Lymnaea stagnalis - Linnaeus, 1758
Swamp Lymnaea
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Lymnaea stagnalis (Linnaeus, 1758) (TSN 76487)
French Common Names: grande lymnée des étangs
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.109532
Element Code: IMGASL2020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Mollusks - Freshwater Snails
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mollusca Gastropoda Basommatophora Lymnaeidae Lymnaea
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn, Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione, and J.D. Williams. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks. 2nd Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26, Bethesda, Maryland: 526 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B98TUR01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Lymnaea stagnalis
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 09Oct2008
Global Status Last Changed: 14Sep1999
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: This species has a very wide range with a global distribution and is often common when found. It is listed as secure in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (14Sep1999)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (14Sep1999)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alaska (SNR), California (SNR), Colorado (S2), Idaho (SNR), Illinois (SNR), Indiana (S2), Iowa (SNR), Kentucky (SNR), Maine (SNR), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (S5), Montana (SNR), New York (S3), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (SNR), Oregon (S2), Pennsylvania (SNR), South Dakota (SNR), Utah (SH), Vermont (SNR), Washington (SNR), Wisconsin (S4S5), Wyoming (S3)
Canada Alberta (S5), British Columbia (S5), Labrador (SNR), Manitoba (SNR), Newfoundland Island (SNR), Northwest Territories (SNR), Nunavut (SU), Ontario (S5), Quebec (SNR), Saskatchewan (SNR), Yukon Territory (SNR)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Nominal Lymnaea stagnalis extends over almost the whole of Europe and the western part of North Africa; all of Asia with the exception of the most southern regions, and probably also the extreme north-eastern region; extending from Asia Minor, Syria and Iran in the south, to Obdorsk in the north and Kamchatka in the east; and is widely distributed in North America, where it inhabits the region of the Great Lakes in a north-westerly direction to the Yukon River in Alaska and the western states to the north of the 37th parallel (largely absent from the east coast of North America and absent from Greenland and Iceland) (Hubendick, 1951). Burch (1989) cites distribution of Lymnaea stagnalis appressa as Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River drainage area, northwest to the Mackenzie and Yukon River drainage areas, west to the Rocky Mountains, some in the Rocky Mountains to Colorado, and in Illinois and Ohio in the Mississippi drainage. Burch (1989) cites distribution of Lymnaea stagnalis sanctaemariae as Lake Superior drainage area and adjacent parts of the Lake Huron, Wisconsin River and Winnipeg River drainage areas. Clarke (1981) lists Lymnaea stagnalis jugularis from Alberta and Saskatchewan.

Area of Occupancy: >12,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: It has been documented in Alaska in the North Gulf Coast and potentially elsewhere (Baxter, 1987). In Kentucky, it has been documented in the Kentucky River drainage (Lake Arlington) (Branson and Batch, 1981). In Indiana, Pyron et al. (2008) found it at Bass Lake, Starke Co. (of 123 sites surveyed statewide) compared historically to streams of the northern part of the state and in Lake Michigan (Goodrich and van der Schalie, 1944). It occurs throughout Alberta (Lepitzki, 2001) including Colin-Cornwall Lakes Wildlands Park (Nordstrom, 2003; as subspecies jugularis).

Population Size: >1,000,000 individuals

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very many (>125)

Overall Threat Impact: Low

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Not intrinsically vulnerable

