Lophodytes cucullatus - (Linnaeus, 1758)
Hooded Merganser
Other English Common Names: hooded merganser
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Lophodytes cucullatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (TSN 175183)
French Common Names: harle couronné
Spanish Common Names: Mergo Cresta Blanca
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.104711
Element Code: ABNJB20010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Waterfowl
Image 11048

© Jeff Nadler

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Anseriformes Anatidae Lophodytes
Genus Size: A - Monotypic genus
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Lophodytes cucullatus
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 09Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 21Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Secure due primarily to large range; uncommon.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5B,N5N (05Jan1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5B,N5N,N5M (29Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S3B,S5N), Alaska (S3B), Arizona (S2N), Arkansas (S2B,S4N), California (SNRB,SNRN), Colorado (SNA), Connecticut (S3B), Delaware (S1B,S4N), District of Columbia (S3N), Florida (SNRN), Georgia (S5), Idaho (S2B,S2N), Illinois (S2S3), Indiana (S2S3B), Iowa (S2B,S3N), Kansas (S1B,S2N), Kentucky (S1S2B,S3S4N), Louisiana (S4), Maine (S5), Maryland (S1B), Massachusetts (S4B,S5N), Michigan (S3), Minnesota (SNRB,SNRN), Mississippi (S2?B,S5N), Missouri (SNRB,SNRN), Montana (S4), Navajo Nation (S2S3N), Nebraska (SNRN), Nevada (S3N), New Hampshire (S5), New Jersey (S3B), New Mexico (S4N), New York (S4), North Carolina (S1B,S4N), North Dakota (S3), Ohio (S2), Oklahoma (S3N), Oregon (S4), Pennsylvania (S3B,S3N), Rhode Island (S1B), South Carolina (SNRB,SNRN), South Dakota (S2B), Tennessee (S4N), Texas (S4N,S3B), Utah (S3N), Vermont (S4B,S2N), Virginia (S4N), Washington (S3N,S4B), West Virginia (S1B,S4N), Wisconsin (S5B), Wyoming (SHB)
Canada Alberta (S2S3B), British Columbia (S5B), Labrador (S2B,S3M), Manitoba (S5B), New Brunswick (S4B,S5M), Newfoundland Island (SNA), Northwest Territories (S3S4N), Nova Scotia (S5B), Ontario (S5B,S5N), Prince Edward Island (S1B,S4M), Quebec (S3S4), Saskatchewan (S4B,S3M), Yukon Territory (S3B)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: BREEDS: southeastern Alaska, central British Columbia, and southwestern Alberta south to southwestern Oregon, central Idaho, and northwestern Montana; and from central Saskatchewan to Nova Scotia, south to southeastern Kansas, northern Louisiana, northern Georgia, and (rarely) Florida. WINTERS: along Pacific, Atlantic, and Gulf slopes, mainly from southeastern Alaska to northern Baja California, and New England to Florida and west to northern Mexico, irregularly in the interior of southern Canada and the U.S., and in the northern Bahamas and Greater Antilles (AOU 1983); rare in Hawaii.

