Lysimachia nummularia - L.
Creeping Jenny
Other English Common Names: Creeping Yellow Loosestrife
Other Common Names: creeping jenny
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Lysimachia nummularia L. (TSN 23993)
French Common Names: lysimaque nummulaire
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.146072
Element Code: PDPRI070J0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Primrose Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Primulales Primulaceae Lysimachia
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Lysimachia nummularia
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNR
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (04Nov2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNA), Arkansas (SNA), California (SNA), Colorado (SNA), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (SNA), District of Columbia (SNA), Georgia (SNA), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (SNA), Iowa (SNA), Kansas (SNA), Kentucky (SNA), Louisiana (SNA), Maine (SNA), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNA), Minnesota (SNA), Mississippi (SNA), Missouri (SNA), New Hampshire (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New York (SNA), North Carolina (SNA), Ohio (SNA), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), Rhode Island (SNA), South Carolina (SNA), Tennessee (SNA), Vermont (SNA), Virginia (SNA), Washington (SNA), West Virginia (SNA), Wisconsin (SNA)
Canada British Columbia (SNA), New Brunswick (SNA), Nova Scotia (SNA), Ontario (SNA), Prince Edward Island (SNA), Quebec (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States ALexotic, ARexotic, CAexotic, COexotic, CTexotic, DCexotic, DEexotic, GAexotic, IAexotic, ILexotic, INexotic, KSexotic, KYexotic, LAexotic, MA, MDexotic, MEexotic, MIexotic, MNexotic, MOexotic, MSexotic, NCexotic, NHexotic, NJexotic, NYexotic, OHexotic, ORexotic, PAexotic, RIexotic, SCexotic, TNexotic, VAexotic, VTexotic, WAexotic, WIexotic, WVexotic
Canada BCexotic, NBexotic, NSexotic, ONexotic, PEexotic, QCexotic

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
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Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: Medium/Low
Rounded I-Rank: Medium
I-Rank Reasons Summary: Lysimachia nummularia is established throughout the eastern U.S. (except FL), as well as in a few Plains states and along the Pacific coast. It is locally common over a significant part of its range (the mid-Atlantic states, the Great Lakes states, and New England), and has been reported as invasive and/or listed on a state invasive list in many of the states where common. It invades a wide variety of (predominantly wetland) habitats, including riparian floodplain forest, riparian herbaceous wetland, other herbaceous wetlands (e.g. marshes), swamps, moist upland grasslands (e.g. prairies), disturbed open uplands (including lawns and cemeteries), partially open moist upland habitats (e.g. early successional forest), and roadsides. It has quickly spread stolons which root at the nodes, and forms mats which can exclude other herbaceous vegetation. This horticultural species is still available for Internet sale. Management methods include hand-pulling and prescribed burning.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Low
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: High
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: Medium/Low
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: Low
I-Rank Review Date: 11Apr2006
Evaluator: Gravuer, K.
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: Native to southern Europe and adjacent temperate Asia, including Turkey, Russian Federation (European part, Ciscaucasia), Ukraine, Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Yugoslavia, and France (USA ARS 2005).

Download "An Invasive Species Assessment Protocol: Evaluating Non-Native Plants for their Impact on Biodiversity". (PDF, 1.03MB)
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Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES
Comments: This species is a non-native that is established outside of cultivation (Kartesz 1999).

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes
Comments: Invades a variety of (predominantly wetland) habitats, including riparian floodplain forest/woodland, riparian herbaceous wetland (including stream banks and lakeshores), other herbaceous wetlands (e.g. wet meadows and marshes), swamps and low woods, moist upland grasslands (e.g. prairies and meadows), disturbed open uplands (including lawns and cemeteries), partially open moist upland habitats (including pine barrens, early successional forest, open woods, and woodland borders), and roadsides and railroad ROWs (Spencer 1940, Muenscher 1955, Hitchcock et al. 1959, Crockett 1977, Great Plains Flora Association 1986, Kennay and Fell 1990, Gleason and Cronquist 1991, Hickman 1993, Voss 1996, Rhoads and Block 2000, Mehrhoff et al. 2003, Czarapata 2005, Hilty 2006, Rice 2006, Tenaglia 2006, Weakley 2006, Whitinger 2006, Wisconsin State Herbarium 2006).

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Low

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: No mention of major impacts on ecosystem processes was found, despite the species' presence in the U.S. for over 130 years (Mehrhoff et al. 2003). However, where the species has high local abundance, it may disrupt water flow by choking small springs and seeps in rich woods (Mehrhoff et al. 2003).

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Forms mats which can exclude other herbaceous vegetation (Kennay and Fell 1990), significantly altering the structure of the herbaceous layer.

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Forms mats which can exclude other herbaceous vegetation (Kennay and Fell 1990). Noted to be displacing native plants (Knouse 2006).

