Lupinus westianus var. aridorum - (McFarlin ex Beckner) Isely
Scrub Lupine
Other English Common Names: Gulf Coast Lupine
Other Common Names: Gulf Coast lupine
Synonym(s): Lupinus aridorum McFarline ex Beckner
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Lupinus westianus var. aridorum (McFarlin ex Beckner) Isely (TSN 202474)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.133225
Element Code: PDFAB2B461
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Pea Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Fabales Fabaceae Lupinus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Lupinus westianus var. aridorum
Taxonomic Comments: Kartesz (1994) lists this element as Lupinus westianus var. aridorum, but the USFWS is tracking it at the species level, Lupinus aridorum.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3T1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 11Jul1995
Global Status Last Changed: 06Dec1993
Rounded Global Status: T1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: A taxon with a very narrow range and low abundance: the Florida Natural Areas Inventory currently contains 35 occurrence records in its database, all located in Orange, Polk, and Osceola counties, Florida. Most of the occurrences are in degraded, roadside situations. There is great pressure on the habitat from unrestricted land development for housing and recreation.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Florida (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (07Apr1987)
Comments on USESA: This entity was proposed endangered on April 24, 1986 and determined endangered on April 7, 1987.
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R4 - Southeast

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Orange and Polk Counties, Florida.

L. aridorum is only found in two counties on separate sand ridges. One is on the Mount Dora Ridge in western Orange County. It is found here scattered throughout a 2,400 acre area, from Apopka-Plymouth south through Ocoee, Turkey Lake, Lake Cain, Big Sand Lake, and along Interstate 4 from the Bee Line Expressway south to Lake Buena Vista (localities from U.S. Fish and Wildlife 1995). In Orange County, the plant is on public land at Lakes Cain and Marsha Park, Turkey Lake Park, Lake Tibbet-Butler Park, and along right-of-ways. At the second locale of L. aridorum, the Winter Haven Ridge in Polk County, there are no plants found on public land (Stout in prep). The plant can be found scattered on sites that total about 540 acres near Auburndale and Winter Haven (U.S. Fish and Wildlife 1995).

Stout (pers. comm.) thinks that the global habitat is similar to the present range and that L. aridorum was never on the Lake Wales Ridge.

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: Although twenty-seven mapped (1990) nearly all of these are roadside or degraded occurrences.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Development pressure is extreme within the range of this plant (Disney/Orlando vicinity).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Orange and Polk Counties, Florida.

L. aridorum is only found in two counties on separate sand ridges. One is on the Mount Dora Ridge in western Orange County. It is found here scattered throughout a 2,400 acre area, from Apopka-Plymouth south through Ocoee, Turkey Lake, Lake Cain, Big Sand Lake, and along Interstate 4 from the Bee Line Expressway south to Lake Buena Vista (localities from U.S. Fish and Wildlife 1995). In Orange County, the plant is on public land at Lakes Cain and Marsha Park, Turkey Lake Park, Lake Tibbet-Butler Park, and along right-of-ways. At the second locale of L. aridorum, the Winter Haven Ridge in Polk County, there are no plants found on public land (Stout in prep). The plant can be found scattered on sites that total about 540 acres near Auburndale and Winter Haven (U.S. Fish and Wildlife 1995).

Stout (pers. comm.) thinks that the global habitat is similar to the present range and that L. aridorum was never on the Lake Wales Ridge.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FL

