Ludwigia ravenii - Peng
Raven's Seedbox
Other English Common Names: Raven's Primrose-willow
Other Common Names: Raven's primrose-willow
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Ludwigia ravenii Peng (TSN 503566)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.159218
Element Code: PDONA0B0W0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Evening-Primrose Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Myrtales Onagraceae Ludwigia
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Ludwigia ravenii
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 21Jul2016
Global Status Last Changed: 02Feb2006
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Known from the Coastal Plain of southeastern Virginia, eastern North Carolina, southeastern South Carolina and northeastern Florida. This species apparently has a somewhat spotty distribution; it has not been reported from Georgia. At least seventeen of the nearly 30 occurrences known are historic; knowledge of current status of these populations (as well as additional inventory of suitable habitat within the range) is needed. At present, 5 to 6 occurrences are known to be extant.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Florida (SH), North Carolina (S1), South Carolina (S1), Virginia (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Known from a diverse set of geographic locations in the Coastal Plain from Virginia to Florida.

Area of Occupancy: 3-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: North Carolina: Confirmed area of occupancy for extant, non-historical populations is <0.4 km2. Virginia: All extant populations are in linear habitats such as ditches and powerline rights-of-way. Extent of populations is <0.4km in length (in case of ditches) and <0.4km2 in case of occupied powerline right-of-way area.

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: Nearly 30 occurrences known but 17 collections are historic and their current status is unknown. North Carolina has 17 occurrences in 11 counties but only 2-4 (two were not seen during the last survey) are known extant. Virginia has 9 occurrences in 2 counties but only 3 are known extant. South Carolina has 1 vouchered collection from Berkeley County (H.W. Ravenel) that is historical; and the species has not been relocated in Berkeley County despite intensive searches. (The site of the original collection is likely inundated by Lake Moultrie.) The species may not be extant in Florida as it has not been seen there since 1982; there is one record in Clay County.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very few (1-3)
Viability/Integrity Comments: Only 1 or 2 occurrences with good viability.

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: The ditches and powerline rights-of-way occupied by the species are subject to many threats including herbicide use, excavation and deepening of ditches, road widening and paving.

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-50%
Short-term Trend Comments: In North Carolina a declining trend is indicated by poor viability at one site, and failure to relocate plants at 2 historical collection sites. In Virginia, however, recent revisit to two occurrences documented as many (or more) plants present than during previous visits. Seventeen occurrences are historic.

Long-term Trend: Unknown

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: L. ravenii does not exhibit the aggressiveness of weedy plants. It starts to form stolons late in the fruiting season and these are usually slender and short. As a consequence, the populations consist of scattered individuals instead of large colonies connected by stolons, as typical in other species (Peng 1989). L. ravenii is also apetalous, self-compatible, and noted to be modally autogamous (Peng 1984); this reproductive strategy could result in low genetic diversity, which can influence the long-term survival of a species.

Environmental Specificity: Narrow to moderate.
Environmental Specificity Comments: Narrow: specific habitat(s), or other abiotic and/or biotic factor(s) are used or required by
the species, but these key requirements are common and within its generalized range.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Known from a diverse set of geographic locations in the Coastal Plain from Virginia to Florida.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FL, NC, SC, VA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NC Brunswick (37019)*, Carteret (37031), Chowan (37041)*, Columbus (37047), Craven (37049)*, Duplin (37061)*, Gates (37073)*, Jones (37103)*, New Hanover (37129)*, Pamlico (37137)*, Perquimans (37143)*, Sampson (37163)
VA Chesapeake (City) (51550), Suffolk (City) (51800)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Hampton Roads (02080208)+
03 Blackwater (03010202)+*, Ghowan (03010203)+, Albemarle (03010205)+, Pamlico Sound (03020105)+, Middle Neuse (03020202)+*, Lower Neuse (03020204)+*, White Oak River (03020301)+*, New River (03020302)+*, Lower Cape Fear (03030005)+*, Black (03030006)+, Northeast Cape Fear (03030007)+, Lumber (03040203)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A branched, leafy perennial herb, usually 3.5-9 dm tall, densely covered with short, somewhat coarse hairs. Numerous flowers are borne in the leaf axils. The flowers have green sepals and no petals. Flowering: July-September. Fruiting: August-October. See Peng (1984) for a complete description.
Duration: PERENNIAL
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen, FORESTED WETLAND
Habitat Comments: Found in the coastal plain of Virginia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and northeast Florida. Restricted to open, wet, peaty places, such as ditches and the margins of swamps, ponds, and bogs (Peng 1984). Ludwigia ravenii is considered an obligate wetland plant.

Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 21Jul2016
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: S. Mason, J. Townsend, and P. D. McMillan (2006), rev. Treher (2016)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 13Nov1996
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): LPP

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Peng, C-I. 1984. Ludwigia ravenii (Onagraceae), a new speices from the Coastal Plain of the Southeasern United States.Systematic Botany 9(2): 129-132.

  • Peng, C-I. 1989. The systematics and evolution of Ludwigia sect. Microcarpium (Onagraceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 76: 221-302.

  • Peng, C.-I. 1984. Ludwigia ravenii (Onagraceae), a new species from the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States. Systematic Botany. 9(2): 129-132.

  • Peng, C.-I. 1988. The biosystematics of Ludwigia sect. Microcarpium (Onagraceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: 970-1009.

  • Peng, C.-I. 1989. The systematics and evolution of Ludwigia sect. Microcarpium (Onagraceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 76: 221-302.

  • Weakley, A.S. 1996. Flora of the Carolinas and Virginia: working draft of 23 May 1996. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Southern Conservation Science Dept., Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Unpaginated.

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