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:Insignificant
Comments: No mention of disproportionate impacts on particular native species found in the literature; assumption is that any impacts are not significant.

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:Moderate significance
Comments: Noted to occur in either natural or disturbed areas (Hilty 2006) and invades a number of natural habitat types (e.g. riparian floodplain forests, marshes, swamps, prairies, pine barrens). However, Kennay and Fell (1990) note that it does not appear to be a problem in high-quality communities.

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: High

6. Current Range Size in Nation:High significance
Comments: Established throughout the eastern U.S. with the exception of Florida, as well as in a few Plains states (KS, NE, CO) and along the Pacific coast (WA, OR, CA) (Kartesz 1999). Most abundant in the mid-Atlantic states, the Great Lakes states, and New England; more scattered in the Southeast, the Plains states, and the Pacific coast states (Crockett 1977, Kennay and Fell 1990, Weakley 2006).

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:Moderate significance
Comments: Locally common over a significant part of its range (the mid-Atlantic states, the Great Lakes states, and New England). Reported as invasive and/or listed on a state invasive species list in many of the states where common (CT, DC, IN, MD, MI, MO, NJ, OR, PA, TN, VA, WI, WV; Swearingen 2006).

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Approximately 35 ecoregions are invaded, based on visual comparison of the generalized range and ecoregions map (The Nature Conservancy 2001).

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:High significance
Comments: Can grow at a variety of moisture levels (from slightly mesic soil to floating or submersed in shallow water), but prefers moist to wet, rich soil; can also grow in diverse light environments, from full sun to shade. Invades a variety of (predominantly wetland) habitats, including riparian floodplain forest/woodland, riparian herbaceous wetland (including stream banks and lakeshores), other herbaceous wetlands (e.g. wet meadows and marshes), swamps and low woods, moist upland grasslands (e.g. prairies and meadows), disturbed open uplands (including lawns and cemeteries), partially open moist upland habitats (including pine barrens, early successional forest, open woods, and woodland borders), and roadsides and railroad ROWs (Spencer 1940, Muenscher 1955, Hitchcock et al. 1959, Crockett 1977, Great Plains Flora Association 1986, Kennay and Fell 1990, Gleason and Cronquist 1991, Hickman 1993, Voss 1996, Rhoads and Block 2000, Mehrhoff et al. 2003, Czarapata 2005, Hilty 2006, Rice 2006, Tenaglia 2006, Weakley 2006, Whitinger 2006, Wisconsin State Herbarium 2006). In New England (and possibly elsewhere), the species is known to grow most vigorously and pose the biggest threat in open, moist to wet habitats such as wet meadows and open pond shores (Mehrhoff et al. 2003). The range of invaded habitats appears more restricted in regions where the species is less locally abundant - e.g. in the Pacific Northwest, where it is predominantly found along moist roadsides and railroad ROWs (Hitchcock et al. 1959).

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: Medium/Low

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Present in New England at least as early as the 1870s (Mehrhoff et al. 2003). Expansion from the eastern U.S. to the north-central states and the west coast appears relatively recent (Kennay and Fell 1990).

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:Low significance
Comments: Hardy in USDA zones 3a - 10b (Whitinger 2006). Preference for moist to wet substrates may limit the potential distribution of this species in the western U.S., but there appears to be some potential for expansion within the Pacific coast states.

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:High significance
Comments: A horticultural species available for sale over the Internet from many vendors (Whitinger 2006). More local dispersal mechanisms include passive dispersal, possibly by water, birds or humans (Mehrhoff et al. 2003).

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:Low significance
Comments: Expansion from the eastern U.S. to the north-central states and the west coast (and therefore expansion within these areas) appears relatively recent (Kennay and Fell 1990). Adapted to disturbed habitats, so assumption is that range is not decreasing.

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:Moderate significance
Comments: Can occur in either natural or disturbed areas (Hilty 2006). Its creeping habit and ability to root at nodes appears to enable it to invade the understory of established vegetation (Hilty 2006).

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:Low significance
Comments: Also established in at least Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, and Europe north of its native range (e.g. Finland, Britain) (Randall 2002). Does not appear to invade habitats in these areas that it has not already invaded in the U.S. (Webb et al. 1988, White et al. 1993).

16. Reproductive Characteristics:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Reproduces both vegetatively and by seed, and has quickly spreading stolons that root at the nodes (Muenscher 1955, Kennay and Fell 1990, Czarapata 2005). Appears to be able to reproduce from fragments (Czarapata 2005, Knouse 2006).

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: Low

17. General Management Difficulty:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Hand-pulling can be successful where practical, but if stem fragments or roots remain in the soil, the plant may re-sprout (Muenscher 1955, Czarapata 2005). More research is needed on the potential effectiveness of herbicides, although the plant's preference for wetland habitats may complicate the use of this method in some situations (Knouse 2006). Prescribed burning in spring or fall when most native vegetation is dormant can be a successful strategy (Kennay and Fell 1990).

