Lomatium greenmanii - Mathias
Greenman's Lomatium
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Lomatium greenmanii Mathias (TSN 29708)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.135707
Element Code: PDAPI1B0R0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Carrot Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Apiales Apiaceae Lomatium
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Lomatium greenmanii
Taxonomic Comments: Both morphological and molecular data support the distinctness of this species; its closest relative appears to be Lomatium oreganum (J. Schultz, unpublished data cited in USFS & USFWS 2007).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 12Mar2015
Global Status Last Changed: 12Aug1983
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: A highly localized subalpine endemic with three known occurrences on three mountain peaks in the Wallowa Mountains of northeastern Oregon. Fewer than 10,000 plants are believed to occupy approximately 250 ha of habitat. The largest population is accessible by an aerial tram, making the plants vulnerable to unintentional trampling by an estimated 30,000 annual visitors. Trampling impacts appear to have caused population decline in the past and newer activities drawing more visitors are a concern for trampling. Conservation actions are now being implemented to minimize these impacts, and a monitoring system has been set up to confirm that these measures are adequately protecting the populations.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Oregon (S1)

Other Statuses

Comments on USESA: Was previously a candidate, but was removed from candidacy on February 28, 1996 in a notice of review.
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R1 - Pacific

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Endemic to the Wallowa Mountains of northeast Oregon (Wallowa County). This species was only known from the type location in 1900 until a population was discovered on Mt. Howard in 1975; additional populations were discovered in 1984 and 2000. Range extent is very limited, approximately 6.65 square km using GeoCAT (GeoCAT).

Area of Occupancy: 3-5 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Using a 2 x 2 km grid, Area of Occupancy is calculated to be approximately 12 square km.

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5
Number of Occurrences Comments: Three known occurrences on three widely separated mountaintops in the Wallowa Mountains: Mount Howard, Ruby Peak, and Redmont Peak; all currently extant. Considerable surveys in the Wallowas have uncovered just one additional population (the third one), but it is possible that other populations exist in areas further afield, such as the Elkhorn Mountains of Oregon, adjacent to the Heath Ranger station in Idaho and in the Seven Devils Mountains of Central Idaho (USFS & USFWS 2007).

Population Size Comments: The Mount Howard population is the largest and "includes several thousand plants" (USFS & USFWS 2008). The other two populations occupy 1-2 orders of magnitude less area (USFS & USFWS 2008). The Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center estimates that total plant numbers are about 5,000 (OR NHIC 2008).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very few (1-3)
Viability/Integrity Comments: One occurrence is believed to have excellent viability, one to have good viability, and one to have good or fair viability.

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Trampling of plants and habitat is the major threat to this species. The Wallowa Lake Tramway, constructed in 1970 to allow direct access to the summit of Mount Howard, greatly increased visitation to this area. Mount Howard currently receives approximately 30,000 visitors per year. Prior to the late 1990s, no planned trails were constructed in this area, resulting in trampling impacts over a wide area and the eventual development of an unplanned trail system. These activities locally decreased the stability of the normally stable rocky substrate. In addition, this species' reproduction appears to be negatively affected by human trampling; most seedlings have been observed in sheltered microsites in undisturbed areas (Meinke et al. 1989 cited in USFWS 1995). As monitoring data revealed the effects of trampling on the population in the mid to late 1990s, the Forest Service undertook improvement projects to keep visitors on trails and minimize impacts such as erosion. This work is ongoing (USFWS 2015). At Ruby Peak, there is an unofficial trail to the summit and some hikers have been observed near the population, but significant trampling impacts have not been observed. Trampling impacts to the Redmont Peak populations are thought to be low to non-existent, as this population is not easily accessed. Trampling associated from observers of the hang-gliding and paragliding are relatively new activities on Mount Howard (USFWS 2007). Other potential threats include impacts from ORV use (Mount Howard is not currently subject to an area closure and low levels of ORV activity have been observed), possible impacts from winter recreation activities (unstudied at this time), higher-than-natural levels of herbivory by small mammals due to feeding of these animals by visitors and possible resultant increases in their population, potential impacts resulting from the use of Mount Howard as an access point for fire suppression activities (trampling, helicopter landings, etc.), and potential impacts associated with operation of the Tramway (e.g. vehicles or machinery driving off the service road or trails). Construction of ski facilities on Mount Howard were apparently proposed in the past and may represent another potential threat in the future, but this threat does not appear imminent at present.

