Lysimachia asperulifolia - Poir.
Roughleaf Loosestrife
Other English Common Names: Roughleaf Yellow Loosestrife
Other Common Names: roughleaf yellow loosestrife
Synonym(s): Lysimachia asperulaefolia Poir.
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Lysimachia asperulifolia Poir. (TSN 23986)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.129563
Element Code: PDPRI07010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Primrose Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Primulales Primulaceae Lysimachia
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Lysimachia asperulifolia
Taxonomic Comments: Distinct species in large genus (ca. 160 species worldwide); somewhat related to Lysimachia loomisii (also endemic to the Carolinas), L. terrestris, & L. quadrifolia. Originially published under the spelling L. asperulAEfolia but that spelling is considered incorrect under the current code of botanical nomenclature (International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, St. Luis, 2000, Art. 60.8).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 21Apr1993
Global Status Last Changed: 03Dec1993
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: There are sixty-four extant populations, clustered into a few "metapopulations" in small areas of the Coastal Plain of North Carolina (with one site in adjacent South Carolina). These probably include a low number of genetic individuals as the plants are clonal and sexual reproduction rates appear to be poor. There are sixteen extirpated populations and the species continues to decline due to landscape trends that are accelerating, especially fire suppression and recreational, industrial, and residential development. Using prescribed burns as a management tool is often difficult or prohibitively dangerous due to the typically high fuel loads within the shrubby pocosins. Where burning does occur, however, the species appears to be able to rebound vigorously - at one site, a sizeable population appeared only months after a fire went through an area that had previously been thick with 2 m tall shrubs.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States North Carolina (S3), South Carolina (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (12Jul1987)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R4 - Southeast

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: HISTORIC RANGE: The estimated historical range of Lysimachia asperulifolia extended from the Outer Coastal Plain of North Carolina to the Sandhills region of the North and South Carolina, from Beaufort County, North Carolina, to Richland County, South Carolina. Since this species' discovery in 1814, it has been collected from twelve counties in North Carolina but is now believed extirpated from two, Columbus and Richmond counties (USFWS 1993). It has also been collected from Darlington and Richland counties, South Carolina, but is now considered extirpated in Darlington County (USFWS 1993). Many of the earlier reported occurrences have been destroyed primarily due to drainage and conversion of habitat for agriculture and silviculture and secondarily due to fire suppression (NCNHP 1993). In North Carolina, fourteen occurrences are considered historic or extirpated (year last seen follows in parentheses): Beaufort (1938), Brunswick (1962, 1966, 1981), Columbus (1938), Cumberland (2-1902, 1904, 1957), Onslow (1971), Pamlico (1948), Pender (1879, 1954), and Richmond (1935) counties (NCNHP 1993). In South Carolina, two occurrences are considered historic or extirpated: Darlington (1957) and Richland (no date) counties (SCHT 1992). CURRENT RANGE: Lysimachia asperulifolia is endemic to the Coastal Plain and Sandhill regions of southeastern North Carolina and northern South Carolina. The current extant occurrences in North Carolina are located in (number of occurrences in parentheses): Beaufort (1), Bladen (1), Brunswick (9), Carteret (9), Cumberland (11.5*), Harnett (1), Hoke (15.5*), Onslow (3), Pamlico (1), Pender (1), and Scotland (4) counties (*one occurrence with 22 sites straddles the Hoke/Cumberland county line) (NCNHP 1993). One extant population located in Richland County in the Inner Coastal Plain of South Carolina is the first verified report for South Carolina in this century (SCHT 1992). For purposes of recovery planning, the Technical Draft Recovery Plan identifies nine population centers based on the grouping of sites by geographic center. Each population center is isolated from other centers by loss of habitat between. Preserving each population center is important for maintaining genetic variation within the species. The nine population centers are: (1) Pamlico/Beaufort counties (2 sites), (2) Croatan National Forest (9 sites), (3) Camp Lejeune (3 sites), (4) Holly Shelter area (1 site), (5) Brunswick County (10 sites), (6) Bladen Lakes area (3 sites), (7) Fort Bragg (73 sites), (8) Sandhills Game Land/Camp MacKall (5 sites), and (9) South Carolina Sandhills (1 site) (USFWS 1993).