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

Population Size: 100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Vulnerable to forestry practices that limit or eliminate potential nesting sites.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) BREEDS: southeastern Alaska, central British Columbia, and southwestern Alberta south to southwestern Oregon, central Idaho, and northwestern Montana; and from central Saskatchewan to Nova Scotia, south to southeastern Kansas, northern Louisiana, northern Georgia, and (rarely) Florida. WINTERS: along Pacific, Atlantic, and Gulf slopes, mainly from southeastern Alaska to northern Baja California, and New England to Florida and west to northern Mexico, irregularly in the interior of southern Canada and the U.S., and in the northern Bahamas and Greater Antilles (AOU 1983); rare in Hawaii.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NN, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002; NatureServe, 2005; WILDSPACETM 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CT Hartford (09003)*, Litchfield (09005)*, Middlesex (09007)*
DE Kent (10001)
ID Ada (16001), Bingham (16011), Blaine (16013), Bonner (16017), Boundary (16021), Cassia (16031), Fremont (16043), Gooding (16047), Jefferson (16051), Kootenai (16055), Nez Perce (16069)
IN Fountain (18045), La Porte (18091), Parke (18121), Posey (18129), St. Joseph (18141), Starke (18149), Steuben (18151), Vanderburgh (18163), Vermillion (18165), Vigo (18167)
KS Atchison (20005), Jefferson (20087), Linn (20107), Stafford (20185)
KY Ballard (21007)*, Carlisle (21039), Franklin (21073), Fulton (21075), Hardin (21093), Henderson (21101), Jefferson (21111), Livingston (21139), McCracken (21145)*, Menifee (21165), Ohio (21183), Pulaski (21199), Rowan (21205), Union (21225), Warren (21227)
LA Concordia (22029), Natchitoches (22069)
MD Baltimore (city) (24510), Baltimore County (24005), Carroll (24013), Cecil (24015)*, Charles (24017), Garrett (24023), Kent (24029)*, Montgomery (24031)*, Prince Georges (24033), Queen Annes (24035)*
ND Bottineau (38009), McHenry (38049), Mountrail (38061), Pierce (38069), Rolette (38079), Ward (38101)
PA Lancaster (42071)*, Perry (42099)*, Wayne (42127), York (42133)*
RI Kent (44003), Providence (44007)
SD Bennett (46007), Brookings (46011), Brown (46013), Butte (46019), Custer (46033), Day (46037), Deuel (46039), Grant (46051), Kingsbury (46077), Roberts (46109)
WA Clallam (53009)+, Jefferson (53031)+, Snohomish (53061)+, Spokane (53063)+
WV Randolph (54083)
WY Fremont (56013)*, Park (56029)*, Sublette (56035)*, Teton (56039)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Lower Connecticut (01080205)+*, Farmington (01080207)+*, Quinebaug (01100001)+, Housatonic (01100005)+*
02 Upper Delaware (02040101)+, Broadkill-Smyrna (02040207)+, Lower Susquehanna-Swatara (02050305)+*, Lower Susquehanna (02050306)+*, Chester-Sassafras (02060002)+*, Gunpowder-Patapsco (02060003)+, Patuxent (02060006)+, Middle Potomac-Catoctin (02070008)+*, Lower Potomac (02070011)+
04 St. Joseph (04050001)+
05 Youghiogheny (05020006)+, Elk (05050007)+, Licking (05100101)+, Lower Kentucky (05100205)+, Upper Green (05110001)+, Barren (05110002)+, Middle Green (05110003)+, Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108)+, Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111)+, Lower Wabash (05120113)+, Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103)+, Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101)+, Highland-Pigeon (05140202)+, Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203)+, Lower Ohio (05140206)+*
07 Upper Minnesota (07020001)+, Lac Qui Parle (07020003)+, Kankakee (07120001)+
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100)+, Obion (08010202)+, Bayou Cocodrie (08040306)+
09 Des Lacs (09010002)+, Lower Souris (09010003)+, Willow (09010004)+, Deep (09010005)+, Moose Mountain Creek-Souris River (09010008)+, Upper Sheyenne (09020202)+
10 Yellowstone Headwaters (10070001)+*, Upper Wind (10080001)+*, Middle Cheyenne-Spring (10120109)+, Lower Belle Fourche (10120202)+, Little White (10140203)+, Upper Niobrara (10150003)+, Middle Niobrara (10150004)+, Upper James (10160003)+, Elm (10160004)+, South Big Sioux Coteau (10170103)+, Middle Big Sioux Coteau (10170201)+, Upper Big Sioux (10170202)+, Independence-Sugar (10240011)+, Delaware (10270103)+, Lower Marais Des Cygnes (10290102)+
11 Rattlesnake (11030009)+, Lower Red-Lake Iatt (11140207)+
14 New Fork (14040102)+*
17 Lower Kootenai (17010104)+, Lower Clark Fork (17010213)+, Pend Oreille Lake (17010214)+, Coeur D'alene Lake (17010303)+, Hangman (17010306), Snake headwaters (17040101)+*, Gros Ventre (17040102)+*, Idaho Falls (17040201)+, Upper Henrys (17040202)+, American Falls (17040206)+, Lake Walcott (17040209)+, Raft (17040210)+, Upper Snake-Rock (17040212)+, Beaver-Camas (17040214)+, Little Wood (17040221)+, Lower Boise (17050114)+, Lower Snake-Asotin (17060103)+, Palouse (17060108), Rock (17060109), Clearwater (17060306)+, Hoh-Quillayute (17100101), Stillaguamish (17110008), Hood Canal (17110018), Dungeness-Elwha (17110020), Crescent-Hoko (17110021)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
General Description: A small (length 46 cm) duck with a thin serrated bill and a puffy crest; adult male has a black head with a large white patch on each side, a dark back, brown flanks, and a white chest with two black bars on each side; adult female is brownish overall, with a yellowish lower mandible; first winter male resembles female; in flight, both sexes show black-and-white inner secondaries (Peterson 1980, NGS 1983).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Differs from other mergansers in being smaller, having white head patches (males), and by lacking a red bill. Differs from the bufflehead in lacking white sides.
Reproduction Comments: Clutch size is 6-18 (some nests may include eggs of wood duck or goldeneye in some areas). Incubation lasts 29-37 days, by female. Young first fly at estimated age of 10 weeks. First breeds at about 2 years (Terres 1980, Palmer 1976). Nesting is dispersed; in Minnesota, installation of nest boxes produced a nesting density of about 0.4 nests per sq km (Zicus 1990).
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: In the east, northward migration occurs mainly in February-May. Returns to breeding areas in west mostly in late March-April. In the east, southward migration occurs mostly in September-December. Most movement to wintering areas occurs in November in the west.
Estuarine Habitat(s): Bay/sound, Herbaceous wetland, Lagoon, River mouth/tidal river
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, CREEK, High gradient, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen, FORESTED WETLAND, HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Conifer, Forest - Hardwood, Forest - Mixed
Special Habitat Factors: Standing snag/hollow tree
Habitat Comments: Streams, lakes, swamps, marshes, and estuaries; winters mostly in freshwater but also regularly in estuaries and sheltered bays (AOU 1983).