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
FL Orange (12095), Osceola (12097)*, Polk (12105)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Upper St. Johns (03080101)+, Oklawaha (03080102)+, Kissimmee (03090101)+, Peace (03100101)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A woody, branched herb with hairy, erect or reclining stems, growing to 4 dm tall (or more). Leaves are egg-shaped with silky hairs. Flowers are stalked, borne in terminal spikes, purplish-pink in color with a deep reddish-purple spot. Stems, and leaves have short, appressed hairs. (Based on Taylor 1992.)
Technical Description: Lupinus [westianus var] aridorum may be described as: biennial or short-lived perennial growing from a soft woody base. Stems up to one m tall. Leaves obovate-elliptic, 4-7 cm long and 2-4 cm wide, apex mucronate, both base and apex rounded, upper and lower surfaces pubescent; petioles 2-4.5 cm long. Inflorescence racemose, peduncles 4-13 cm long. Calyx 2-lipped, upper lip 9-10 mm long, lanceolate, apex short-acuminate, lower lip 10-14 mm long, lanceolate, 3-lobed apex abruptly-acuminate, calyx tube ca. 2 mm long. Corolla pale flesh-pink, standard with a prominent central area of black, surrounded by a maroon-red area that fades off on the sides to the pale flesh-pink color. Standard about 1.5 cm long, blade 1-1.2 cm long by 0.7 cm wide, ovate. Wing petals 1.4 cm long and 0.5 cm wide. Keel upcurved, acuminate, 1.2 cm long. Fruit 2-2.5 cm long, elliptic, with an oblique acuminate apex and rounded base, woolly-pubescent. Seeds 1 to few per fruit, orbicular, flattened, 3.5 mm in diameter, pale gray, spotted with darker color (Beckner, 1982; Paradiso, 1987).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Lupinus [westianus var.] aridorum is distinctive in the field as it is the only upright pink-flowered lupine in Florida. It is further distinguished from the only other pink-flowered lupine, the prostrate Lupinus villosus, by the lack of long, shaggy hairs on stems and leaves, and vestigial (rather than large and conspicuous) stipules. It differs from Lupinus westianus [var. westianus] by flower color (L. westianus has blue flowers). (Paradiso, 1987)
Duration: BIENNIAL, PERENNIAL, Short-lived
Ecology Comments: L. aridorum appears to require open, disturbed conditions in order to persist and reproduce; these conditions were likely typical of early post-fire Florida scrub habitats before present development. The species is probably unable to survive fire (U.S.Fish and Wildlife Service 1995), but anecdotal evidence suggests that it can recover after fire or other disturbances by germination of seeds buried in the seed bank. Formal study of seed banks at Fenton Road has shown that the seeds are indeed in the surface soil layer (Stout pers. comm.). Seedling germination has been observed after roto-tilling and after land clearing for development (Stout pers. comm.). Additionally, seedlings of the closely related L. diffusus, that were very scarce in a sand pine scrub in central Florida, were one of the most prevalent species after a May 1993 fire (M. Carrington, pers. comm.). Under shaded canopy it does not flower and is subject to pathogen attack. It also does better when open patches of sand are found in the understory and, therefore, is successful on right-of-ways (Stout pers. comm.).

Although originally labelled as a monocarpic biennial (Beckner 1982), those who have been following marked populations (Stout and Charba, pers. comm.) since fall 1992 in west Orange County report that the plant, if not diseased, lives for 4-6 years. It usually flowers in its third year (sometimes second) and an individual plant can flower 3 times before its death.

Stout (pers. comm.) thinks the plant may be capable of selfing. Pollinators seen visiting the plants are generalist bumblebees and honeybees, but nonetheless gene flow appears limited. Two of Stout's populations that are about 600-700 m apart appear to be genetically differentiated. Seed set averages 1.5 seeds per pod, but the number of pods per plant varies a great deal. Seed color can be variable. Seeds are dehisced explosively during from mid-May to early June and can scatter 8-10 ft. Secondary dispersal of seeds has not been investigated. Seed germination occurs from late November-March; seedlings are prone to damping-off fungus when wet. Seedlings are also especially vulnerable to drought dehydration if germantion occurs late in the recruitment period (Nov.- March) (Charba pers. comm.).

An electrophoretic study of L. aridorum and L. diffusus has demonstrated that the two are good species. This question is of interest because some argue that L. aridorum is a variety of other more widespread lupines in Florida (Isley 1990). Both species have low levels of genetic variation, but L. aridorum has less observed heterozygosity than L. diffusus. The major difference, between the two species, however, is that L. aridorum has more variation among populations than L. diffusus, supporting the idea that L. aridorum is capable of selfing. Both species are polyploids, probably octaploids (R. Dolan pers. comm.).

