Smokies southward, not entirely in the mountains. The range also includes a few localites each in southern Kentucky, Tennesssee, Missouri (one pre-1876, one 1980) and northern Mississippi (Oxford Co., 1949).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.

Map unavailable!:
Distribution data for U.S. states and Canadian provinces is known to be incomplete or has not been reviewed for this taxon.
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States GA, IN, KY, MO, MS, NC, TN, VA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IN Kosciusko (18085)
KY Barren (21009)*, Bell (21013)*, Edmonson (21061)*, Harlan (21095), Hart (21099)*, Knox (21121)*, Laurel (21125)*, Whitley (21235)*
MO Wayne (29223)
NC Chatham (37037), McDowell (37111), Orange (37135)
VA Augusta (51015), Dickenson (51051), Rockbridge (51163), Wise (51195)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Maury (02080202)+
03 Haw (03030002)+, Deep (03030003)+, Upper Catawba (03050101)+
05 Upper Levisa (05070202)+, Upper Green (05110001)+*, Barren (05110002)+*, Eel (05120104)+, Tippecanoe (05120106)+, Upper Cumberland (05130101)+
06 Powell (06010206)+
08 Upper St. Francis (08020202)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Moth.
General Description: This is a very large geometrid moth(about 55 mm, some females larger) with heavily pectinate (feathered) antenna on the amle. Adults are rather plain grayish brown with a very prominent black line across both surfaces of all wings. Illustrated by Rindge (1971) and on the Georgia Lepidoptera website.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Males are unmistakable, note the uniform color and prominent black postmedian line on both wings and feathery antennae, but little no other prominent markings. Some females of L. unitaria (Herrich-Schäffer) are similar in color but have the post median line much finer, especially on the hindwing, and other lines more evident. Females of this genus lack the feathered antennae.

Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Hardwood, Forest - Mixed
Habitat Comments: Not really understood, and may be essentially defined by the foodplant. Best information suggests various kinds of forest including mixed, mesic very mature stands in Missouri (Heitzmann), oak dominated second growth in Virginia and oak-other hardwoods-pine second growth in northern Georgia. See Schweitzer (1989). Habitats generally not unusual forest types.
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore
Food Comments: Still unknown although David Wagner got some larvae to take scrub oak.
Adult Phenology: Nocturnal
Immature Phenology: Hibernates/aestivates, Nocturnal
Phenology Comments: Adults in one flight usually in June, earlier southward. Based on rearing and field collections by Schweitzer of two congenerics in New Jersey and northward, a June flight period means larvae hatch by the end of the month and feed until autumn, growing slowly. They hibernate as antepenultimate instar and molt into penultimate and then complete growth rapidly on new spring leaves, pupating in a cocoon in May.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: Known habitats are oak dominated and are vulnerable to Gypsy Moth outbreaks, although larvae should complete feeding before defoliation becomes severe. It would be useful to know how sensitive the older larvae are to BTK in spring. It is fairly likely, but far from certain, they are insensitive to moderately sensitive. Given the flight season of the moths it is quite possible eggs would hatch before replacement foliage of the foodplant has matured. It is quite possible hatchlings would do poorly on such foliage. It is also likely that refoliated leaves are nutrionally inferior to normal summer foliage. Therefore if older larvae actually are not very sensitive to BTK, its use would probably protect occurrences during severe Gypsy Moth outbreaks.

Direct mortality to eggs and larvae should be low in light understory fires assuming the foodplant is a tree and larvae remain there for the winter, but pupae and adults, which are probably both in the litter, would be vulnerable in very late spring. So far it does not appear that this species occurs in habitats prone to fires.

Biological Research Needs: Would be very useful to determine both foodplant and Bt sensitivity. If late instar (May) larvae have less than 80% mortality from Bt then use of Bt might be preferable to allowing gypsy moth defoliation at occurrences. However sensitivity is currently utterly unknown and could be extremely high (or extremely low).
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: A forest or woodland where the species occurs or has occurred where there is potential for persistence or regular recurrence. Minimally verification of an individual in association with apparently suitable habitat.
Mapping Guidance: Until the habitat and foodplant are better known it is not possible to deermine meaningful boundaries for occurrences.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: The 5 km value is probably too low but with the foodplant unknown habitat is going to be hard to evaluate. Generally apply the suitable habitat distance within areas of similar forest and the unsuitable distance across unforested places such as farmland or urban areas.
Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 1 km
Date: 31Oct2001
Author: Schweitzer, Dale F.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 15Dec2005
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Schweitzer, D.F.
Management Information Edition Date: 19Mar2007
Management Information Edition Author: Schweitzwer, D.F.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 12Mar2007
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): SCHWEITZER, D.F.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Forbes, W. T. M. 1948. The Lepidoptera of New York and neighboring states, part II: Geometridae, Sphingidae, Notodontidae, Lymantriidae. Memoir 274. Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station, Ithaca, NY, 263 pp.

  • Hall, S.P.; J.B. Sullivan; P. Backstrom; J.M. Lynch; and T. Howard. ?The Moths of North Carolina Website.? Hosted by the North Carolina Biodiversity Project and the North Carolina Division of Parks and Recreation. (2018). <dpr.ncparks.gov/moths/index.php>

  • Hodges, R.W. et al., eds. 1983. Check List of the Lepidoptera of America North of Mexico. E.W. Classey Limited and The Wedge Entomological Research Foundation, London. 284 pp.

  • Natural Resources Commission. 2014. Roster of Indiana Animals, Insects, and Plants That Are Extirpated, Endangered, Threatened or Rare. Information Bulletin #2 (Sixth Amendment. 20pp.

  • Rindge, F. H. 1971. A revision of the moth genus Lytrosis (Lepidoptera, Geometridae). American Museum Novitates 2474. 21pp.

  • Schweitzer, D. F., M. C. Minno, and D. L. Wagner. 2011. Rare, declining, and poorly known butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) of forests and woodlands in the eastern United States. USFS Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team, Technology Transfer Bulletin FHTET-2011-01. 517 pp.

  • Schweitzer, D.F. 1989. A review of Category 2 Insecta in USFWS regions 3, 4, 5. Prepared for the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.

  • Scoble, M. J. (ed.), M. S. Parsons, M. R. Honey, L. M. Pitkin, and B. R. Pitkin. 1999. Geometrid moths of the world: a catalogue. Volumes 1 and 2: 1016 pp. + index 129 pp. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria, Australia.

  • Sullivan, J.B. 2004. Comments on rare moths of the NC mountains. Pers. comm. to S. Hall.

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