Luxilus chrysocephalus - Rafinesque, 1820
Striped Shiner
Synonym(s): Notropis chrysocephalus (Rafinesque, 1820)
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Luxilus chrysocephalus Rafinesque, 1820 (TSN 163832)
French Common Names: méné rayé
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.105429
Element Code: AFCJB51040
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Minnows and Carps
Image 256

© Noel Burkhead & Virginia Dept of Game and Inland Fisheries (Fishes of Virginia)

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Luxilus
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Luxilus chrysocephalus
Taxonomic Comments: Biochemical analyses support recognition of Luxilus cornutus and L. chrysocephalus as distinct species (Dowling and Moore 1984), though the two species are not reproductively isolated in some localities in a contact zone in northern Illinois, northern Indiana, northern Ohio, southern Michigan, southern Ontario, western New York, and western Pennsylvania (Dowling et al. 1989); see also Gleason and Berra 1993). Dowling and Hoeh (1991) examined mtDNA introgression and found evidence of a more southward position of the contact zone in previous times. The two species differ ecologically and physiologically and there is selection against hybrids; the boundaries of the contact zone may be maintained by an environmentally based selection gradient in the face of considerable levels of gene flow (Dowling and Hoeh 1991).

See Dowling et al. (1992) for information on evolutionary relationships among Luxilus shiners based on mtDNA data. See Powers and Gold (1992) for information on phylogenetic relationships among Luxilus shiners based on an analysis of chromosomal NOR variation. Removed from genus Notropis and placed in genus (formerly subgenus) Luxilus by Mayden (1989) and Coburn and Cavender (1992); this change was adopted in the latest AFS checklist (Robins et al. 1991).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 16Jan2013
Global Status Last Changed: 18Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N4 (22Dec2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S5), Arkansas (S5), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S3), Illinois (S5), Indiana (S5), Kansas (S1), Kentucky (S4S5), Louisiana (S5), Maryland (S1S2), Michigan (S3), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (SNR), New York (S3), North Carolina (S1), Ohio (S5), Pennsylvania (S5), Tennessee (S5), Texas (S2), Virginia (S3S4), West Virginia (S5), Wisconsin (SH)
Canada Ontario (S4)

Other Statuses

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Not at Risk (01Apr1993)
Comments on COSEWIC: Reason for Designation: Populations of the striped shiner are contiguous with those of the United States, and do not appear to be undergoing demonstrable declines in Canada.

Status History: Designated Not at Risk in April 1993. More recently (2015) considered a low priority candidate for re-assessment.

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range extends from the southern Great Lakes region to the Gulf Coast, between the Appalachians and the Great Plains: Great Lakes and Mississippi River basins, from western New York, southern Ontario, and southeastern Wisconsin, south to Alabama, Louisiana, and eastern Texas; Gulf Coast drainages from Mobile Bay, Georgia and Alabama, to Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana (Gilbert, in Lee et al. 1980; Page and Burr 1991).

Area of Occupancy: >12,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (e.g., see map in Lee et al. 1980).

Population Size: >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 1,000,000. This fish is abundant in the north, common in the south (Page and Burr 1991).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very many (>125)

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats are known. Local declines presumably have resulted from degradation of stream habitat quality.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Warren et al. (2000) categorized this species as "currently stable" in the southeastern United States.

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%
Long-term Trend Comments: Range decline has occurred in some areas (e.g., Wisconsin, Illinois, and parts of Missouri) (Becker 1983, Pflieger 1975, Smith 1979). In Canada, numbers are low and populations appear to be limited by water condition and interspecific competition, but a decline is not evident (Goodchild 1993a, 1993b).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Range extends from the southern Great Lakes region to the Gulf Coast, between the Appalachians and the Great Plains: Great Lakes and Mississippi River basins, from western New York, southern Ontario, and southeastern Wisconsin, south to Alabama, Louisiana, and eastern Texas; Gulf Coast drainages from Mobile Bay, Georgia and Alabama, to Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana (Gilbert, in Lee et al. 1980; Page and Burr 1991).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, FL, GA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MD, MI, MO, MS, NC, NY, OH, PA, TN, TX, VA, WI, WV
Canada ON