Herbivory and parasitism may be significant regulators of population size. Charba (pers. comm.) has been studying populations in Orange County by examining dead plants and by culturing parasites found on these plants. He thinks that the mortality and decline of plants is due to five different factors: fungus on roots, fungus on leaves, insect damage, nematodes, and yellow-scorch leaf disease. The charcoal root rot, caused by the fungus Macrophomina phaseolina is a major cause of mortality; all of the dead plants examined by Charba had this fungus. This fungus is indigenous to the habitat and has a very broad host range. Onset of fungal attack appears to follow a sudden wet period preceded by drought. Another generalist, indigenous fungus, Cercospora longiformis, causes leaf black spot, leading to yellowing and senescence of leaves. Insects that attack the plant can cause significant damage and make the plant more suspectible to pathogen attack. The leaves of L. aridorum are devastated by attacks of the larvae of the moth Uresiphita reversalis; this herbivory usually decreases survival due to the creation of open wounds that are subject to microbial infection. Two types of suctorial insects also attack this plant--sharpshooter leafhoppers, which are vectors of microbial parasites, and stink bugs, which are active on the plant during the late fall and spring inflorescence growing seasons. Furthermore, anecdotal observations and laboratory isolations conducted by Charba suggest that a bacteriophagus nematode, Cephalolobus sp. (taxonomy in question) may live and feed in L. aridorum nodules and subsequently expose the plant to fungal- bacterial secondary infections. Finally, the species is subject to a leaf scorch disease that spreads throughout the plant. It is unknown if this disease is entirely of viral or bacterial origin, or both. Charba (pers. comm.) hypothesizes that the yellow leaf scorch may be a symptom of a xylem-limited bacterial disease known to be transmitted by sharpshooter leafhoppers and spittlebugs.

Terrestrial Habitat(s): Shrubland/chaparral
Habitat Comments: Sandy openings in sand pine-rosemary-oak scrub.
Economic Attributes
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Economic Comments: Although the scrub lupine has not been in commecial trade, it is a large and attractive plant when in bloom and has the potential to be used as a decorative landscape addition (Paradiso, 1987).
Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: This plant is both globally and state endangered and is endemic to the Florida sand pine scrub. Its conservation and restoration poses many challenges and the most appropriate strategy at present is to prevent its extinction. It is only found in 2 counties in Florida and it is estimated that fewer than 1000 plants are left (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1995), although populations can often fluctuate greatly in number annually (Stout pers. comm.). Most of these plants are on private residential land that is likely to be developed in the future or converted into roads or pasturelands. Other threats to habitat include pedestrian and horse use and off-road vehicular traffic.

Besides the loss of sand pine scrub habitat, this species is plagued by herbivory, pathogen attacks, and low genetic diversity. The apparent lack of heterozygosity may be due to selfing; the pollination biology is still unknown.

Recovery of this plant will most likely occur through the seed bank and scattering of seeds to establish new populations. Transplanted seedlings do not usually survive because they are subject to pathogen attack in cultivation and in the wild. Research on the seed bank is crucial to the species' restoration, while preventing extinction by acquiring land is crucial to the survival of extant plants.

Restoration Potential: Seeding plants directly into restoration areas, as well as relying on the seed bank, is probably the best option for restoring this plant throughout its range. This plant transplants poorly and is subject to root rot in cultivation and the wild (U.S.Fish and Wildlife Service 1995). Private tissue culture attempts with L. aridorum have been successful, but when transplanted into native habitats, these plants fare no better (Stout pers.comm.). Seeds that are not planted into open habitats will probably not survive and/or reproduce. Additionally, seed scattering should be timed so that germination and establishment does not occur during times when fungus attacks are probable (wet periods preceded by drought).
Preserve Selection & Design Considerations: Preventing extinction by buying land and restricting public access may be the best option for conserving this plant. Acquisition is the approach recommended in the recovery plan for this plant (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1995). This plant cannot be presently protected in a large preserve,because most populations occur within residential private land and areas such as near Disney World that are subject to intense development pressure.
Management Requirements: These plants require high light conditions and disturbance for their survival and reproduction. More research is needed on the effects of soil disturbances and fire on this species, and on the numbers and viability of seeds in the seed bank.
Monitoring Requirements: Because plant numbers are scarce and dynamic (Stout, pers. comm.), the best way to monitor populations is to tag all individual stems. Each plant should be censused yearly for pathogen attack, reproductive success, growth, and survival. Because seed scattering and the seed bank may be the most feasible way to preserve this species, special attention should be paid to factors that control seed set. Light levels above each plant as well as the degree of understory openness (i.e., amount of open sand) should be correlated with seed set or flower/fruit number. Patch size and degree of isolation should also be measured for each population, in close connection with observations on pollinators and the distance that they travel within and between populations.
Monitoring Programs: Populations are being monitored for demography (Jack Stout) and pathogen attack (Jay Charba) in Orange County. The demographic study consists of monitoring plant survival, growth, and reproduction, while the pathogen study examines deceased plants and/or symptomatic tissue of live-infected plants for the presence of pathogens.
Management Research Needs: The following questions regarding the biology and ecology of L. aridorum need to be addressed:

How many seeds are in the seed bank, and what percentage are viable? For how long can seeds remain in the seed bank and what factors cause mortality of seeds in the soil? What is the genetic variation of seeds in the seed bank, and can their germination be used to increase genetic diversity in populations?