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: In 1996, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service believed that this species was "stable" (USFWS 1996). However, subsequent analysis of monitoring data collected from 1990 to 1997 showed a significant decline; Kagan (1999 cited in USFS & USFWS 2007) determined that trampling from recreational hikers on Mount Howard was responsible (USFS & USFWS 2007). In 2004, a new survey and monitoring protocol was implemented; more recent trends will be illuminated as additional years of data are recorded using that system (USFS & USFWS 2007).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Endemic to the Wallowa Mountains of northeast Oregon (Wallowa County). This species was only known from the type location in 1900 until a population was discovered on Mt. Howard in 1975; additional populations were discovered in 1984 and 2000. Range extent is very limited, approximately 6.65 square km using GeoCAT (GeoCAT).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States OR

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
OR Wallowa (41063)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
17 Imnaha (17060102)+, Wallowa (17060105)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A low-growing perennial herb, 2-10 cm tall, with several smooth, bright-green, dissected leaves. Produces clusters of small, bright yellow flowers borne above the leaves on flowering stems. Begins flowering shortly after the snow melts in its subalpine habitat; flowers from July to early August and fruits throughout August.
General Description: Small, woody based perennial 2 to 7 in tall (5-18 cm). Foliage is blue- green in color. The 1 to 2 1/2 inch long leaves (3-6 cm) are cut into 1/2 by 1/8 inch segments (.3 -1.27 cm). Two to five small yellow flowers are clustered in compact, flat-topped heads on stems with a few small leaflets. The oval-shaped seed is about 1/8 inch long (.3 cm) with a narrow paper thin margin surrounding.
Technical Description: Dwarf perennial from a taproot and much branched caudex, the stems or scapes slender, less than 1 dm long a maturity, generally with a single more or less reduced leaf; leaves chiefly basal, pinnately or ternate-pinnately once or partly twice compound, the ultimate segments firm, pointed, mostly lanceolate or elliptic, 3-8 mm long, up to 2.5 mm wide, scaberulous along the margins and sometimes on the midrib beneath, otherwise glabrous; flowers reported on the basis of dried specimens to be white; inflorescence small and compact, the rays few and only 1-3 mm long when the fruit is submature; involucel of a few narrow bractlets; ovaries and young fruit glabrous; mature fruit reported to ovate, 3.5 mm long, 2 mm wide, with narrow wings, the oil tubes solitary in the intervals and 2 on the commissure. (Hitchcock and Cronquist 1961)
Diagnostic Characteristics: May be differentiated from similar species by its small size and stature, its small poorly developed umbels, and its glabrous nature (although there are occasional glabrous L. oreganum individuals) (OR NHIC 2008). L. cusickii has larger, obviously winged fruit, and L. oreganum is [usually] pubescent and acaulescent (Meinke 1982).
Duration: PERENNIAL
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Bare rock/talus/scree, Forest Edge, Forest/Woodland, Grassland/herbaceous
Habitat Comments: Occurs in subalpine habitats of meadows or rocky outcroppings dotted with islands of conifers such as whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa), and mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana). Plants are found on open, exposed, windswept slopes and summits, typically in areas where the duration of snow is less than that of adjacent sites. They grow in both full sun and in shade of conifers, including within small openings and along edges of whitebark pine galleries. The habitat resembles alpine tundra, being characterized by dwarf plants, exposed rock, and little soil development. Rocks at occupied sites range from small, gravel sized particles to larger, shale like pieces. The soils on which populations grow are derived from volcanic and metavolcanic rock from the upper Triassic, ultramafic and mafic intrusive rocks and serpentinized equivalents from the Triassic and Paleozoic (Mount Howard and vicinity), Grande Ronde Columbia River Basalt Group (Redmont Peak), and Columbia River Basalt Group and related flows from the Miocene (Ruby Peak). Plants have been found on a variety of aspects and slopes, although the majority seem to occur on moderate slopes (2-15%) and only a few plants have been found on steep, exposed south-facing slopes. Co-occurring plant species include a mix of boreal, northwest regional, and locally endemic species of perennial herbs, bunch grasses, mosses and lichens. Common associated include short-leaved fescue (Festuca brachypylla), narrow false oats (Trisetum spicatum), Cusick's desert parsley (Lomatium cusickii), dwarf mountain fleabane (Erigeron compositus) and other Erigeron species, white coil-beak lousewort (Pedicularis contorta), and Mt. Hood pussypaws (Cistanthe umbellata). 2365 - 2620 m.
Economic Attributes
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Economically Important Genus: Y
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 12Mar2015
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Greene, L. (1983), rev. Vriliakas/Kagan/Maybury (1996), rev. K. Gravuer (2008), rev. A. Treher (2015)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Abrams, L. 1951. Illustrated flora of the Pacific states: Washington, Oregon, and California. Vol. 3. Geraniaceae to Scrophulariaceae. Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, California. 866 pp.