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: Sixty-four extant populations, clustered in a few small areas in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina and one in South Carolina; sixteen extirpated populations.

Population Size Comments: This species is clonal and many of the populations may consist of only one or a few individuals.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: The primary threat to Lysimachia asperulifolia is fire suppression or infrequent fires. Without fire, habitats become overgrown, and woody encroachment eventually results in a loss of habitat. This is particularly true of pocosins because, even where controlled burns are regularly administered, pocosin vegetation is usually not allowed to burn due to the large fuel loads. The placement of fire plowlines in ecotones which border pocosins further complicates the matter by preventing pocosin burns, destroying L. asperulifolia occurrences, and altering soil hydrology. Other serious threats include silvicultural and agricultural practices, such as ditching, draining, disking, and V-blading, which cause soil hydrology and siltation problems. Additional threats include recreational, residential and industrial development, road expansion, timber harvesting, and military training, which physically destroy plants and habitat.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: HISTORIC RANGE: The estimated historical range of Lysimachia asperulifolia extended from the Outer Coastal Plain of North Carolina to the Sandhills region of the North and South Carolina, from Beaufort County, North Carolina, to Richland County, South Carolina. Since this species' discovery in 1814, it has been collected from twelve counties in North Carolina but is now believed extirpated from two, Columbus and Richmond counties (USFWS 1993). It has also been collected from Darlington and Richland counties, South Carolina, but is now considered extirpated in Darlington County (USFWS 1993). Many of the earlier reported occurrences have been destroyed primarily due to drainage and conversion of habitat for agriculture and silviculture and secondarily due to fire suppression (NCNHP 1993). In North Carolina, fourteen occurrences are considered historic or extirpated (year last seen follows in parentheses): Beaufort (1938), Brunswick (1962, 1966, 1981), Columbus (1938), Cumberland (2-1902, 1904, 1957), Onslow (1971), Pamlico (1948), Pender (1879, 1954), and Richmond (1935) counties (NCNHP 1993). In South Carolina, two occurrences are considered historic or extirpated: Darlington (1957) and Richland (no date) counties (SCHT 1992). CURRENT RANGE: Lysimachia asperulifolia is endemic to the Coastal Plain and Sandhill regions of southeastern North Carolina and northern South Carolina. The current extant occurrences in North Carolina are located in (number of occurrences in parentheses): Beaufort (1), Bladen (1), Brunswick (9), Carteret (9), Cumberland (11.5*), Harnett (1), Hoke (15.5*), Onslow (3), Pamlico (1), Pender (1), and Scotland (4) counties (*one occurrence with 22 sites straddles the Hoke/Cumberland county line) (NCNHP 1993). One extant population located in Richland County in the Inner Coastal Plain of South Carolina is the first verified report for South Carolina in this century (SCHT 1992). For purposes of recovery planning, the Technical Draft Recovery Plan identifies nine population centers based on the grouping of sites by geographic center. Each population center is isolated from other centers by loss of habitat between. Preserving each population center is important for maintaining genetic variation within the species. The nine population centers are: (1) Pamlico/Beaufort counties (2 sites), (2) Croatan National Forest (9 sites), (3) Camp Lejeune (3 sites), (4) Holly Shelter area (1 site), (5) Brunswick County (10 sites), (6) Bladen Lakes area (3 sites), (7) Fort Bragg (73 sites), (8) Sandhills Game Land/Camp MacKall (5 sites), and (9) South Carolina Sandhills (1 site) (USFWS 1993).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States NC, SC