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
FL Escambia (12033)
GA Catoosa (13047), Murray (13213), Walker (13295)
KS Cherokee (20021)
MO Bollinger (29017), Cape Girardeau (29031), Perry (29157)
NC Buncombe (37021), Cherokee (37039), Macon (37113), Mitchell (37121), Yancey (37199)
VA Lee (51105), Scott (51169), Washington (51191)
WI Dane (55025)*, Dodge (55027)*, Door (55029)*, Kenosha (55059)*, Milwaukee (55079)*, Ozaukee (55089)*, Racine (55101)*, Sheboygan (55117)*, Walworth (55127)*, Washington (55131)*, Waukesha (55133)*, Waushara (55137)*, Winnebago (55139)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 North Branch Potomac (02070002)
03 Lower Conecuh (03140304), Escambia (03140305)+, Conasauga (03150101)+, Coosawattee (03150102), Oostanaula (03150103), Etowah (03150104), Upper Coosa (03150105), Middle Coosa (03150106), Lower Coosa (03150107), Upper Tallapoosa (03150108), Middle Tallapoosa (03150109), Lower Tallapoosa (03150110), Upper Alabama (03150201), Cahaba (03150202), Middle Alabama (03150203), Lower Alabama (03150204), Upper Tombigbee (03160101), Town (03160102), Buttahatchee (03160103), Tibbee (03160104), Luxapallila (03160105), Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub (03160106), Sipsey (03160107), Noxubee (03160108), Mulberry (03160109), Sipsey Fork (03160110), Locust (03160111), Upper Black Warrior (03160112), Lower Black Warrior (03160113), Middle Tombigbee-Chickasaw (03160201), Sucarnoochee (03160202), Lower Tambigbee (03160203), Mobile - Tensaw (03160204), Chunky-Okatibbee (03170001), Upper Chickasawhay (03170002), Upper Leaf (03170004), Lower Leaf (03170005), Pascagoula (03170006), Black (03170007), Upper Pearl (03180001), Middle Pearl-Strong (03180002), Middle Pearl-Silver (03180003), Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004), Bogue Chitto (03180005)
04 Manitowoc-Sheboygan (04030101)+, Door-Kewaunee (04030102)+*, Upper Fox (04030201)+, Wolf (04030202)+, Little Calumet-Galien (04040001), Milwaukee (04040003)+, St. Joseph (04050001), Black-Macatawa (04050002), Kalamazoo (04050003), Upper Grand (04050004), Maple (04050005), Lower Grand (04050006), Thornapple (04050007), Pere Marquette-White (04060101), Lake Michigan (04060200)*, Kawkawlin-Pine (04080102), Tittabawassee (04080201), Pine (04080202), Shiawassee (04080203), Flint (04080204), Cass (04080205), Saginaw (04080206), Lake St. Clair (04090002), Clinton (04090003), Detroit (04090004), Huron (04090005), Ottawa-Stony (04100001), Raisin (04100002), St. Joseph (04100003), St. Marys (04100004), Upper Maumee (04100005), Tiffin (04100006), Auglaize (04100007), Blanchard (04100008), Lower Maumee (04100009)*, Cedar-Portage (04100010), Sandusky (04100011), Huron-Vermilion (04100012), Black-Rocky (04110001), Cuyahoga (04110002), Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003), Grand (04110004), Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101), Buffalo-Eighteenmile (04120103), Niagara (04120104), Lake Erie (04120200), Oak Orchard-Twelvemile (04130001), Upper Genesee (04130002), Lower Genesee (04130003), Irondequoit-Ninemile (04140101)*, Seneca (04140201)
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001), Conewango (05010002), Middle Allegheny-Tionesta (05010003), French (05010004), Clarion (05010005), Middle Allegheny-Redbank (05010006), Conemaugh (05010007), Kiskiminetas (05010008), Lower Allegheny (05010009), Tygart Valley (05020001), West Fork (05020002), Upper Monongahela (05020003), Cheat (05020004), Lower Monongahela (05020005), Youghiogheny (05020006), Upper Ohio (05030101), Shenango (05030102), Mahoning (05030103), Beaver (05030104), Connoquenessing (05030105), Upper Ohio-Wheeling (05030106), Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201), Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202), Little