  • Bachman, S., J. Moat, A.W. Hill, J. de la Torre, and B. Scott. Supporting Red List threat assessments with GeoCAT: geospatial conservation assessment tool. In: Smith, V., and L. Penev (Eds). 2011. e-Infrastructures for data publishing in biodiversity science. ZooKeys 150:117-126. Version BETA. Accessed online: http://rlat.kew.org/.

  • Kagan, J. S. l987. Draft species management guide for Lomatium greenmanii. Challenge grant funding with U.S. Forest Service. Oregon Natural Heritage Data Base, The Nature Conservancy, Portland.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Meinke, R.J. 1982. Threatened and Endangered Vascular Plants of Oregon: An Illustrated Guide. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 1, Portland, Oregon. 326 pp.

  • Meinke, Robert J. and Kaye, Thomas. Status report on Lomatium greenmanii. Unpublished document on file at Oregon Natural Heritage Data Base, Portland, Oregon.

  • Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center. 2008, 15 July last update. Oregon threatened or endangered plant field guide. Online. Available: http://oregonstate.edu/ornhic/plants/view_plants2.php (Accessed 2008).

  • Peck, M.E. 1961. A manual of the higher plants of Oregon. 2nd edition. Binsford & Mort, Portland, Oregon. 936 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1995. Category and listing priority assignment form: Lomatium greenmanii. Lead Field Office: Boise, ID. 4 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS. 1996. Endangered and threatened species; Notice of reclassification of 96 candidate taxa. Federal Register 61(40): 7457-7463. Feb. 28, 1996.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Oregon Fish and Wildlife Office, Pacific Region (USFWS). 2008, 9 April last update. Species fact sheet: Greenman's desery parsley, Lomatium greenmanii. Online. Available: http://www.fws.gov/oregonfwo/Species/Data/GreenmansDesertParsley/default.asp (Accessed 2008).

  • U.S. Forest Service (USFS). 2008, 24 June last update. Conservation of Greenman's desert parsley. Online. Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/rareplants/conservation/success/lomatium_greenmanii_conservation.shtml (Accessed 2008).

  • U.S. Forest Service and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFS and USFWS). 2007. Candidate Conservation Agreement for Lomatium greenmanii, Greenman's Desert Parsley. September 2007. U.S. Forest Service Eagle Cap Ranger District, U.S.D.A. Forest Service Wallowa-Whitman National Forest, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service La Grande Field Office, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Oregon Fish and Wildlife Office. Online. Available: http://www.fws.gov/oregonfwo/Species/Data/GreenmansDesertParsley/Documents/CA-Greenman07.pdf (Accessed 2008).

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