Range Map
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U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NC Beaufort (37013), Bladen (37017), Brunswick (37019), Carteret (37031), Columbus (37047)*, Craven (37049), Cumberland (37051), Harnett (37085), Hoke (37093), Montgomery (37123)*, Moore (37125)*, New Hanover (37129), Onslow (37133), Pamlico (37137), Pender (37141), Richmond (37153), Scotland (37165)
SC Chesterfield (45025)*, Darlington (45031)*, Marlboro (45069)*, Richland (45079)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Lower Tar (03020103)+*, Pamlico (03020104)+, Middle Neuse (03020202)+*, Lower Neuse (03020204)+, White Oak River (03020301)+, New River (03020302)+, Upper Cape Fear (03030004)+, Lower Cape Fear (03030005)+, Northeast Cape Fear (03030007)+, Lower Pee Dee (03040201)+, Lumber (03040203)+, Little Pee Dee (03040204)+, Waccamaw (03040206)+, Coastal Carolina (03040208)+, Wateree (03050104)+, Congaree (03050110)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: An erect perennial herb which can grow up to 6 dm tall and which bears a terminal spike of showy, yellow, star-shaped flowers in the spring. The leaves are arranged in whorls of 3 around the stem.
General Description: An erect, rhizomatous, spring-flowering, perennial herb which grows to 6 dm tall. Its leaves are mostly 3-whorled, lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, sessile, and 2-4 cm long. The inflorescence is terminal with 5-petaled, showy, yellow flowers. The fruit is an ovoid or subglobose capsule, 3-4.5 mm in diameter, with several somewhat winged seeds.
Technical Description: An erect, herbaceous, rhizomatous perennial, 3-7 dm tall. Stems slender, somewhat stiff, terete, rarely branched below the inflorescence, internodes progressively lengthening up the stem, below with pinkish tones and finely ribbed, above pale yellow-green and ribless, proximally smooth, distally and in the inflorescence stipitate glandular, glands reddish. Leaves entire or slightly revolute, simple, sessile, somewhat stiff, glaucescent below, whitish punctate dots above particularly near the base and along the veins, with 3 principle, distinct, palmate veins impressed above and strongly raised below. Lowermost leaves erect(?), scaly, firm, brownish, mostly narrowly triangular, in whorls of 3(-4) (rarely 6 or 7, or opposite), 1 cm or less in length. Upper leaves spreading, deep (yellow-)green above, lower surface much paler, lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, broadly to narrowly triangular, 2-5 cm long, 0.8-2 cm wide, opposite or more commonly in whorls of 3-4, apex acute or acuminate, base rounded to truncate, broadest at the base. Inflorescence compact to somewhat loose, terminal raceme, 3-10 cm long. Pedicels spreading or ascending, slender, straight, 8-10 mm long, pale green, stipitate-glandular-puberulent, subtended by a whorl of bracts smaller than the stem leaves. Flowers bisexual, regular, showy. Calyx of 5 sepals united only at the base into a short tube, lobes narrowly triangular and spreading, green, strongly dotted with red glands, glandular-pubescent, 3-6 mm long. Corolla of 5(4-7) petals united only at base into a short tube, lobes spreading oblanceolate or spatulate, apex acute to acuminate, base cuneate, margin ragged apically and entire basally, upper surface yellow streaked medially with reddish-orange glands, margins above and below stipitate-glandular with yellow glands, 5-10 mm long. Stamens 5, erect, epipetalous toward petal base, 3-3.5 mm long, stipitate-glandular, anthers yellow-orange, longitudinally dehiscing, pollen tricolpate, spherical. Ovary green, superior, concealed in staminal tube, style elongate and slender, stigma slightly expanded, ovules many (average 15.8 per ovary). Fruit 5-valved, broadly ovoid or subglobose capsule, 3-4.5 mm long, stipitate-glandular, style persistent on one valve, straw colored with red mottlings. Seeds many, angular, somewhat winged, whitish to tan (Godfrey and Wooten, 1981; Kral, 1983; Radford et al., 1968).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Lysimachia asperulifolia can be distinguished from other L. species by leaf and habitat characteristics. L. loomisii inhabits savannas and pocosin ecotones often with L. asperulifolia, yet differs from it by having opposite or subopposite, narrow leaves, widest near the middle, with only one prominent leaf vein. L. quadrifolia can occur in pine savannas of the coastal plain and has whorled leaves (usually 4 per whorl) but differs from L. asperulifolia by having wider, longer leaves that taper basally, and axillary flowers. L. terrestris inhabits swamps and wet thickets and has flowers in racemes and leaves that are widest above the base unlike L. asperulifolia, yet they differ because L. terrestris has opposite leaves with one prominent vein and glabrate inflorescences. Sabatia difformis is similar to L. asperulifolia because of its leaf shape and color, racemose inflorescences, and 3-to 10-dm height, yet differs from it by having leaves that are usually opposite and flowers that are white.