Kanawha (05030203), Hocking (05030204), Tuscarawas (05040001)*, Mohican (05040002), Walhonding (05040003), Muskingum (05040004), Wills (05040005), Licking (05040006), Middle New (05050002), Greenbrier (05050003), Lower New (05050004), Gauley (05050005), Upper Kanawha (05050006), Elk (05050007), Lower Kanawha (05050008), Coal (05050009), Upper Scioto (05060001), Lower Scioto (05060002), Paint (05060003), Upper Guyandotte (05070101), Lower Guyandotte (05070102), Tug (05070201), Upper Levisa (05070202), Lower Levisa (05070203), Big Sandy (05070204), Upper Great Miami (05080001), Lower Great Miami (05080002), Whitewater (05080003), Raccoon-Symmes (05090101), Twelvepole (05090102), Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103), Little Sandy (05090104), Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201), Little Miami (05090202), Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203), Licking (05100101), South Fork Licking (05100102), North Fork Kentucky (05100201), Middle Fork Kentucky (05100202), South Fork Kentucky (05100203), Upper Kentucky (05100204), Lower Kentucky (05100205), Upper Green (05110001), Barren (05110002), Middle Green (05110003), Rough (05110004), Lower Green (05110005), Pond (05110006), Upper Wabash (05120101), Salamonie (05120102), Mississinewa (05120103), Eel (05120104), Middle Wabash-Deer (05120105), Tippecanoe (05120106), Wildcat (05120107), Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108), Vermilion (05120109), Sugar (05120110), Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111), Embarras (05120112), Lower Wabash (05120113), Little Wabash (05120114), Upper White (05120201), Lower White (05120202), Eel (05120203), Driftwood (05120204), Flatrock-Haw (05120205), Upper East Fork White (05120206), Muscatatuck (05120207), Lower East Fork White (05120208), Patoka (05120209), Upper Cumberland (05130101), Rockcastle (05130102), Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103), South Fork Cumberland (05130104), Obey (05130105), Upper Cumberland-Cordell Hull (05130106), Collins (05130107), Caney (05130108), Lower Cumberland-Old Hickory Lake (05130201), Lower Cumberland-Sycamore (05130202), Stones (05130203), Harpeth (05130204), Lower Cumberland (05130205), Red (05130206), Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Salt (05140102), Rolling Fork (05140103), Blue-Sinking (05140104), Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201), Highland-Pigeon (05140202), Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203), Tradewater (05140205), Lower Ohio (05140206)*
06 North Fork Holston (06010101)+, South Fork Holston (06010102), Watauga (06010103), Holston (06010104), Upper French Broad (06010105)+, Pigeon (06010106), Lower French Broad (06010107), Nolichucky (06010108)+, Watts Bar Lake (06010201), Upper Little Tennessee (06010202)+, Lower Little Tennessee (06010204), Upper Clinch (06010205)+, Powell (06010206)+, Lower Clinch (06010207), Emory (06010208), Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001)+, Hiwassee (06020002)+, Ocoee (06020003), Sequatchie (06020004), Guntersville Lake (06030001), Wheeler Lake (06030002), Upper Elk (06030003), Lower Elk (06030004), Pickwick Lake (06030005), Bear (06030006), Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001), Upper Duck (06040002), Lower Duck (06040003), Buffalo (06040004), Kentucky Lake (06040005)
