Lupinus rivularis - Dougl. ex Lindl.
Riverbank Lupine
Other Common Names: riverbank lupine
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Lupinus rivularis Dougl. ex Lindl. (TSN 26103)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.158176
Element Code: PDFAB2B3C0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Pea Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Fabales Fabaceae Lupinus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Lupinus rivularis
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 15Sep2016
Global Status Last Changed: 13Jun2006
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: This lupine occurs in gravelly areas, usually associated with streams or riverbanks on the west side of the Cascade Mountains (Hitchcock et al. 1961). It occurs from California north through Oregon and Washington to southern British Columbia. This species hybridizes with L. arboreus, which is native in North America only to California, and non-native in Oregon, Washington and British Columbia. Genetic swamping due to hybridization is believed to be the greatest rangewide threat; it is uncertain how much "pure" L. rivularis remains, but it may be very little. Rangewide genetic studies are needed to clarify this issue. Other threats include habitat destruction, invasive invertebrates, ground maintenance and collection.
Nation: United States
National Status: NNR
Nation: Canada
National Status: N1 (02Oct2014)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States California (SNR), Oregon (SNR), Washington (SNR)
Canada British Columbia (S1)

Other Statuses

Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA) Schedule 1/Annexe 1 Status: E (12Jan2005)
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Endangered (01Nov2002)

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: This species extends from California north through Oregon and Washington to the most southern portion of British Columbia (COSEWIC 2002).

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: There are five extant occurrences in British Columbia (NatureServe Network Database as of September 2016).  Occurrences are not tracked in Washington, Oregon, and California.

Population Size Comments: At this time, it is unknown how much genetically "pure" (i.e. genotype native to the area, without introgression from L. arboreus) L. rivularis remains. Pure populations of the species in the U.S. might be very rare (Teresa Sholars pers. comm. 2001 cited in COSEWIC 2002), in which case the five occurrences in British Columbia (approx. 250 mature individuals) may represent much of the remaining pure population. However, other researchers have observed plants that appear to be pure L. rivularis along riparian areas and undisturbed sites in western Oregon (and possibly elsewhere); these plants have been described as "not rare but tending to be fairly localized" (P. Severns pers. comm. 2008).

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: This species hybridizes readily with Lupinus arboreus and there may be few remaining populations that are purely L. rivularis. L. arboreus is non-native but widely planted outside of a few counties in California, and this hybridization causes genetic swamping in L. rivularis throughout much of L. rivularis' range (Hickman et al. 1993, COSEWIC 2002). In addition, in western Oregon, an unidentified lupine strongly resembling L. rivularis is commonly seeded on road verges and elsewhere. This seeded plant keys close to L. rivularis, but has a somewhat different appearance than the wild-growing L. rivularis present in undisturbed sites; this seeded material may be a cultivar of L. rivularis of unknown provenance (P. Severns pers. comm. 2008) or it could be hybrid material with a low level of introgression from L. arboreus (COSEWIC 2002). This seeded plant is now very common and can become weedy (P. Severns pers. comm. 2008), raising the concern of potential additional genetic swamping of and/or competition with natural L. rivularis plants. Habitat destruction is also a substantial threat to this species. In British Columbia, suitable habitat has been signficantly reduced by dyking of river systems in the lower Fraser Valley as well as industrial development in floodplains (COSEWIC 2002). Other threats include: invasive invertebrates, ground maintenance work, herbicide spraying, and wildflower collecting by the general public (COSEWIC 2002).

Short-term Trend Comments: This species has declined due to genetic swamping by hybridization (COSEWIC 2002). Habitat destruction has also caused declines in British Columbia (COSEWIC 2002). In western Oregon, the (pure?) L. rivularis growing in undisturbed habitats has become less abundant over the last decade (P. Severns pers. comm. 2008).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: This species extends from California north through Oregon and Washington to the most southern portion of British Columbia (COSEWIC 2002).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA, OR, WA
Canada BC

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History
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Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest Edge, Forest/Woodland, Grassland/herbaceous
Habitat Comments: Lupinus rivularis occurs on gravelly prairies, riverbanks and and open woods (Hitchcock et al. 1961). It occurs in both natural riverbank habitats as well as gravelly railway beds and dykes that have been located near creeks or riverbanks in British Columbia (COSEWIC 2002).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 21Jun2006
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Oliver, L., rev. K. Gravuer (2008), rev. A. Tomaino (2016)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • B.C. Ministry of Environment. Recovery Planning in BC. B.C. Minist. Environ. Victoria, BC. Available: http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/wld/recoveryplans/rcvry1.htm

  • COSEWIC. 2002r. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the streambank lupine Lupinus rivularis in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. vi + 36 pp.

  • Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). 2002. Species assessments from the November 2002 COSEWIC meeting. Accessed online: November 2002. Available: http://www.cosewic.gc.ca/COSEWIC/.

  • Douglas, G.W., D. Meidinger, and J. Penny. 2002. Rare Native Vascular Plants of British Columbia, 2nd ed. B.C. Conserv. Data Centre, Terrestrial Inf. Branch, Victoria. 358pp.

  • Douglas, G.W., D. Meidinger, and J. Pojar. eds. 1999. Illustrated Flora of British Columbia, Vol. 3, Dicotyledons (Diapensiaceae through Onagraceae). B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, and B.C. Minist. For., Victoria. 423pp.

  • Hickman, C.P. 1961. A synoptic review of the animal phyla. Excerpted and abridged from C.P. Hickman, 1961. Integrated Principles of Zoology, 2nd edition. C.V. Mosby, St. Louis, MO.

  • Hickman, J. C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. 1400 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Klinkenberg, B. 2005. Lupinus rivularis Dougl. ex Lindl. Streambank (Riverbank) Lupine. Conservation Biology and Biogeography Research. Dep. Geogr. Univ. B.C. Online. Available: http://www.geog.ubc.ca/~brian/lupinusrivularis.htm

  • Klinkenberg, B. 2005b. Draft National Recovery Strategy for Streambank Lupine (Lupinus rivularis). Streambank Lupine Recovery Team, and B.C. Minist. Water, Land and Air Prot., Surrey.

  • Klinkenberg, B., and R. Klinkenberg. 2002. Status Report on Streambank Lupine, Lupinus rivularis, in Canada. Unpubl. rep. submitted to the Comm. on the Status of Endangered Wildl. in Can. Ottawa. 40pp.

  • Streambank Lupine Recovery Team. 2014. Recovery strategy for streambank lupine (Lupinus rivularis) in British Columbia. Prepared for the B.C. Ministry of Environment, Victoria, BC. 24pp.

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