Nests usually in tree cavities in forested regions near water, often near fast-flowing streams (AOU 1983), also forest ponds and lakes, flooded forest, riverside swamps. See Zicus (1990) for information on successful use of nest boxes in Minnesota.

Adult Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Food Comments: Eats mostly small fishes, crayfishes and other crustaceans, and aquatic insects obtained by diving underwater (Palmer 1976).
Adult Phenology: Crepuscular, Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Crepuscular, Diurnal
Length: 46 centimeters
Weight: 680 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Diving Ducks and Sea Ducks

Use Class: Breeding
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding , or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Little information on breeding home ranges; separation distance somewhat arbitrary. Territories not defended in eiders, but goldeneyes defend small (0.18 to 1.45 hectares) territories (Eadie et al. 2000). Philopatry to breeding area strong in Common Eider (Reed 1975, Wakeley and Mendall 1976, Swennen 1990), and Spectacled Eider (Grand and Flint 1997).
Date: 29May2001
Author: Cannings, S.
Notes: Contains all members of the tribes Aythini, Mergini and Oxyurini.

Use Class: Migratory stopover
Subtype(s): Staging area, Foraging area, Roosting area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of migrating or staging flocks (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds/square kilometer in appropriate habitat. Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 7 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary; set at 10 kilometers to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Molting area, Migration staging area, Wintering area, Non-breeding feeding concentration area, Roost
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of molting, staging, or wintering flocks (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds/square kilometer in appropriate habitat. For wintering occurrences, it would be preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 20 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Mapping Guidance: Map roosting and feeding areas with separate polygons in same EO.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Fidelity to molting sites (one or two lakes) high in Barrow's Goldeneye (van de Wetering 1997); fidelity to wintering sites probably high in Barrow's Goldeneye (Savard 1985). Separation distance somewhat arbitrary, set at 10 kilometers to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.
Date: 21Mar2001
Author: Cannings, S.
Notes: Contains all members of the tribes Aythini, Mergini and Oxyurini.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 04May1995
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 05Apr1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): HAMMERSON, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • See SERO listing

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Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2018.
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Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2018. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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