Duration: PERENNIAL
Palustrine Habitat(s): SCRUB-SHRUB WETLAND
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest/Woodland, Grassland/herbaceous, Savanna, Woodland - Conifer
Habitat Comments: Rough-leaf loosestrife occurs most often in ecotones between longleaf pine uplands and pond pine pocosins in moist, sandy or peaty soils with low vegetation that allows for abundant sunlight to the herb layer (USFWS 1993). Fire is primarily responsible for maintaining low vegetation in these ecotones which have been documented to occur between the following habitat types: longleaf pine savanna and pocosin; longleaf pine flatwood and pocosin; longleaf pine savanna and mixed herb; longleaf pine-pond pine and evergreen shrub; longleaf pine/wiregrass savanna and Carolina bay pocosin; Streamhead Pocosin and Pine/Scrub Oak Sandhill; and Sandhill Seep and Pine/Scrub Oak Sandhill (NCNHP 1993). This species often spreads from the ecotone into the open edges of the bordering habitats, for example into longleaf pine savannas and low shrub communities of Carolina bays. Other habitats and community types in which it has been found include: Low Pocosin, High Pocosin, Wet Pine Flatwoods, Pine Savanna, Streamhead Pocosin, and Sandhill Seep (Schafale and Weakley 1990), as well as creek flood basins, pond and lake margins, boggy seeps and meadows, boggy pools in shrub pocosins, and disturbed areas such as roadside depressions, powerline rights-of-way, firebreaks, and trails. In the NC Sandhills, Lysimachia asperulifolia prefers to be in lower parts of the ecotone, well within the shrub zone, even when such ecotones are well-burned. On Fort Bragg, a sizeable occurrence was found in a shrub ecotone/pocosin that had burned within four months of its discovery; most shrubs there had been 2 meters or more tall prior to burning. Low Pocosins occur in areas with deep peat overlaying wet sands and in Carolina bays. They are nutrient-poor, seasonally saturated, and dominated by a dense shrub layer, kept small by low nutrients and severe fires. L. asperulifolia occupies openings in the dense shrub layer (USFWS 1993). Rough-leaf loosestrife is also found in the ecotones between Wet Pine Flatwoods or Pine Savannas and High Pocosins where the water table is near the surface during winter and early spring. If burned, these ecotones remain open with characteristic grasses, herbs, and low shrubs (USFWS 1993). Common associated shrub and tree species include Aronia arbutifolia, Arundinaria tecta, Clethra alnifolia, Cyrilla racemiflora, Fothergilla gardenii, Gaylussacia frondosa, Ilex glabra, Kalmia carolina, Lyonia lucida, Magnolia virginiana, Myrica cerifera var. cerifera, Osmunda cinnamomea, Persea palustris, Pinus serotina, Smilax laurifolia, Symplocos tinctoria, Vaccinium spp., and Woodwardia virginica (LeBlond 1993, NCNHP 1993). Common herb associates include Andropogon glomeratus, Aristida stricta, A. virgata, Carex striata, Chasmanthium laxum, Dichanthelium dichotomum var. mattamuskeetense, Drosera intermedia, D. capillaris, Lachnanthes caroliniana, Lachnocaulon anceps, Lysimachia loomisii, Peltandra sagittifolia, Polygala lutea, Rhexia alifanus, R. petiolata, Rhynchospora gracilenta, Sarracenia flava, S. rubra, Solidago stricta, Sphagnum spp., and Xyris spp. (LeBlond 1993, NCNHP 1993). The following rare species are also often associated with it: Calamovilfa brevipilis, Carex turgescens, Dionaea muscipula, Eupatorium resinosum, Kalmia cuneata, Lilium iridollae, Lindera subcoriacea, Lycopus cokeri, Oxypolis ternata, Parnassia caroliniana, Rhexia aristosa, Rhynchospora macra, R. oligantha, R. pallida, R. stenophylla, Solidago pulchra, S. verna, Sporobolus sp. 1, and Tofieldia glabra (TNC 1991-93, LeBlond 1993, NCNHP 1993). L. asperulifolia generally occurs on acidic, moist to seasonally saturated sands and on acidic, shallow, organic soils overlaying sand. It has also been found to grow on shallow, poorly drained, deep peat soils of Carolina bays and low pocosins. Examples of soil types on which this species has been found include: Leon (Aeric Haplaquod), Murville (Typic Haplaquod), Torhunta (Typic Humaquepts), Mandarin (Typic Haplohumod), Aeric Paleaquults, Typic Paleudults, Blaney (Arenic Hapludults), Gilead (Aquic Hapludults), Johnston (Cumulic Humaquepts), and Kalmia and Vaucluse (Typic Hapludults) (Frantz 1983a, Hudson 1984, Barnhill 1986, NCNHP 1993).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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Justification: Use the Generic Guidelines for the Application of Occurrence Ranks (2008).
The Key for Ranking Species Occurrences Using the Generic Approach provides a step-wise process for implementing this method.

Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 16Dec1993
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Mary J. Russo (1993), rev. Maybury/Amoroso 6/96
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 25Jun1992

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2009. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 8. Magnoliophyta: Paeoniaceae to Ericaceae. Oxford University Press, New York. xxiv + 585 pp.

  • Frantz, V. 1995. Rough-leaved loostrife recovery plan. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Atlanta, GA. 31 pp.

  • Frantz, V.L. 1983a. Analysis of the habitat of Lysimachia asperulifolia. Unpublished paper.

  • Frantz, V.L. 1983b. Rare plant and habitat monitoring program Green Swamp Nature Preserve. Report to the North Carolina Nature Conservancy, Carrboro.

  • Frantz, V.L. 1984. Reproduction biology of the Atlantic Coastal Plain endemic, Lysimachia asperulaefolia (Primulaceae). Report to the North Carolina Plant Conservation Program, Raleigh, NC.

  • Godfrey, R.K., and J.W. Wooten. 1981. Aquatic and wetland plants of southeastern United States: Dicotyledons. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens. 933 pp.

  • Hudson, B.D. 1984. Soil survey of Cumberland and Hoke counties, North Carolina. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, Washington, DC. 155 pp. + maps.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kral, R. 1983c. A report on some rare, threatened, or endangered forest-related vascular plants of the South. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service Technical Publication R8-TP2, Athens, GA. 1305 pp.

  • LeBlond, R. 1993. Letter of May 28 to Christa Russell.

  • Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pp.

  • Small, J.K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora. Two volumes. Hafner Publishing Company, New York.

  • TNC [The Nature Conservancy] and NCNHP [North Carolina Natural Heritage Program]. 1993. Rare and endangered plant survey and natural area inventory for Fort Bragg and Camp MacKall military reservations, North Carolina. Unpublished report by M. J. Russo, B. A. Sorrie, B. van Eerden, and T. Hippensteel. Contract #M67004-91-D-0010. The Nature Conservancy and North Carolina Division of Parks and Recreation, Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Raleigh, NC.

  • The Nature Conservancy. 1993. Rare and endangered plant survey and natural area inventory of Fort Bragg and Camp MacKall military reservations, North Carolina. Final report by The Nature Conservancy, Sandhills Field Office, December 1993.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1987. Determination of endangered status for Lysimachia asperulaefolia. Federal Register 52(113): 22585-22589.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1995. Rough-leaved loosestrife recovery plan. Atlanta, GA. 31 pp.

  • Weakley, A. S., compiler. 1993. Natural Heritage Program list of the rare plant species of North Carolina. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program. Raleigh. 79 pp.

  • Weakley, A.S. 1993. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program list of the rare plant species of North Carolina. Draft North Carolina Natural Heritage Program list of the watch list plant species. Natural Heritage Program, North Carolina Dept. Environment, Health and Natural Resources, Raleigh.

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