Lysimachia daphnoides - (Gray) Hbd.
Pacific Loosestrife
Other Common Names: Lehua Makanoe, lehua makanoe
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Lysimachia daphnoides (Gray) Hbd. (TSN 24003)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.142704
Element Code: PDPRI07040
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Primrose Family
Image 118224

© M. LeGrande

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Primulales Primulaceae Lysimachia
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Lysimachia daphnoides
Taxonomic Comments: Nearly cosmopolitan genus, species endemic to Kauai.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 29Oct2007
Global Status Last Changed: 07Aug1990
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Lysimachia daphnoides is endemic to the upper elevation bogs on the island of Kauai, state of Hawaii, and has a very small global range. There are 11 extant occurrences, with an estimated 180-300 plants remaining. Some of the bogs have been much damaged by feral pigs in recent years. Alien plants, feral goats, and trampling by hikers are additional threats.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Hawaii (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (13Apr2010)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R1 - Pacific

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Endemic to upper elevation (montane) bogs in the Alakai area of the island of Kauai, Hawaiian islands (USFWS 2004). These bogs are extremely limited in acreage. The estimated range extent is approximately 4 sq. km.

Area of Occupancy: 1-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: There is one large cluster of occurrences and 4 known outlying occurrences (with very few plants each). Depending on whether or not these outlying plants are considered to be true "occurrences", area of occupancy may range from 4 to 12 sq. km.

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: 14 total occurrences, of those 11 are extant, all last observed in 2005.

Population Size Comments: Total population estimate = 180-300 individuals (USFWS 2004). One large cluster of 6 occurrences in the northwest of the species' range contains the majority of the individuals. Southeast of this area, each of the remaining 4 occurrences/subpopulations was estimated to contain about 28 individuals in 1994.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: None to few (0-12)

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Feral pigs are a major threat to this species (USFWS 2004). The bogs where it is found have been much damaged by pigs in recent years, and pig damage to and destruction of individual plants has also been noted (USFWS 2004). Alien plant competitors are also a present and increasing threat, particularly Juncus planifolius and Andropogon virginicus (USFWS 2004). Other potentially problematic co-occuring aliens include Setaria gracilis, Xyris complanata, Rubus argutus, Axonopus fissifolius, Sacciolepis indica, Erechtites valerianifolia, and Paspalum urvillei. In recent years, damage to fruits from a boring insect has been also observed, which may jeopardize the production of viable seeds by this species (Marie Bruegmann, pers. comm. to USFWS 2004). As of 2004, this insect had not yet been identified and the possibility that it was a native species had not been eliminated (Marie Bruegmann, pers. comm. to USFWS 2004). Lesser threats to this species include feral goats and trampling by hikers (USFWS 2004).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Apparently, total plant numbers fluctuated very little between 2001 and 2004 (Marie Bruegmann, pers. comm. to USFWS 2004).

Long-term Trend: Unknown

Environmental Specificity: Unknown

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Endemic to upper elevation (montane) bogs in the Alakai area of the island of Kauai, Hawaiian islands (USFWS 2004). These bogs are extremely limited in acreage. The estimated range extent is approximately 4 sq. km.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States HI

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
HI Kauai (15007)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
20 Kauai (20070000)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Small shrubs forming clumps 2-5 dm tall. Leaves closely spaced. Flowers solitary in the leaf axils. Corollas dark purple or dark burgundy.
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Hardwood, Forest/Woodland
Habitat Comments: Montane bogs in wet forests, usually in the cloud zone.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 30Oct2007
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: J. Lau, rev. A. Olivero (2003), rev. K. Gravuer (2006), rev. D. Matsuwaki (2007)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Hawai'i Biodiversity and Mapping Program (HBMP). 2004, January 2006 last update. Databook. Online. Available: http://hbmp.hawaii.edu/databook.html (Accessed 2006).

  • Hillebrand, W.F. 1888. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands: a description of their phanerogams and vascular cryptogams. Facsimile ed., 1981. Lubrecht & Cramer, Monticello, NY. 673 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Marr, K.L. and B.A. Bohm. 1997. A taxonomic revision of the endemic Hawaiian Lysimachia (Primulaceae) including three new species. Pacific Science Vol. 51(3): 254-287.

  • Perlman, S. 1995. Kauai bog survey report. Unpublished report dated January 1995.

  • Russell, C. 2002. February-last update. Candidate and Listing Priority Assignment Form: Lysimachia daphnoides. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Program. Online. Available: http://ecos.fws.gov/tess/candforms_pdf/r1/lysdap.pdf. Accessed 2003, March 5.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2004, June last update. Species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Lysimachia daphnoides. United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Endangered Species Program. Online. Available: http://ecos.fws.gov/species_profile/servlet/gov.doi.species_profile.servlets.SpeciesProfile?spcode=Q35G (Accessed May 2006).

  • Wagner, W.L., D.R. Herbst, and S.H. Sohmer. 1990. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Univ. Hawaii Press and Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1853 pp.

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