07 Upper Rock (07090001)+, Crawfish (07090002)+*, Lower Rock (07090005), North Fabius (07110002)*, South Fabius (07110003)*, The Sny (07110004)*, Salt (07110007)*, Cuivre (07110008), Peruque-Piasa (07110009), Kankakee (07120001), Iroquois (07120002), Des Plaines (07120004), Upper Illinois (07120005), Upper Fox (07120006)+, Lower Fox (07120007), Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001), Vermilion (07130002), Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003), Mackinaw (07130004), Upper Sangamon (07130006), South Fork Sangamon (07130007), Lower Sangamon (07130008), Salt (07130009), Lower Illinois (07130011), Cahokia-Joachim (07140101), Meramec (07140102), Bourbeuse (07140103), Big (07140104), Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105), Whitewater (07140107)+, Cache (07140108)*, Upper Kaskaskia (07140201)
08 Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201), Upper Hatchie (08010207), Lower Hatchie (08010208), Upper St. Francis (08020202), Lower St. Francis (08020203), Little River Ditches (08020204), L'anguille (08020205), Lower White-Bayou Des Arc (08020301), Cache (08020302), Lower Arkansas (08020401), Little Tallahatchie (08030201), Tallahatchie (08030202), Yocona (08030203), Coldwater (08030204)*, Yalobusha (08030205), Upper Yazoo (08030206), Lower Yazoo (08030208), Ouachita Headwaters (08040101), Upper Ouachita (08040102), Little Missouri (08040103), Lower Ouachita-Smackover (08040201), Lower Ouachita-Bayou De Loutre (08040202), Upper Saline (08040203), Lower Saline (08040204), Bayou Bartholomew (08040205), Bayou D'arbonne (08040206), Castor (08040302), Dugdemona (08040303), Lower Mississippi-Natchez (08060100), Upper Big Black (08060201), Lower Big Black (08060202), Bayou Pierre (08060203), Coles Creek (08060204), Homochitto (08060205), Buffalo (08060206), Bayou Sara-Thompson (08070201), Amite (08070202), Tickfaw (08070203), Lake Maurepas (08070204), Tangipahoa (08070205), Bayou Teche (08080102), Upper Calcasieu (08080203), Whisky Chitto (08080204), Liberty Bayou-Tchefuncta (08090201)
10 Sac (10290106), Pomme De Terre (10290107), South Grand (10290108)*, Niangua (10290110), Lower Osage (10290111), Upper Gasconade (10290201), Big Piney (10290202), Lower Gasconade (10290203), Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102), Lower Missouri (10300200)
11 Beaver Reservoir (11010001), James (11010002), Bull Shoals Lake (11010003), Middle White (11010004), Buffalo (11010005), North Fork White (11010006), Upper Black (11010007), Current (11010008), Lower Black (11010009), Spring (11010010), Eleven Point (11010011), Strawberry (11010012), Upper White-Village (11010013), Little Red (11010014), Spring (11070207)+, Lower Neosho (11070209), Illinois (11110103), Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104), Frog-Mulberry (11110201), Dardanelle Reservoir (11110202)*, Petit Jean (11110204), Lower Arkansas-Maumelle (11110207), Lower Washita (11130304), Blue (11140102), Pecan-Waterhole (11140106), Upper Little (11140107), Lower Little (11140109), Middle Red-Coushatta (11140202), Loggy Bayou (11140203), Bayou Pierre (11140206), Lower Red-Lake Iatt (11140207), Saline Bayou (11140208), Black Lake Bayou (11140209), Lower Sulphur (11140302), Caddo Lake (11140306), Little Cypress (11140307)
12 Lower Sabine (12010005)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Spawns in spring.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, High gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool, Riffle
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: This species typically inhabits creeks and small to medium rivers having clear waters, a moderate to swift current, and alternating pools and riffles over a gravel or rubble bottom, often with some silt (Gilbert, in Lee et al. 1980). It spawns over gravel in riffles, in crater-like nest made by male, or in depressions made by other species in both still and running water (Smith 1979).
Adult Food Habits: Herbivore, Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats mainly aquatic insects, algae, and other plant and animal material.
Length: 10 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Small Cyprinids