Environmental Specificity: Broad. Generalist or community with all key requirements common.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Nominal Lymnaea stagnalis extends over almost the whole of Europe and the western part of North Africa; all of Asia with the exception of the most southern regions, and probably also the extreme north-eastern region; extending from Asia Minor, Syria and Iran in the south, to Obdorsk in the north and Kamchatka in the east; and is widely distributed in North America, where it inhabits the region of the Great Lakes in a north-westerly direction to the Yukon River in Alaska and the western states to the north of the 37th parallel (largely absent from the east coast of North America and absent from Greenland and Iceland) (Hubendick, 1951). Burch (1989) cites distribution of Lymnaea stagnalis appressa as Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River drainage area, northwest to the Mackenzie and Yukon River drainage areas, west to the Rocky Mountains, some in the Rocky Mountains to Colorado, and in Illinois and Ohio in the Mississippi drainage. Burch (1989) cites distribution of Lymnaea stagnalis sanctaemariae as Lake Superior drainage area and adjacent parts of the Lake Huron, Wisconsin River and Winnipeg River drainage areas. Clarke (1981) lists Lymnaea stagnalis jugularis from Alberta and Saskatchewan.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, CA, CO, IA, ID, IL, IN, KY, ME, MI, MN, MT, ND, NY, OH, OR, PA, SD, UT, VT, WA, WI, WY
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NF, NT, NU, ON, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CO Eagle (08037)*, Lake (08065)*
ID Blaine (16013)
IN La Porte (18091), Marshall (18099), St. Joseph (18141)
UT Cache (49005)*, Davis (49011)*, Garfield (49017)*, Morgan (49029)*, Rich (49033)*, Salt Lake (49035)*, Utah (49049)*, Weber (49057)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
04 St. Joseph (04050001)+
07 Kankakee (07120001)+
11 Arkansas Headwaters (11020001)+*
14 Colorado headwaters (14010001)+*
16 Bear Lake (16010201)+*, Middle Bear (16010202)+*, Little Bear-Logan (16010203)+*, Lower Weber (16020102)+*, Utah Lake (16020201)+*, Spanish Fork (16020202)+*, Provo (16020203)+*, Jordan (16020204)+*, Great Salt Lake (16020310)+*, Upper Sevier (16030001)+*
17 Little Wood (17040221)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Freshwater Snails

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on some evidence of historical or current presence of single or multiple specimens, including live specimens or recently dead shells (i.e., soft tissue still attached without signs of external weathering or staining), at a given location with potentially recurring existence. Weathered shells constitute a historic occurrence. Evidence is derived from reliable published observation or collection data; unpublished, though documented (i.e. government or agency reports, web sites, etc.) observation or collection data; or museum specimen information.
Mapping Guidance: Unlike most freshwater mussels [possibly excepting Uniomerus tetralasmus (Say, 1831) (see Isley, 1914)], some freshwater pulmonates are able to survive in intermittent streams and ponds by settling into sediment on the bottom and aestivating in otherwise dry or frozen conditions. Some species (e.g. Stagnicola spp.) may form a sheet of mucus just within the aperture called an epiphragm that effectively seals the snail from harsh external conditions (Jokinen, 1978; Brown, 1991). For ephemeral or intermittent water species, it may be particularly difficult to define the limits of an occurrence. Movement out of the water for the purposes of aestivation is on the order of cm (Jokinen, 1978), not m or km, so this behavior should not affect separation distance between occurrences. Species that may be found in intermittent waters include: Aplexa elongata, Fossaria bulimoides, F. dalli, F. modicella, F. obrussa, F. parva, Gyraulus circumstriatus, G. crista, G. parvus, Laevapex fuscus, Physa vernalis, Physella gyrina, Planorbella campestris, Planorbula armigera, Stagnicola caperata, S. elodes, S. exilis.
Separation Barriers: Separation barriers are largely based on permanent hydrological discontinuity between water bodies, with distances of 30 meters or greater between maximum high water marks constituting a separation barrier. Additional barriers are chemical and/or physical and include any connecting water body (regardless of size) with one or more of the following on a permanent basis: no dissolved calcium content, acidity greater than pH 5, lack of dissolved oxygen, extremely high salinity such as that found in saline lakes and brine waters, or temperature greater than 45

An additional physical barrier, particularly for flowing water, is presence of upland habitat between water connections. High waterfalls and anthropogenic barriers to water flow such as dams are barriers as they limit movement in an upstream direction.

Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 2 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: Freshwater cave species (mostly prosobranchs) may occur near entrances to very deep in cave systems with specimens occurring on the undersides of small stones in riffle areas (Hershler et al., 1990). For cave species, separation distance cannot often be determined accurately due to varying degrees of accessibility to occupied cave habitat. In these instances, each cave where an observation or collection was recorded (see Minimum EO Criteria, above) constitutes an element occurrence regardless of separation distance. Multiple caves within a single hydrological cave system are each considered separately. Caves with multiple entrances and passages known to be connected, but with connecting passages too small or unsafe for human entry shall be treated as a single element occurrence when the non-negotiable portion of the cave is thought to be less than approximately 300 m linear length. Species known to occur in caves include: Amnicola cora, Antrobia spp., Antrobis spp., Antroselates spp., Dasyscias spp., Fontigens aldrichi, F. antroecetes, F. bottimeri, F. morrisoni, F. nickliniana, F. orolibas, F. prosperpina, F. tartarea, F. turritella, Holsingeria spp., Phreatodrobia spp., Stygopyrgus spp.
Separation Justification: Freshwater snails have adapted to most North American habitats including permanent standing, intermittent, and flowing waters. As a whole, pulmonates (previously Subclass Pulmonata) are better dispersers than prosobranchs (previously Subclass Prosobranchia). Pulmonates adapt better to changing temperature and oxygen concentration, resist desiccation better (use pulmonary respiration, store excreted nitrogen as urea, aestivate), and have faster crawling rates (including righting response and actual movement rate) than prosobranchs (Brown et al., 1998). Some species are more tolerant to adverse habitat conditions such as high pollution levels (e.g. Physella spp.), high altitude [e.g. Acroloxus coloradensis (Henderson, 1930)], underground cave pools and springs (e.g. Fontigens spp., Phreatodrobia spp.) and hot springs (e.g. Pyrgulopsis spp.).

Precise geographic distribution of many American freshwater snails is not known but presumably reflects past geological, geographic, and climatic change (Smith, 1989). Movements between isolated or inaccessible portions of water bodies is possible but dependent on outside, passive processes (e.g. rafting, periodic flooding, transport by vertebrates, introduction by humans). Long-distance dispersal is generally not considered when assigning separation distances as otherwise impracticably large separation distances would result.

Several factors contribute to limiting freshwater snail distribution but none apply across diverse habitats or taxa. Approximately 95% of all freshwater gastropods are restricted to waters with calcium concentrations greater than 3 mg/liter (Brown, 1991; for exceptions see Jokinen, 1983). Calcium uptake for shell construction requires energy expenditure (active transport) when calcium concentration is low, but is passive at higher concentrations (Greenaway, 1971). Typically, no known biotic or abiotic factors consistently limit the abundance or distribution of freshwater gastropods among sites (DeVries et al., 2003). At specific localities, limiting factors may include hardness, acidity, dissolved oxygen, salinity, high temperature, and food availability as associated with depth (Smith, 1989). Most species and the largest populations occur in hard, alkaline waters with normal range 20-180 ppm (Shoup, 1943; Harman, 1974). Snails are uncommon in habitats with surface acidity greater than pH 5 (see also Jokinen, 1983). Dissolved oxygen limits diversity so severely polluted waters (oxygen consumed by algae blooms) are often devoid of freshwater snails excepting pollution tolerant species. Because pulmonates can utilize atmospheric oxygen, they can exist under anaerobic conditions for longer time periods (Harman and Berg, 1971; Harman, 1974; McMahon, 1983). High salinity is limiting to freshwater gastropods and inland saline lakes generally lack an associated snail fauna. Most species (excepting hot springs species) are intolerant of temperatures greater than 45ºC (McDonald, 1969; van der Schalie and Berry, 1973), a condition rarely occurring naturally. Lower temperatures are less limiting as snails have been found foraging in ice-covered waters (Harman and Berg, 1971; Harman, 1974). Most species live in the shallows, (depths less than 3 m) where food abundance is greatest. As a result, drastic water fluctuations (draw-downs) may cause declines in snail populations (Hunt and Jones, 1972).

Any contiguous, occupied stretch of suitable flowing water habitat 2 km long or greater is considered an element occurrence. Two km was chosen based upon the limited active movement capabilities of most benthic invertebrates and observed home range of freshwater snails (J. Cordeiro, personal observation) as well as the relatively short life span of most species (five years for most stream species and two years for most pond species).