18. Minimum Time Commitment:Low significance
Comments: If prescribed fire is used, a regular burning regime for several years is needed for control (Kennay and Fell 1990). Seed may also persist in the soil for a few years (Peat and Fitter 2006).

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:Low significance
Comments: Either prescribed burning or hand-pulling should have relatively minor impacts on native species if implemented properly (Kennay and Fell 1990).

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:Medium/Low significance
Comments: The species' horticultural importance, and the presence of many infestations in lawns, gardens, and cemeteries, means that many populations will likely be on private lands.
Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Crockett, L. J. 1977. Wildly successful plants. McMillan Publishing Co., New York. 268 pp.

  • Czarapata, E. J. 2005. Invasive Plants of the Upper Midwest. The University of Wisconsin Press. Madison, WI. 215 pp.

  • Deam, C. C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Division of Forestry, Dept. of Conservation, Indianapolis, Indiana. 1236 pp.

  • Douglas, G.W., D. Meidinger, and J. Pojar, eds. 1999. Illustrated Flora of British Columbia, Vol. 4, Dicotyledons (Orobanchaceae through Rubiaceae). B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, and B.C. Minist. For., Victoria. 427pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2009. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 8. Magnoliophyta: Paeoniaceae to Ericaceae. Oxford University Press, New York. xxiv + 585 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Great Plains Flora Association (R.L. McGregor, coordinator; T.M. Barkley, ed., R.E. Brooks and E.K. Schofield, associate eds.). 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 1392 pp.

  • Hilty, J. 2006. Illinois wildflowers. Online. Available: http://www.illinoiswildflowers.info/ (Accessed 2006).

  • Hitchcock, C.L., A. Cronquist, M. Ownbey, and J.W. Thompson. 1959. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 4: Ericaceae through Campanulaceae, by C.L. Hitchcock, A. Cronquist, and M. Ownbey. Univ. Washington Press, Seattle. 510 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1996. Species distribution data at state and province level for vascular plant taxa of the United States, Canada, and Greenland (accepted records), from unpublished data files at the North Carolina Botanical Garden, December, 1996.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Kennay, J. and G. Fell. 1990. Vegetation management guideline: Moneywort (Lysimachia nummularia). Vol. 1, No. 14. Illinois Nature Preserves Commission. Online. Available: http://www.inhs.uiuc.edu/chf/outreach/VMG/moneywort.html (Accessed 2006).

  • Knouse, J. 2006. Athens County invasive exotics control program. Athens Conservancy, Ohio University Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, and Rural Action Forestry Program. Online. Available: http://www.athensconservancy.org/invasives.shtml (Accessed 2006).

  • Maryland Department of Natural Resources (MDDNR). 2004, October 4 last update. Non-native Plant Species in Maryland: Invasive Exotic Plants that Threaten Native Species and Natural Habitats in Maryland That Are or May Become a Threat to Native Species and Communities. Online. Available: http://www.dnr.state.md.us/wildlife/ieplists.asp (Accessed 2006).

  • Mehrhoff, L.J., J.A. Silander, Jr., S.A. Leicht and E. Mosher. 2003. IPANE: Invasive Plant Atlas of New England. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT. Online. Available: http://invasives.eeb.uconn.edu/ipane/.

  • Muenscher, W. C. 1955. Weeds. The MacMillan Co., New York.

  • Peat, H., and A. Fitter. 2006. The Ecological Flora of the British Isles at the University of York. Available: http://www.york.ac.uk/res/ecoflora/cfm/ecofl/index.cfm (Accessed 2006).

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  • Rice, P.M. 2006. Invaders Database System. Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula. Online. Available: http://invader.dbs.umt.edu (Accessed 2006).

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  • Swearingen, J. 2006. Alien plant invaders of natural areas. Plant Conservation Alliance, Alien Plant Working Group. Available: http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/list/ (Accessed 2006)

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  • USDA, NRCS. 2006. The PLANTS Database. Data compiled from various sources by Mark W. Skinner. National Plant Data Center (http://npdc.usda.gov), Baton Rouge, LA. Online. Available: http://plants.usda.gov (Accessed 2006).

  • Voss, E.G. 1996. Michigan Flora. Part III. Dicots (Pyrolaceae-Compositae). Cranbrook Institute of Science Bulletin 61 and Univ. Michigan Herbarium. Ann Arbor, Michigan. 622 pp.

  • Weakley, A. S. 2006. Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia, Georgia, and surrounding areas. Working draft of 17 January 2006. University of North Carolina Herbarium, North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill. Online. Available: http://www.herbarium.unc.edu/flora.htm (accessed 2006).

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