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat. For some species (e.g., slender chub), an impoundment may constitute a barrier. For others (e.g., flame chub) a stream larger than 4th order may be a barrier.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. In some species, individuals may migrate variable distances between spawning areas and nonspawning habitats.

Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) for cyprinids are arbitrary but reflect the presumption that movements and appropriate separation distances generally should increase with fish size. Hence small, medium, and large cyprinids, respectively, have increasingly large separation distances. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 22Jun2007
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 22Jun2007
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
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  • CROSS, F.B., AND J.T. COLLINS. 1975. FISHES IN KANSAS. UNIV. KANS. MUS.NAT.HIST., PUB.ED.SERIES NO.3.

  • CROSS, F.B.1967.HANDBOOK OF FISHES IN KANSAS. E. RAYMOND HALL.UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, LAWRENCE, KANSAS.

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  • Dowling, T. E. and W. S. Moore. 1984. Level of reproductive isolation between two cyprinid fishes, Notropis cornutus and N. chrysocephalus. Copeia 1984:617-628.

  • Dowling, T. E., G. R. Smith, and W. M. Brown. 1989. Reproductive isolation and introgression between Notropis cornutus and Notropis chrysocephalus (family Cyprinidae): comparison of morphology, allozymes, and mitochondrial DNA. Evolution 43:620-634.

  • Dowling, T. E., and W. M. Brown. 1989. Allozymes, mitochondrial DNA, and levels of phylogenetic resolution among four minnow species (Notropis: Cyprinidae). Systematic Zoology 38:126-143.

  • Dowling, T. E., and W. R. Hoeh. 1991. The extent of introgression outside the contact zone between Notropis cornutus and Notropis chrysocephalus. Evolution 45:944-956.

  • Dowling, T.E., W.R. Hoeh, G.R. Smith and W.M. Brown. 1992a. Evolutionary relationships of shiners in the genus Luxilus (Cyprinidae) as determined by analysis of mitochondrial DNA. Copeia 1992:306-322.

  • Eaton, S.W., R.J. Nemecek and M.M. Kozubowski. 1982. Fishes of the Allegheny River above Kinzua Dam. New York Fish and Game J. 29(2):189-198.

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  • Gleason, C.A. and T.M. Berra. 1993. Demonstration of reproductive isolation and observation of mismatings in Luxilus cornutus and L. chrysocephalus in sympatry. Copeia 1993(3):614-628

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  • Goodchild, C. D. 1993b. Status of the striped shiner, Luxilus chysocephalus, in Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist 107(4):446-454.

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  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • PFLIEGER,W.L.1975. THE FISHES OF MISSOURI. SULLIVAN, MARK. MISSOURI DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Page, LM, H.Espinoza-Perez, L.Findley, C.Gilbert, R. Lea, N. Mandrak, R.Mayden and J.Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico, 7th edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Powers, P. K., and J. R. Gold. 1992. Cytogenetic studies in North American minnows (Cyprinidae): XX. Chromosomal NOR variation in the genus Luxilus. Copeia 1992:332-343.

  • ROSS, STEPHEN T. 1996. INLAND FISHES OF MISSISSIPPI. SELECTED SPECIES ACCOUNTS. COAUTHORED WITH W.M. BRENNEMAM, W.T. SLACK, M.T. O'CONNELL, AND T.L. PETERSON. ILLUSTRATED BY D.G. ROSS. DRAFT COPY.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

  • Smith, C.L. 1985. The Inland Fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY. 522pp.

  • Warren, M. L., Jr., B. M. Burr, S. J. Walsh, H. L. Bart, Jr., R. C. Cashner, D. A. Etnier, B. J. Freeman, B. R. Kuhajda, R. L. Mayden, H. W. Robison, S. T. Ross, and W. C. Starnes. 2000. Diversity, distribution, and conservation status of the native freshwater fishes of the southern United States. Fisheries 25(10):7-31.

  • Werner, R.G. 1980. Freshwater fishes of New York State. N.Y.: Syracuse University Press. 186 pp.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Cross, F. B., and J. T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. Second Edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. xvii + 315 pp.

  • Douglas, N. H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Jenkins, R. E., and N. M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. xxiii + 1079 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Master, L. L. and A. L. Stock. 1998. Synoptic national assessment of comparative risks to biological diversity and landscape types: species distributions. Summary Report submitted to Environmental Protection Agency. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA. 36 pp.

  • Menhinick, E. F. 1991. The freshwater fishes of North Carolina. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission. 227 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1983. Fishes of New York (maps and printout of a draft section on scarce fishes of New York). Unpublished draft.

  • Smith, C. L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, New York, xi + 522 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

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