Date: 18Oct2004
Author: Cordeiro, J.
Notes: Prosobranchs: Neritidae: Neritina; Viviparidae: Campeloma, Cipangopaludina, Lioplax, Tulotoma, Viviparus; Ampullariidae: Marisa, Pomacea; Pleuroceridae: Elimia, Goniobasis, Gyrotoma, Io, Juga, Leptoxis, Lithasia, Pleurocera; Thiaridae: Melanoides, Tarebia; Bithyniidae: Bithynia; Hydrobiidae: Amnicola, Antrobia, Antrorbis, Antroselates, Aphaostracon, Balconorbis, Birgella, Cincinnatia, Clappia, Cochliopa, Cochliopina, Colligyrus, Dasyscias, Eremopyrgus, Floridiscrobs, Fluminicola, Fontelicella, Fontigens, Gillia, Heleobops, Holsingeria, Hoyia, Hydrobia, Lepyrium, Littoridina, Littoridinops, Lyogyrus, Notogillia, Onobops, Paludina, Phreatoceras, Phreatodrobia, Potamopyrgus, Pristinicola, Probythinella, Pyrgophorus, Pyrgulopsis, Rhapinema, Somatogyrus, Spilochlamys, Spurwinkia, Stiobia, Stygopyrgus, Taylorconcha, Texadina, Texapyrgu, Tryonia; Assimineidae: Assiminea; Pomatiopsidae: Pomatiopsis, Heterostropha; Valvatidae: Valvata
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 09Oct2008
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Cordeiro, J.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Andersen, M.D. and B. Heidel. 2011. HUC-based species range maps. Prepared by Wyoming Natural Diversity Database for use in the pilot WISDOM application operational from inception to yet-to-be-determined date of update of tool.

  • Baxter, R. 1987. Mollusks of Alaska: a listing of all mollusks, freshwater, terrestrial, and marine reported from the State of Alaska, with locations of the species types, maximum sizes and marine depths inhabited. Shells and Sea Life, Bayside, California. 163 pp.

  • Branson, B.A. and D.L. Batch. 1981. Distributional records for gastropods and sphaeriid clams of the Kentucky and Licking Rivers and Tygarts Creek drainages, Kentucky. Brimleyana, 7: 137-144.

  • Burch, J.B. 1989. North American Freshwater Snails. Malacological Publications: Hamburg, Michigan. 365 pp.

  • Clarke, A.H. 1981a. The freshwater mollusks of Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences, National Museums of Canada, D. W. Friesen and Sons, Ltd.: Ottawa, Canada. 446 pp.

  • Goodrich, C. and H. van der Schalie. 1944. A revision of the Mollusca of Indiana. The American Midland Naturalist, 32: 257-326.

  • Hubendick, B. 1951. Recent Lymnaeidae. Their variation, morphology, taxonomy, nomenclature, and distribution. Kunglica Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar Series 4, 3(1): 1-223.

  • Lepitzki, D.A.W. 2001. Gastropods: 2000 preliminary status ranks for Alberta. Unpublished report prepared for Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, Fish and Wildlife Division, Edmonton, Alberta. 126 pp.

  • Nordstrom, W. 2003. Mollusc records from Colin-Cornwall Lakes Wildland Park. Unpublished report prepared for the Parks and Protected Areas Division, Alberta Community Development, November 2003, 11 pp.

  • Pip, E. 2000. The decline of freshwater molluscs in southern Manitoba. Canadian Field Naturalist 114(4):555-560.

  • Pyron, M., J. Beaugly, E. Martin, and M. Spielman. 2008. Conservation of the freshwater gastropods of Indiana: Historic and current distributions. American Malacological Bulletin, 26: 137-151.

  • Stephen, B.J. and V.B. Winkler. 2007. A survey of the freshwater snails of the major ecoregions of South Dakota. Ellipsaria, 9(1): 14-15.

  • Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn, Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione, and J.D. Williams. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks. 2nd Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26, Bethesda, Maryland: 526 pp.

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