What is the pollination biology of this species? Will hand- pollination increase seed set? Does this species self, and if so, how does selfing affect seed set?

How does disturbance (fire, soil disturbance, and off-road vehicles) affect the survival and reproduction of all life stages of this plant? Does fire stimulate seed germination either directly or indirectly by opening the canopy? Can moderate soil disturbance or fire be used to initiate new populations?

What is the relationship between parasites/vectors and climate, especially wetting and drying cycles? Does decreasing the amount of canopy cover or opening of the understory decrease susceptibility to pathogen attack? At what time of the year should seeds be scattered to avoid established seedlings succumbing to pathogen attack or drought?

How is the demography of this plant affected by its low genetic diversity? Are metapopulation dynamics important to consider for the conservation of this species?

Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Lake Wales Ridge 1 - EOSPECS

Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Any naturally occurring population of 1 or more individuals in suitable habitat.
Separation Barriers: Patches of dense vegetation that shade out patches of open sand and prevent seed germination and colonization form barriers between populations; also, agriculture, pine plantations, and development.


Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 1 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: N/A
Separation Justification: Seeds for most of these species are dispersed by gravity, thus 1 km of suitable / unsuitable habitat appears to be sufficient to distinguish populations.


Date: 19Sep2003
Author: Norden, A.H. and L.G. Chafin
Population/Occurrence Viability
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Justification: Use the Generic Guidelines for the Application of Occurrence Ranks (2008).
The Key for Ranking Species Occurrences Using the Generic Approach provides a step-wise process for implementing this method.

Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 01Jul1991
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: White, D.L.
Management Information Edition Date: 01May1995
Management Information Edition Author: REBECCA OSETERTAG
Management Information Acknowledgments:

Mary E. Carrington, Department of Botany, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, (904) 392-9620 phone, (904) 393-3993 fax.

Dr. Jay F. Charba, Department of Molecular and Microbiology, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816, (407) 823-5932 phone.

Dr. Rebecca Dolan, Department of Biological Sciences, Butler University, 4600 Sunset Avenue, Indianapolis, IN 46208, (317) 283-9411 phone, (317) 283-9519 fax.

Dr. I. Jack Stout, Department of Biology, University of Central Florida, Box 25000, Orlando, FL 32816-2368, (407) 823-2919 phone, (407) 823-5789 fax.

Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 16Jun1992

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Beckner, J. 1982. Lupinus aridorum J.B. McFarlin ex Beckner (Fabaceae), a new species from central Florida. Phytologia 50(3): 209-211.

  • Isely, D. 1990. Vascular flora of the southeastern United States. Vol. 3, Part 2. Leguminosae (Fabaceae). Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. 258 pp.

  • Isley, D. 1990. Vascular Flora of the southeastern United States, Volume 3, Part 2. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC.

  • KRAL, R. 1983.A REPORT ON SOME RARE,THREATENED,OR ENDANGEREDFOREST-RELATED VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE SOUTH.VOL I ISOETACEAETHROUGH EUPHORBIACEAE;VOL II AQUIFOLIACEA THROUGH ASTERACEAE& GLOSSARY.USDA FOREST SERV,SE REG.,ATL,GA. TECH PUBL R8-TP2

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kral, R. 1983c. A report on some rare, threatened, or endangered forest-related vascular plants of the South. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service Technical Publication R8-TP2, Athens, GA. 1305 pp.

  • Stout, I.J. Endangered scrub lupine Lupinus aridorum (McFarlin ex Beckner). Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida, Plants, in preparation.

  • Taylor, W.K. 1992. The guide to Florida wildflowers. Taylor Publishing, Dallas, Texas. 320 pp.

  • Taylor, Walter Kingsley. 1992. The Guide to Florida Wildflowers. Taylor Publishing Company, Dallas, Texas. 320 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1987. Endangered status for Lupinus aridorum (scrub lupine). Federal Register 52(66): 11172-11175.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1995. Draft recovery plan for nineteen central Florida scrub and high pineland plants (revised). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Atlanta, GA.

  • WUNDERLIN, RICHARD P. 1982. GUIDE TO THE VASCULAR PLANTS OF CENTRAL FLORIDA. UNIV. PRESSES OF FLA., TAMPA, ST. PETERSBURG, FT. MEYERS, SARASOTA

  • Wunderlin, R.P. 1982. Guide to the vascular plants of central Florida. Univ. Presses Florida, Gainesville. 472 pp.

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